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New Mexico 

Its Resources and People 



9 7%. 9 




Copyright 1907 



1 1 95091 


History of New Mexico. 

Territory Divided into Counties. 

By act of January 9, 1852, passed at the second session of the first 

-. legislature of the Territory, New Mexico was divided into the counties 

• of Taos, Rio Arriba, Santa Fe, San Miguel. Santa Aha, Bernalillo, 

Valencia. Socorro and Dona Aha. The bounds of the original counties 

remained practically the same as under the old Mexican regime. 

In the genesis and development of the counties of the Territory there 
is the interest which attaches to all creative works, whether material, 
literary, artistic or political, and it is the purpose in the following para- 
graphs to relate briefly how the inner boundaries of New Mexico assumed 
their present form. 

Of the original nine counties, Taos, as bounded in 1852, included all 
the northeast corner of the Territory now embraced by the counties of 
Taos, Colfax, Mora and most of Union, besides a wide strip extending 
west along the northern border to the Arizona line, and all the region 
since annexed to Colorado. From this immense district was created, in 
i860, the new county of Mora, which included all that portion of the 
original Taos county lying east of the Rocky Mountains, or the present 
eastern boundary of Taos. In 1861 the wide strip along the northern 
boundary was detached from Taos, and in 1880 was added to Rio Arriba 
county. By these excisions of territory Taos became the smallest of the 
counties of New Mexico, whereas it was originally among the largest. 

At the legislative session of 1854-55 the recently acquired Gadsden 
purchase (now Arizona and New Mexico, south of the Gila river) was 
attached to Dona Ana county. At the organization of Arizona Territory, 
in 1863, all that portion of the purchase within the limits of New Mexico 
remained with Dona Aha. 

Continuing the history of Mora county, as created in i860, it is found 
that an act of 1868 relocated the boundary between that county and Taos, 
and that, in the following year, the northern part of Mora was set off to 
form Colfax county. The boundaries between these counties were modified 
by the legislatures of 1876 and 1882. Colfax and Mora thus occupied all 
the northeast corner of the Territory until 1893. at which time Union 
county was organized. 

The county of Santa Ana was abolished by legislative enactment of 
January, 1876, and the territory forming it was attached to Bernalillo 
county in January of the following year. As originally constituted in 
1852 the county was bounded as follows : On the east and north by the 
boundaries of the county of Santa Fe; on the south, from a point above 

Vol. II. 1 


the last houses of Bernalillo, where the lands previously known as those 
belonging- to the Indians of Santa Ana are divided, drawing a direct line 
toward the east over the mountain until it reaches the parallel dividing the 
counties of San Miguel and Santa Fe ; from said dividing point of the 
lands of the Indians of Santa Ana, drawing a line westward, crossing the 
Rio del Norte and terminating with the boundaries of the Territory. 

As constituted by the first legislature, the original Rio Arriba county 
comprised all the northwest corner of the Territory, and, as stated, in 1880 
received the strip along the San Juan river. It thus acquired an area of 
about 12,500 square miles, and included all the region north of the thirty- 
sixth parallel and west of Taos county. The legislature of 1880 slightly 
changed the boundary between Taos and Rio Arriba counties, and in 1884 
San Juan county was formed from the western part of the latter, thus 
giving it essentially its present boundaries. 

In a general way the subdivisions of the nine original counties of 
New Mexico have been traced. The later creations include Grant county, 
in 1868; Lincoln and Colfax, 1869; Sierra, 1883; San Juan, 1887; Chaves 
and Eddy, 1889; Guadalupe, 1891 ; Union, 1893; Otero, 1899; McKinley 
and Luna, 1901, and Quay, Roosevelt, Sandoval, Torrance and Leonard 
Wood, since that year. (For particulars regarding counties, see detailed 
histories which follow.) 



As described in the legislative act of January 9. 1852, by which the 
counties of New Mexico were created, the boundaries were as follows : 
Drawing a direct line toward the east toward the Bosque de los Pinos, 
touching the Cayon Tnfierno and terminating with the boundaries of the 
Territory : drawing a direct line from the Bosque de los Pinos, crossing 
the Rio del Norte in the direction of Quelites del Rio Puerco, and con- 
tinuing in the direction of the canyon of Juan Tafoya until it terminates 
with the boundaries of the Territory : on the north by the boundaries of 
Santa Ana and San Miguel, and on the east and west by the boundaries 
of the Territory. 


The official records of Bernalillo county are quite incomplete, and are 
almost entirely missing for the first ten years after its organization. 
So far as the books in the office of the probate clerk show, the following 
have served since 1863: 

Probate Clerks.— 1863-65, Jose M. Aguayo; 1866-67, M. F. Chaves; 1868, Teo- 
pilo Chaves; 1869-71, Harry R. Whiting; 1871-74, Nestor Montoya ; 1875, Santiago 
Baca ; 1878-83. Melchior Werner ; 1884, J. L. Pena, Jr. ; 1885-6, W. H. Burke ; 1887-8, 
F. H. Kent; 1889-95. Henry V. Harris (died in June, 1895, and J. S. Garcia ap- 
pointed to fill unexpired term); 1897-8. J. C. Baldridge; 1899-1906, James A. Sum- 
mers (died in February. 1906, and A. E. Walker appointed to fill unexpired term). 

Probate Judges. — 1869-71, Nestor Montoya; 1871-8. Mariano S. Otero; 1879-82, 
Justo R. Armijo:" 1883-4, Tomas C. Gutierrez; 1885-6, Justo R. Armijo; 1887-8, Jesus 
M. Chaves; 1889-94. Jesus Armijo y Jaramillo; 1895-6. Policarpio Armijo; 1897-8, 
Frank A. Hubbell; 1899-1900, C. Sandoval; 1901-2, Esquipula Baca; 1905-6, Jesus 

Sheriffs. — 1870-1, Atanacio Montoya: 1871-3, Manuel Garcia; 1873-4, Juan E. Ba- 
rela : 1875, Atanacio Montoya ; 1878, Manuel Sanchez y Valencia ; 1879-84, Perfecto 
Armijo; 1885-6, Santiago Baca; 1887-92. Jose L. Perea ; 1893-4, Jacobo Yrisarri ; 1895-6, 
Charles F. Hunt ; 1897-1905, Thomas S. Hubbell, removed from office by Governor 
Otero, August 31, 1005. and Perfecto Armijo appointed to fill unexpired term). 

Treasurers.— 1 870-1, Salvador Armijo; 1873-4, Diego Antonio Montoya; 1889-90, 
Willard S. Strickler; 1801-2. G. W. Meylert ; 1893-4, A. J. Maloy ; 1895-6, R. B. Myers; 
1897-8. Noa Ilfeld; 1899-1900. J. L. Perea (also collector); 1901-2, Charles K. New- 
hall: 1903-5. Frank A. Hubbell (removed from office by Governor Otero, August 31, 
1005. and Justo R. Armijo appointed to fill unexpired term). 

Assessors.— 1880-92. Perfecto Armijo: 1893-4, Santiago Baca; 1895-6, F. A. Hub- 
bell: 1897-8, Justo R. Armijo; 1899-1900. Jesus M. Sandoval; 1901-2, Alejandro San- 
doval : 1903-4, Jesus M. Sandoval : 1905-6. George F. Albright. 

Collector.— 1805-8, Alejandro Sandoval. 

County Commissioners. — 1887-8. Marcos C. de Baca (chairman), Cristobal Armijo, 
Mariano S. Otero: 1889-90, Valentin C. Baca (chairman). Fernando Armijo, G. W. 
Meylert; 1801-2. Jesus M. Sandoval (chairman), J. R. Rivera, R. P. Hall: 1893-4, 
Luciano Ortiz (chairman), Vidal Moray Lobato, R. P. Hall: 1805-6, Jesus M. San- 
doval (chairman), W. W. Strong, Jesus Romero; 1807-8, Jesus Romero (chairman), 
Hilaria Sandoval, Pedro Castillo; 1899-1900, E. A. Miera (chairman), Ignatio Gu- 


tierrez, Jesus Romero; igoi-2. E. A. Miera (chairman), J. L. Miller, R. W. Hopkins 
(resigned in September, 1901, and Adolph Harsch appointed to fill unexpired term) ; 
1903-4, E. A. Miera (chairman), Ignacio Gutierrez, Adolph Harsch. The new county 
of Sandoval was erected from a portion of Bernalillo county in 1903, and Miera and 
Gutierrez being residents of that part of the Territory embraced by the new county, 
ceased to be members of the board. Tomas C. Gutierrez and Severo Sanchez were 
appointed to fill the unexpired terms of these two members of the board, the former 
being elected chairman. 1905-6, Alfred Grunsfeld (chairman), Severo Sanchez, Manuel 
R. Springer. 


As stated above, at the time the county was divided, E. A. Miera 
and Ignacio Gutierrez were thrown out of office because of their residence 
in the newly formed county of Sandoval. A provision was inserted in the 
act of division by which Tomas Gutierrez and Severo Sanchez were ap- 
pointed to the vacancies. This action of the legislature was contested in 
the local courts, and an appeal taken to the territorial supreme court, 
where the action of the legislature was declared illegal, and Gutierrez 
and Sanchez removed, the vacancies being filled by executive appoint- 
ment. At the following election Sanchez was returned to the office ; but 
Gutierrez carried an appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States, 
which in 1904 sustained the decision of the territorial supreme court by 
which he was ousted from office, leaving Manuel Springer in possession 
of the commissionership until the expiration of the term, January 1, 1905. 


The name of "Alburquerque" is first heard of in Spanish annals, so 
far as they have been preserved, in 1542, when the Abbe Domenec was 
making a visit to the Rio Grande valley. Upon his arrival at a point 
opposite the site of the present town of Albuquerque, on the west 
bank of the Rio* Grande, he found a village which must have been of con- 
siderable importance, as the ruins in recent years have been traceable for 
more than a mile along the river. On the east bank, where Old Albu- 
querque now stands, were a few houses occupied by Spaniards and 

In 1597, when Don Juan de Onate made his first visit to the province 
of Xew Mexico, of which he had been commissioned governor by Ferdi- 
nand VII of Spain, he established a military post at this point, which 
he named "Presidio de Alburquerque." Here he also left a Franciscan 
father and several Spanish families. After some delay in providing regu- 
lations for the new post and settlement. Governor Onate resumed his 
journey of observation and discovery, traveling in a northerlv direction 
and arriving in due time at what he found to be then the most populous 
pueblo in the province — its location, the site of the present city of 
Santa Fe. 


In 1653-60 Francisco Fernandez de la Cueva, duke of Alburquerque. 
ruled as viceroy of Mexico. During these years there appears in the 
records the name of the church of San Felipe de Alburquerque, and a 
few years later an edict of the king of Spain declares it to be a ville. or 
city. It must be inferred that it was then a place of considerable im- 


portancev A still more conclusive proof of this fact is that in the archives 
of the province of New Mexico, in the City of Mexico, there was found 
the register of the church located at this place, containing the names of 
4,031 persons reported as belonging to the Catholic communion here in 
1698. The natural inference is that the actual population greatly ex- 
ceeded — probably was more than double — the number of communicants. 

In 1702 the second duke of Alburquerque came to Mexico as viceroy. 
He was reputed to be a good man, of great justice, kind, and a humane 
ruler. Bandelier is authority for the statement that Old Albuquerque 
was founded early in his rule, and named in his honor. On July 28, 1706, 
at the City of Mexico, a "royal audience of New Spain" was given to the 
duke of Alburquerque. The record of the event, translated from the 
Spanish in 1884 by Major Harry Rees Whiting, of Albuquerque, and 
Samuel Ellison, territorial librarian, is as follows: 

"Don Francisco Fernandez of the Cave, duke of Alburquerque, mar- 
quis of Cullar, count of Ladesma and of Guelma. lord of the villages of 
Monbeltran, La Codesera, Causaita, Mixares, Pedro Bernando, Aldea 
Davila, San Esteban de Yillarejo and the Caves of Guadalcanal, in the 
order of St. James and Debenfayan in the Alcantara, lord of the bed- 
chamber of his Majesty, his viceroy and lieutenant-general, governor and 
captain general of this New Spain, and president of the Royal Audience 
thereof, etc. 

"Whereas, I ordered the following session, to-wit: In the general, 
meeting on the 28th of July, in the year 1706, the duke of Alburquerque, 
viceroy and captain general of this New Spain and president of the Royal 
Audience thereof, together with the Honorable Don Francisco de Valen- 
zuela-Yenegas, knight of the Order of St. James ; Don Joseph de Luna, 
Don Balthazar de Toba and Don Beronimo de Saria, members of said 
Royal Audience ; Don Juan de Osaeta y Oro, judge of the Royal Crim- 
inal Chamber ; Don Andres Pardo de Lago and Don Gabriel Guerrero de 
Adila, auditors of the Royal Tribunal ; Don Antonio de Deza y Ulloa. 
knight of the Order of St. James, and Don Joseph de Umitia, official 
justices of the Royal Treasury and deposits of this court : there being 
present the fiscal of his Majesty, Dr. Don Joseph Antonio de Espinnosa, 
knight of said order. * * * 

"We direct that the Indians be treated with suavity and kindness, 
and that no offensive war be made against them, so far as this treatment 
may be adapted to the Indians of New Mexico. * ::: 

"In regard to the fourth point to which reference is made by his ex- 
cellency, General Don Francisco Cuerrboy Valdez, of the Order of St. 
James, governor and captain general of the provinces of New Mexico, 
on the 25th of April of the past year, in which said governor states that 
he has re-established the village of Galisteo and placed settlers therein, 
and having founded a village which lie named Alburquerque, and there is 
wanting for the church thereof a bell, ornament, chalice and altar vessels, 
it is unanimously resolved that the same be transmitted at the first op- 

"It is ordered that no villages be named without consulting with 
his excellency, and that an order to that effect be transmitted; and, fur- 
ther, that by a royal ordinance the village be named San Phelipe. in mem- 
ory of his royal majesty; and the said governor is ordered to name it thus, 


that it may in the future be known as such, and that the same be noted in 
the archives of the village of Santa Fe. * :: 

"'Mexico, Juh 30, 1706." 

(Here follow names and rubricas.) 

It will be noticed that the title of the duke, as well as the name of 
the town, is spelled in the original "Alburquerque." The administration 
of this duke of Alburquerque continued until 171 1. 

The native settlement referred to, in 1542, may not have been perma- 
nent. But one fact which seems to show the early importance of this loca- 
tion to the native population, antedating the presence of the Spaniards, is 
that nearly all the ancient roads or trails of the country converge at the 
crossing of the river at Albuquerque, and center in the valley. If the first 
settlement was abandoned and a new one made in later years, there is no 
record of the fact extant. It will be noticed that the record of the "royal 
audience" of 1706 refers to the town as being already in existence. 

Unfortunately, all the records of the Church of San Felipe Xeri, at 
Old Albuquerque, are not in exis f °nce. Those in possession of the church 
begin with the year 1706, when Fr. Manuel Moreno, a Franciscan friar, 
was in charge. The book of records bears indubitable evidence that a 
large number of its first pages — probably half of them — have been torn 
out. The record begins with the baptisms, marriages and deaths, and 
these are so numerous as to lead to the conclusion that in that year the 
number of communicants was alreadv large. The church was first named 
San Felipe, for the apostle Saint Philip ; was renamed for San Francisco 
Xavier, and, finally, for San Felipe Xeri, a saint of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. Among the priests succeeding Fr. Moreno were Fr. Domingo Arcos, 
Fr. Muniz, Fr. Pedro de Matha and Fr. Antonio Perez, whose names 
appear in the records in the order in which they are here given. 

Historians have uniformlv agreed that Santa Fe is entitled to the 
distinction of being the oldest permanent town in Xew Mexico, so far as 
European settlement and occupation are concerned. The records in ex- 
istence, however, lend some support to the claim that Albuquerque is a 
town of greater antiquity, though the first Spanish settlement was not 
made in the precise location of the present town of Old Albuquerque, and 
possibly may have been temporarily abandoned within a few years after its 
first settlement. 


Old Albuquerque is now almost entirely Mexican, and has a popula- 
tion of about 1,200 people, while new Albuquerque, which dates as a city 
from 1 89 1, is composed of enterprising Americans and Europeans and a 
few Mexicans. It is modern in every respect and has a population of 
some 12,000 people. Their combined population is now placed at 13.000, 
which makes Albuquerque the metropolis of the Territory. 

Although in American minds the history of Old Albuquerque stretches 
back into almost ancient times, the town was not connected with the 
balance of the world by telegraph until the spring of 1875. and the first 
rails of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe line were laid within its limits 
April 20, 1870. The Albuquerque Street Railway Company was organ- 
ized May 14, 1880, and the line was extended from the depot to the old 


town soon afterward. The contractor and builder of the street railway 
was O. E. Cromwell, of New York city. Thus old and New Albuquerque 
were brought together. 

Among the earliest American and European settlers of the old town 
were a number of men who afterward became well known throughout 
New Mexico. The presence of a United States army post at this point 
made it a desirable center for business operations and attracted many 
thither. A well known pioneer, active in both military and mercantile 
life was Major Melchior Werner, who came to Albuquerque in 1849 with 
Colonel, afterward General, Sumner. He was a native of Bingen-on-the- 
Rhine, Germany, and participated in the revolution of 1848, for which he 
was sentenced to be shot. This sentence was revoked and he was trans- 
ported for life, coming at once to the United States. He was connected 
with the regular army in New Mexico in a clerical capacity for about two 
years, when he visited Germany under an assumed name. In 1856 he 
returned to this country with the Third Infantry, and after his discharge 
from the service engaged in merchandising in Santa Fe and Taos coun- 
ties, afterward returning to Albuquerque. Major Werner served as post- 
master for several years, and as probate clerk during the last six years of 
his life, dying at Albuquerque on September 4, 1883. 

Among those who located in Old Albuquerque prior to the Civil war, 
all of whom served in the territorial legislature, were Spruce M. Baird, 
Sidney A. Hubbell, John A. Hill, William H. Henrie, Murray F. Tuley 
and Henry Connelly. Mr. Connelly represented his district in both the 
council and the house, and afterward became governor of the Territory. 
Mr. Tulev became an eminent jurist of Chicago. Mr. Henrie, also a 
young attorney during his first residence in New Mexico, was a French- 
man, and continued to make Old Albuquerque his home from his settle- 
ment there in 1857 to the time of liis death, about 1890. 

A missionary of the Methodist church named Reed was sent out by 
that denomination about 1857, ar >d so * ar as can be ascertained, was the 
first person to hold Protestant evangelical services in this part of the Ter- 
ritory. He remained but a short time. Dr. D. Camden de Leon was one 
of the earliest physicians. (See chapter devoted to the medical profession.) 
One of the first merchants — possibly the earliest American merchant — 
was a man named Winslow, who conducted a store for several years prior 
to the Civil war, closing out his business and returning east about i860. 
His place of business was a favorite rendezvous for the army officers from 
the post, as he sold liquors with his other sundries. "Uncle John" Hill, 
a deputy United States marshal for some time, was a clerk in his store 
and extremely popular among all classes. 

In i860 Theodore S. Grainer came out and established a weekly news- 
paper called the Review, probably the first journal in central New Mexico 
to be published in the English language. He retained control of the 
Reiriew until its purchase by Hezekiah S. Johnson (also a settler of i860), 
one of the pioneer lawyers of Albuquerque, who. in 1870, was appointed 
by President Grant as judge of the Second District of New Mexico. 

William McGinnis, a carpenter, who still resides in Old Albuquerque, 
located there about 1865, and in length of residence is the oldest inhabitant 
of the town. Major Harry Rees Whiting has resided there since 1868. 

Captain John Pratt, who came out in 1866, brought with him a com- 


mission as United States marshal, signed by President Johnson. He had 
served in the Civil war as a member of a Kansas volunteer regiment. 
Captain Pratt married the widow of Dr. John Symington, an early physi- 
cian of Old Albuquerque, who had died at his old Maryland home. His 
wife was Teresa Armijo, a daughter of Ambrosio Armijo. Captain Pratt 
made Santa Fe his official headquarters, but he and Dr. W. F. Strachan 
maintained a post trader's store in Albuquerque. 

M. Ashe Upson, who came either in 1866 or 1867, purchased the 
Reviem of Hezekiah S. Johnson, and published it under the name of the 
Rio Avajo Press, in English. 

About this time the firm of Cooper & Blair, of Cincinnati, established 
a wholesale grocery house in town, but sold out their interests after a 
brief career. Franz and Charles Huning also had a general store and a 
steam grist mill, in these days. A. & L. Zeckendorf. who afterward located 
in Tucson, Arizona, conducted a general merchandise store, which they 
established about 1867 and sold in 1869. But the greatest general mer- 
chandise establishment of the period was that of Rafael & Manuel Armijo, 
who carried an immense stock, valued at between $300,000 and $400,000. 
Henry Springer's store, one of the early business houses, was also an 
important enterprise. 

Benjamin Stevens, who had been living in California, came across 
the country from Utah with the Fifth United States Infantry as wagon 
master, and after leaving the service practiced law in town. General 
James H. Carleton, who afterward commanded the historic "California 
Column." was commandant of the post for some time before the war, and 
was very popular among the American residents. The post headquarters 
were located in the west end of the present Old Town. General Rucker, 
whose daughter married General Phil Sheridan, was one of the chief 
quartermasters of the post in these days, and lived in the one-story adobe 
building adjoining the court house grounds on the west. There his daugh- 
ter (afterward Mrs. Sheridan) was born. General Carleton made his 
home in a part of the Catholic parochial residence. 

Elias S. Stover, formerlv lieutenant-srovernor of Kansas, located in 
Old Albuquerque in 1877. With A. M. Coddington. W. E. Talbert and 
W. P. McClure, he engaged in business as Stover, McCIure & Co. The 
firm had been established in West Las Animas, Colo. In 1881 they located 
in the new town, where the Hotel Alvarado now stands. The merchan- 
dising firm of Moore. Bennett & Co., predecessors of L. B. Putney, occu- 
pied the opposite corner. Mr. McClure withdrew from the first named 
firm in 1878. In 1884 it was succeeded by Stover, Crary & Co., who sold 
out in 1893 to Gross, Kelly & Co. 

Among those who located in the town of old Albuquerque in 1868 was 
Major Harry Rees Whiting, who still resides there. Major Whiting was 
born in Detroit, Michigan, December 2, 18^7. 

His great-great-grandfather, William B. Whiting, held a commission 
as colonel in the Continental army during the Revolutionary war. enlisting 
from Columbia county. New York. His grandfather, John Whiting, served 
with the yeomanry throughout the war. The latter's son. Dr. John Leffing- 
well Whiting. Major Whiting's father, was a surgeon with General Scott's' 
forces in the Black Hawk war. 

In young manhood Major Whiting, being aged in the newspaper busi- 


ness, became city editor of the Detroit Tribune. In 1861 he entered the 
volunteer Union army as a member of the personal staff of Major-General 
McKinstry. In August, 1862, he was assigned as second lieutenant to the 
Twenty- fourth Michigan Volunteer Infantry, which subsequently joined 
the Army of the Potomac, which was brigaded with the "Iron Brigade" 
immediately after the battle of Antietam. He afterward participated in the 
battles of Fredericksburg, Fitzhugh Crossing, Chancellorsville and Gettys- 
burg, where he was captured and taken to Libby prison. He remained a 
prisoner eight and a half months, and after his exchange rejoined his regi- 
ment in front of Petersburg, serving in that siege and the battles of Weldon 
Railroad. Hatchie's Run, Dabney's Mills, Five Forks and Appomattox. 
He was promoted to a captaincy May 6, 1864, and at the close of the war 
was brevetted major "for meritorious service in front of Petersburg and at 
the battle of Five Forks." 

At the close of the war Major Whiting joined the staff of the New 
York Herald, and was sent by that paper on a trip through Xew Mexico, 
Arizona and California. The Indian uprising of 1865-6 prevented the ful- 
fillment of his commission, and in 1866 he stopped in Santa Fe. In 1868 
he located permanently in Albuquerque, where for about ten years he served 
as clerk of the district court. He has also filled the offices of probate clerk, 
county assessor, superintendent of schools, justice of the peace and LJnited 
States commissioner, having occupied the latter office for more than thirty 
years. He organized G. K. Warren Post No. 5, G. A. R., and was its first 
commander. Though he was admitted to the bar in 1870, he has never 
practiced his profession. 

A Civil War Incident. 

An interesting incident of the Civil war period in Old Albuquerque, 
which occurred during the time the Confederate troops occupied the town 
on their way to Santa Fe, was the burial of eight howitzers, or Napoleon 
guns, by the officers commanding. The Confederates placed them in the 
ground nearly opposite the present home of Major Whiting. The guns 
had been the property of the Federal government, but were captured by 
disloyal Texans at the outbreak of the war. Many years afterward their 
location was described to Major Whiting, who found them under about 
eighteen inches of earth, though the officers informed him that they had 
been buried several feet deep. Two of these historic guns are now in 
possession of the Grand Army post of Albuquerque. It is also worthy of 
note that General Longstreet, the distinguished officer of the Civil war, 
was serving as major and paymaster at Albuquerque at the outbreak of 

New Albuquerque. 

In November, 1880, following the completion of the Atchison, Topeka 
& Santa Fe railroad to a point opposite the Old Town of Albuquerque, 
the site of the present city was surveyed and platted under the direction 
of the New Mexico Town Company. The first lots were purchased on 
the first of the month by Maden Brothers, and the second sale was made 
to Ullery & Zeigler. 

Albuquerque was not regularly incorporated until 1885, ar >d remained 


under town government until 1890. The first call for a mass meeting to 
discuss the incorporation of Albuquerque as a town was signed by H. B. 
Fergusson. J. H. Sullivan and Charles Etheridge. The gathering was 
held at Grant's Opera House, July 28, 1884, and the first mayor of the 
town was elected in the following year. 

The officials of Albuquerque, while it was governed under the system 
of town -government, were as follows : 

Mayors.— 1885. Henrv N. Jaffa; 1886, George Lail: 1887, William B. Childers ; 

1888. Arthur E. Walker; 1880, G. W. Mevlert : 1890, M. Mandell. 

Recorders.— 1885, Tesse M. Wheelock: 1886, E. W. Spencer; 1887, Edward Stras- 
burg: 1888. M. P. Stamm ; 1889, A. W. Kimball; 1890, H. Lockhart. 

Trustees.— 1885, C. P. Jones. William McClellan, A. M. Whitcomb, Z. T. Phil- 
lips: 1886. William Cook. A. Har-rh. I. T. Sharick, J. K. Basye ; 1887. A. E. Walker, 
William McLaughlin. G. S. Easterdav, Felix Mandell; 1888, F. Lowenthal, J. C. Bald- 
ridge. G. W. Meylert, S. A. Hubbell : 1889. George C. Bowman ; J. C. Baldridge, W. M. 
McClellan. M. Mandell; 1890, J. A. Lee, Calvin Whiting. J. A. Johnson. O. W. 

Attorneys.— 188;. Thomas F. Phelan ; Whiteman & Smith; 1886, V. A. Greenleaf: 
1887, N. C. Collier: 1888, W. H. Whiteman; 1889, Bernard S. Rodey ; 1890, N. C. 

Treasurers.— 1885. N. C. Raff: 1886-00. Willard S. Strickler. 

Marshals.— 1885. A. W. Marsh: 1886, Robert McGuire, William Hopkins: 1887, 
William Hopkins, W. C. Brown: 1888, Alexander Stevens; 1889, W. H. Hopkins: 
r8oo. William Farr. 

Police Judge.— 1885. John Oaks: 1886, William C. Heacock ; 1887-8, R. B. Mvers ; 

1889, C. D. Favor: 1890. J. H. Madden. 

Health Officers.- 1885-6, J. H. Wroth. M. D. ; 1888-Q. A. E. Ealv, M. D. : 1890, 
John F. Pearce. M. D. 

Surveyors.— 1885-6, W. F. Hill ; 1889-90. E. W. Kilbourne. 
Since the incorporation of the city the officers have been as fol- 
lows : 

Mayors.— 1891, Joseph E. Saint; 1892, Dr. G. S. Easterdav: 1893. Neill B. Field; 

1894. John F. Luthy; 1895-6. J. C. Baldridge: 1897. Dr. Strickland Aubright : 1898, 
Frank W. Clancy; 1899-1901. O. N. Marron ; 1902-3, Charles F. Myers; 1904-6, Frank 

Clerks.— T891. R. W. Hopkins : 1892. W. T. McCreight : 1893, C. J. Ennis : 1894-6, 
William J. Dixon; 1897. John S. Trimble; 1898-1901, C. W. Medler; 1902-6, Harry F. 

Treasurers.— 1891. A. C. Briggs ; 1802. Sigmund Grunsfeld ; 1893. William C. 
Mehan; 1894-5, Frank McKee ; 1896, S. M. Saltmarsh : 1897. Frank McKee ; 1898, 
John S. Trimble: 1899. R. E. Putney; 1900-3. L. H. Chamberlin ; 1904-6, Harry E. 

Aldermen.— 1891, William Farr. Perfecto Armijo. John P. Raster, George C. 
Bowman. A. J. Maloy, Thomas R. Gable, Charles F. Hunt, Lorion Miller; 1892, Per- 
fecto Armijo, Don J. Rankin. George C. Bowman. Fred G. Pratt. Thomas R. Gable. 
Edward Medler, Lorion Miller. W. B. Childers: 1893. Don J. Rankin. Caesar Grande. 
Fred G Pratt. Jacob Korber. Edward Medler. Jacob Schwartz. W. B. Childer. W. W. 
Hesselden: 1804. Caesar Grande. Dr. Strickland Aubright. Jacob Korber, Henry Brock- 
meier. Jacob Schwartz, Otto Dieckmann. A. Simpier. W W. Hesselden. M. S. Otero ; 

1895. Dr. Strickland Aubright, E. S. Cummings, Henrv Brockmeier. William Lone. A. 
Simpier, N. E. Stevens. M. S. Otero. Alfred Grunsfeld; 1896. E. S. Cummings, H. A. 
Montfort. William Long, I. N. Horner, N. E. Stevens. M. S. Tiernev, Alfied Gruns- 
feld. M. S. Otero: 1897. H. A. Montfort, E. S. Cummings, I. N. Horner, J. T. John- 
ston. M. S. Tiernev. O. N. Marrnn. M. S. Otero. A Lombardo ; 1808, E. S. Cum- 
mings. Samuel Neustadt. J. T. Johnston, William Kiehke. O. N. Marron, M. S. 
Tiernev. A. Lombardo. Summers Burkhart : 1899, Samuel Neustadt. W. C. Leonard, 
William Kiehke. W. O. Hopping. M. S. Tiernev. H. E. Rogers. Summers Burkhart. 
Frank McKee: 1000. W. C. Leonard. T. J. Wright. W. O. Hopping. J. S. Veaven, H. 
E. Roeers. B. A. Slevster. Frank McKee, Summers Burkhart. J. M. Moore; tooi. 
T. J. Wright, A. B. McMillan. J. S. Beaven, Edward B. Harsch, W. F. Powers, H. 


E. Rogers, Dr. George W. Harrison, Frank McKee ; 1002, A. B. McMillen, Sigmund 
Grunsfeld, E. B. Harsch, J. S. Beven, H. E. Rogers, Jay A. Hubbs. Frank McKee, 
Dr. George W. Harrison; 1003, A. B. McMillen, Sigmund Grunsfeld, E. B. Harsch, 
J. S. Beaven, H. E. Rogers, Jay A. Hubbs, Frank McKee, Dr. George W. Harrison ; 
1904-5, P. Hanley, H. Brockmeier, George P. Learnard. Thomas Isherwood, W. H. 
Gillenwater, T. N. Wilkerson, Louis Ilfeld, Dr George W. Harrison. 

City Attorneys— 1891, E. W. Dobson ; 1892, N. C. Collier; 1893, Summers Burk- 
hart ; 1894-6, T. A. Finical; 1897-8, William D. Lee; 1899-1901, Horton Moore; 1902-3, 
John H. Stingle; 1904-6, M. E. Hickey. 

Citv Engineers. — 1S91, W. O. Secor; 1892, Gordon D. Pearce ; 18Q7, E. A. Pear- 
son; 1898-1901, Pitt Ross; 1902. V. V. Clark, Pitt Ross; 1903-6, Pitt Ross. 

Street Commissioners. — 1891, Thomas Ainsworth ; 1892-4, George McGowan. 

Marshals.— 1891, Charles Masten ; 1892, C. J. Stetson; 1893. Edward Dodd ; 1894, 
Edward Fluke. Fred Fornoff; 1895-7, Fred Fornoff, Thomas McMillin ; 1899-1906, 
Thomas McMillin. 

Chiefs of Fire Department. — 1893-7, W. T. McCreight ; 1898-1901. B. Ruppe; 
1902, Jay A. Hubbs (acting). M. Nash: 1903. M. Nash; 1904-6, A. C. Burtless. 

City Physicians. — 1896-8, Dr. J. R. Haynes ; 1899-1901, Dr. John F. Pearce; 1902-6, 
Dr. John W. Elder. 

Police Judges. — 1896-1906, A. J. Crawford. 

The new city is an enterprising, well built place; in fact, it has been 
claimed that its business blocks and residences are as fine as can be 
found in any city of its size in the world. It has a good trolley system, 
modern school houses in every ward, and a handsome high school building. 
The city completed a substantial gas plant a short time ago, taking the 
place of the old one erected in 1882, and still enjoys the distinction of 
being the onlv place in the Territory having such an institution. It was at 
first owned by E. S. Stover, Dr. G. W. Harrison, W. B. Childers and 
Judge Hazledine. Later it went into the hands of W. S. Strickler and 
R. T. Cable (formerly general manager of the Santa Fe Pacific railway). 
In 1895, it was taken over by A. A. Grant and owned by the Grant estate 
until the Albuquerque Gas, Electric Light & Power Company came into 
possession of it. As will be inferred, gas and electricity divide the field 
as illuminators. 

Albuquerque has twelve churches and a Jewish synagogue, the latter 
being perhaps the most imposing religious edifice in the city. The Jewish 
community is unusually large and rich. The city has two daily and six 
weekly newspapers, two of the latter being published in Spanish. Its 
fine library building houses a good collection of books, the nucleus of 
which was presented by Joshua A. Raynolds, a rich banker, who owns 
numerous financial institutions throughout the Territory. The library is 
maintained by a special tax. 

The banks of Albuquerque have deposits aggregating between $4,- 
000,000 and $5,000,000. Its abundant facilities, in this respect, insure the 
easy handling oi the large wool and live-stock trade tributary to the city. 
The Bank of Commerce is one of the leading financial institutions of the 
Southwest, its president. Solomon Luna, being accounted the richest and 
most progressive native in the Territory. He is the owner of at least 
60,000 sheep and vast tracts of pasture land, besides controlling some of 
the most valuable water comses in this portion of New Mexico, thereby 
being in virtual control of the adjacent territory. He has 5,000 acres of 
land under irrigation and cultivation, is largely interested in the growing 
and manufacture of sugar beets, and is altogether a large figure in the 


agricultural, live-stock, industrial and commercial development of New 

The Santa Fe shops at Albuquerque employ about 700 men. and it 
has a large planing mill and box factory. Tbe lumber for the latter comes 
from the Zuni Mountains, where the controlling company had over 350,000 
acres of timber, and much of its manufactured product is sent abroad. 
The average daily manufacture amounts to 2,000 sash, 1,500 doors and five 
car loads of packing boxes, more than 1,000 men being on the pay-rolls. 
But the prosperity of Albuquerque is not founded on its manufactures; 
it depends for its growth upon the fertile valley of the Rio Grande, which 
is virtually tributarv to it. 

The Commercial Club of Albuquerque. 

This organization is composed of about 200 of the business men of the 
city and concentrates the enterprise and progressive spirit of the locality, 
being the champion, the godfather and usually the originator of the move- 
ments best calculated to develop the metropolis and the Territory. Its 
building is considered the finest in the city, being constructed of brick, 
with brown sandstone trimmings, embracing a dancing hall, reading rooms, 
card rooms and several bachelor suites. Needless to say, the club has a 
decided social side to it ; but no public bar, or buffet, is attached to the 

The Commercial Club was organized May 14, 1890, in the old San 
Felipe Hotel, and was incorporated on the 31st of that month. The articles 
of incorporation contained the names of Albert Eisemann, loseph E. 
Saint, J. G. Albright, W. B. Childers, T. R. Gabel, John A. Lee, C. E. 
Crarv, William C. Hazledine, J. C. Baldridge, Jesse M. Wheelock. Joshua 
S. Raynolds, J. E. Elder, G. W. Meylert and Neill B. Field. The first 
officers were: G. W. Meylert, president: J. C. Baldridge, vice-president; 
Jesse M. Wheelock, secretary ; S. M. Folsom, treasurer ; Joseph E. Saint, 
W. B. Childers, D. B. Robinson, A. Grunsfeld and Solon E. Rose, direct- 
ors. Since the first vear of its organization, its presidents have been as 
follows: 1891, W. B. Childers; 1892-3, George L. Brooks; 1894, W. C. 
Hadley; 1895-6, A. G. Wells; 1897-1903. OV N. Marron; 1904, Judge 
Benjamin S. Baker: 1905, Colonel Willard S. Hopewell; 1906, George L. 
Brooks. The fine building of the club was erected in 1892 at a cost 
(including the furnishings) of about $80,000. 


The Armijo House, for many years the leading hotel of Albuquerque, 
located at the corner of Railroad avenue and Third street, was built in 
1880-1 by Mariano Armijo. It was constructed of adobe and wood, and 
cost $25,000. The hotel was opened to the public in the spring of 1881 
by W. Scott Moore, who gave a champagne supper to guests from Albu- 
querque, Santa Fe. Las Vegas, Denver and other cities. A short time 
afterward Ambrosio Amijo, father of Mariano, purchased the property 
and built the addition known as the Ambrosio Armijo hall. The proprie- 
tors of the hotel included Mr. Moore, P. B. Sherman, Colonel Hope, W. 
E. Talbott, G. H. Miles, Perfecto Armijo and Mrs. Henry Lockhart. 
This landmark was destroyed by fire February 10, 1897. 


The Albuquerque Hotel and Opera House Company was incorporated 
February u, 1882, with a capital of $100,000, to build a hotel and opera 
house. The building was erected by Edward Medler, the officers of the 
incorporated company being- Franz Huning, president, and Frank W. 
Smith, vice-president. 

The San Felipe Hotel, which stood at the corner of Fourth street and 
Gold Avenue, was erected in 1884, and in its day was one of the greatest 
hostelries in the Southwest. It was constructed of brick, stone and iron, 
three stories in height ; was destroyed by fire in 1900 and part of the 
material of the burned building was used in the Elks Opera House, which 
was erected on its site. 

The Alvarado, erected in 1901, is occupied by the Harvey system. 
It is located at the Santa Fe depot and is considered the finest railroad 
hotel in the United States. It is of the "mission style" of architecture. 

The Albuquerque Fair Association was organized in 1880 by E. S. 
Stover, Major Harry R. Whiting and others. The first exhibition, held 
that year, was a modest affair. Year by year the institution has grown 
until it has now become the most important annual fair in either New 
Mexico or Arizona, comparing favorably with the fairs held in other 
more populous communities. Since the organization of the association 
an exposition has been held every year. 


Prior to the organization of McKinley and Sandoval counties, in 
1901 and 1903, respectively, Bernalillo county extended from Santa Fe 
county to the Arizona line, a distance of 200 miles, and seventy-five miles 
from north to south. When those counties were set off, however, it was 
reduced to an area of 8,800 square miles, or about the size of San Miguel 
county. It has the largest population of any county in the Territory. 

The principal agricultural valley is the Rio Grande, which is from 
one to four miles in width and every acre of it susceptible of cultivation. 
In the lower plane, formed almost entirely of alluvium, the great majority 
of the vineyards are located, where they can be easily irrigated by means 
of ditches ; a fair yield is from two to three gallons of wine to a vine. 
With the vines eight feet apart each way, there would be 680 vines to 
the acre, or a yield, at the lowest estimate, of 1,360 gallons. Much atten- 
tion is also being given to the larger fruits, and though it is only about 
twenty years since the improved varieties of American fruits were intro- 
duced, the orchards are everywhere flourishing. Apples especially thrive 
on the uplands, and peaches, plums, cherries and apricots in the' valleys. 
All the cereals grow well — wheat on the plains and corn on the bottom 

Cattle and sheep flourish on the gramma grass, which grows luxu- 
riantly on thousands of acres of land, under present conditions unfit for 
cultivation. The warm winters make it unnecessary to provide shelter or 
hay for feed. Near larger towns dairy farms pay a large profit, as milk, 
butter and cheese are in great demand. 

The Sandia mountains, one of the largest ranges in this part of the 
Territory, are fifteen miles east of Albuquerque, and are believed to be 
rich in gold and silver. 


The Otero family has been distinguished in both the early and modern 
history of New Mexico. The family was founded in America by Don 
Pedro Otero, who came from Spain to Mexico, then Xew Spain, late in 
the eighteenth century. Being attracted to the northern province by sto- 
ries of its opportunities, he made his war to Santa Fe, where he married 
a Miss Alarid, a descendant of one of the prominent Spanish families of 
that day. Don Pedro had been finely educated in Spanish, and by reason 
of his intelligence and bearing soon won a high place in the esteem of 
his fellowmen. Removing to Valencia, in Valencia county, he engaged 
in the raising of sheep, cattle and horses, in which he was very success- 
ful. He possessed one of the finest ranches in the country and was widely 
known and highly respected. 

Among his children was Vincente A. Otero, who took an active part 
in public affairs during the early days of the Mexico republic. Like his 
father, he devoted his life to stock-raising, becoming widely known, and 
spent . his _ days in Valencia county. He married Gertrudes Chaves, a 
member of the prominent family of that name. In his family were six 
sons, Antonio J., Juan A., Manuel A., Manuel A. (2d), Pedro A. and 
Miguel A. The eldest. Antonio J. Otero, was a man of unusual mental 
training. He was highly educated in a private school by a Catholic priest 
named Martinez, and became one of the best authorities on local laws in 
Mexico, although not a practicing attorney. When General Kearny insti- 
tuted civil government in Xew Mexico during the year of American occu- 
pation in 1846. he named Mr. Otero as one of the three justices of the 
supreme court, assigning him to the work of judicial district with head- 
quarters at Albuquerque. He was the only native Mexican to be honored 
by appointment to the supreme bench, and his designation to this high 
office was due both to his eminence as a citizen and his understanding of 
the English speech, though he could not use the language in speaking. 
He was one of the leaders in the Whig party and afterward became a 
Republican. When the American forces occupied the Territory he gave 
his influence to their support, and so bitter did the feeling become among 
his friends, who were for the greater part strongly anti-American in their 
sympathies, that he was compelled to remain in hiding for some time to 
escape hanging at their hands. Others of the Otero family were also 
strongly American in their sympathies. Antonio J. Otero was the first 
to build a modern grist mill at Peralta. his home. In his large general 
merchandising establishment he had as a partner William Skinner, who 
came from St. Louis at an early dav. 

One of Judge Otero's biographers has said of him : "Judge Otero 
was endowed by nature with fine intellectual powers, all of which were 
developed and strengthened bv a discipline which enabled him to com- 
prehend readily and accurately the important questions demanding his 
attention in after years. From all that the writer can learn. Judge Otero 
was a cautious man, rarely giving expression to an opinion until, upon 
reflection, the matter under consideration was clearly and definitelv fixed in 
his own mind. It seems strange to us of today that a man born and reared 
under the Spanish and Mexican governments, whose laws and customs 
were so different from our own ; growing to manhood in a portion of the 
world at that time far removed from all the kindly influences of modern 
thought and civilization ; resident of a territory whose inhabitants were 



engaged six months in every year for a half a century in wars with hostile 
Indians, could so well fill his place upon the bench as did Judge Otero. 
While sitting as a member of the superior court he delivered the only 
opinion coming from that court which has been preserved, so far as the 
writer has been able to ascertain." 

Judge Otero's brother, Juan A. Otero, was his partner in all his busi- 
ness undertakings. These brothers married sisters — two daughters of 
Francisco Xavier Chaves, one of the wealthiest of the native inhabitants 
of New Mexico. Manuel A. Otero, the third son of Don Pedro Otero, 
resided at Peralta, and was active in political undertakings, serving for 
some time as probate judge of Valencia county. The fourth son, Pedro 
A. Otero, died in young manhood. The fifth, and youngest. Miguel A. 
Otero, like the other sons, received a fine English education. For several 
years he was engaged in business in Kansas City, Missouri, but after the 
construction of the railroad into Xew Mexico he returned to the Terri- 
tory and conducted a general merchandising business for his former em- 
ployers in Kansas City. The later years of his life were spent in Las 
Vegas, where he was a member of the firm of Otero, Sellers & Co., one 
of the most important commercial houses in the southwest for many 
years. In 1861 he served as secretary of the Territory, and represented 
New Mexico from 1856 until 1861. 

Manuel R., son of Antonio T. Otero, was born at Peralta. May 22, 
1841, and was educated in the St. Louis University. During the earlier 
years of his life he was engaged in ranching at Peralta. He served as 
probate clerk of Valencia county for eight vears, and also filled the offices 
of probate judge and deputy sheriff. In 1803 ne removed to Albuquerque, 
which has since been his home. He has been register of the L T nited States 
land office at Santa Fe since 1808. and is now serving his third term. 
He was a prominent candidate of the Republican party for delegate to 
Congress in the convention held at Albuquerque in 1880. but he withdrew 
and gave his hearty support to the nominee, the Hon. Tranquilino Luna. 

The Armijo family has furnished to New Mexico several men who 
have become noteworthy in its history. Colonel Juan Armijo, the dis- 
tinguished founder of the family in this country, a native of Spain, was 
an officer in tiie Spanish army. He came to Mexico in the last half of 
the eighteenth century. One of his sons, also named Juan, was born in 
New Mexico, and inherited from his father a portion of a large land 
grant at Albuquerque. He was one of the most prominent stock raisers 
in that part of the province for manv years. Another son. General Manuel 
Armijo, was the last of the provincial governors of New Mexico, filling 
that position from the date of Governor Perez's assassination, in 1837. to 
the Mexican war. Don Juan Armijo married Rosalia .Ortega, a member 
of another prominent family of the province. Their son. Don Tuan Cris- 
tobal Armijo. was born in Albuquerque in 1810 and spent his entire life 
in that town. He engaged in mercantile pursuits early in life and became 
one of the most successful business men of the Territory. He received a 
commission as colonel in the Mexican army, and in the years immediately 
preceding the Mexican war led his command against the Navajo Indians, 
invading their Territory and distinguishing himself by his valorous con- 
duct. During the Indian revolution of 1837 he fought bv the side of 
Governor Perez, and during all the troublous period which marked the 


close of Mexican dominion in this Territory he was found valiantly de- 
fending the cause of his country. In private life he bore a reputation 
without blemish, all his transactions being characterized by integrity and 
honor. When the Mexican arms were defeated in the war of 1844-46, he 
became as patriotic an American citizen as he had been a Mexican citizen. 
He represented Bernalillo county in the first legislative assembly under 
the civil government in 1851, serving in the house, and was re-elected to 
the same body in 1852, serving in the second assembly; and was again 
elected to the seventh assembly. During the Civil war he held a commis- 
sion, and, with the Xew Mexican militia, participated in the battle of Val 
Verde, defending Fort Craig while the regulars attacked the enemy in 
the field. 

The house in which Colonel Armijo resided for many years, at Los 
Ranches, or Los Griegos, about two miles north of Albuquerque, is still 
standing. He married Juana Chaves, and reared a family of seven chil- 
dren: Nestor, Nicholas T., Juan, Pedro, Manuela, who married Mariano 
Yrisarri of Los Ranchos, Feliciano, who married Tomas Gutierrez, and 
Justo R. All are deceased excepting Nestor, Justo R. and Mrs. Yrisarri. 

Don Nestor Armijo, the eldest son, is one of the most widely known 
residents cf the southern part of the Territory. He was born at Los 
Padillas, about eight miles south of Albuquerque. February 28, 1831. 
In 1841 he entered the St. Louis University, where he was a student for 
five years, returning to Albuquerque at the close of the Mexican war in 
1846. In 1853 he made his first overland trip to California, following the 
Gila river trail to the Colorado, and thence crossing the Mojave desert. 
The year following he repeated the trip. In 1855 he made the journey 
across the plains to Westport (now Kansas City), where he made his first 
purchase of goods for general merchandising. For twenty years there- 
after he repeated these trips, going east in the spring and returning in 
August with a train of merchandise. He had his own teams, and brought 
with him wares for the stores he had established in Las Cruces and El 
Paso. In 1862 he established the first store of any importance in Las 
Cruces, which he conducted until 1868. In that year he visited Chi- 
huahua. Mexico, selling American goods by wholesale for a period of 
ten years. Since 1878 he has made his home in Las Cruces. In recent 
years he has been interested in the sheep and cattle business, principally in 
Mexico, in which he has been rewarded with financial success. He has 
also been identified with banking interests in this Territory. Though a 
man of public spirit, he has taken no active interest in politics, and has 
not sought nor held public office. 

In 1851 he married Josefa Yrisarri, daughter of Mariano Yrisarri, 
a native of Los Ranchos. They had one son, Charles H., now deceased, 
who was for several years engaged in business in Las Cruces. 

Don Justo R. Armijo, the youngest son of Colonel Juan Cristobal 
Armijo. who is now county treasurer and collector of Bernalillo county, 
residing in Albuquerque, was born on his father's ranch. September 20, 
1852. After attending the schools of Albuquerque he entered St. Louis 
University, but a short time prior to the graduation of his class he went to 
Xew York city and entered the well known banking house of Northrup 
& Chick, where he filled a clerical position for two years. The following- 
two years he was employed as a clerk in a mercantile house in St. Louis. 


He made several voyages from New York to Vera Cruz as purser on the 
Red D line of steamers, and desiring further knowledge of the West 
Indies and their inhabitants, he spent eighteen months as bookkeeper in a 
hotel in Havana, Cuba. 

Upon his return to his home he located in Bernalillo, where for seven- 
teen years he was engaged in the sheep business. Always actively inter- 
ested in public affairs, he was twice elected probate judge of Bernalillo 
county as the nominee of the Republican party, and was twice elected to 
the board of county commissioners. Upon the death of his brother, 
Nicolas T. Armijo, in 1892, he removed to Albuquerque to administer the 
latter's estate, in which capacity he served for seven years. During that 
time he erected the N. T. Armijo building, one of the most substantial 
business blocks in Albuquerque. Upon the completion of his labors as 
manager of this large estate he engaged in the fire and life insurance 
business. From 1891 to 1893 he served as a member of the board of peni- 
tentiary commissioners. On September 9, 1905, he received from Gov- 
ernor Otero a commission as county treasurer and collector of Bernalillo 
county to succeed Frank A. Hubbell, who was removed by the governor. 
It was not until November 9th following that he secured possession of the 
office, after one of the most bitter political contests in the history of the 

Don Justo R. Armijo is highly regarded by the citizens of New 
Mexico, by whom he is recognized as a man of the strictest integrity. 
He has always exhibited a keen and intelligent interest in matters pertain- 
ing to the welfare of the community in which he has resided practically 
all his life, and such confidences as his fellow citizens have reposed in him 
have never been violated. 

Colonel Perfecto Armijo, sheriff of Albuquerque, is a son of Am- 
brosia Armijo, who was born at Ranches of Albuquerque. He was pro- 
bate judge for many years and served as a colonel of the militia during 
the Civil war. Prominent in public life, he was treasurer of the county 
at the time of his death, which occurred in 1884. His political allegiance 
was given the Republican party. He married Candelario Otero, a daughter 
of Vicente Otero. 

Colonel Perfecto Armijo was born in Valencia county, New Mexico, 
February 20, 1845, and supplemented his preliminary education by four 
years' study in St. Louis University, being a student there at the time of 
the outbreak of the Civil war. He was active in various military drills 
there with the bovs at school, but did not enlist. About 1862 he returned 
to New Mexico, and for a number of years engaged in freighting to 
Leavenworth, Kansas City, Chihuahua, El Paso, Tucson, Prescott and 
other points, during which time he had much trouble with the Indians, 
who were numerous upon the frontier and committed many depredations 
against the white settlers, who were trying to found homes and engage 
in business in this part of the country. At Las Cruces he established a 
store in connection with his brother, Jesus Armijo. Later he freighted 
again until 1880, when the railroad was built, and rendering his business 
unremunerative, he sold his teams and other paraphernalia of the freight- 
ing outfits. At that time he turned his attention to merchandising- in Old 
Albuquerque, where he conducted business for several vears. He was 
appointed sheriff of the county and served for one year,' after which he 


was elected on the Republican ticket to the office of sheriff of the county. 
He was also alderman of Albuquerque and was a delegate to the last con- 
stitutional convention. On the ist of September, 1905, he was appointed 
sheriff to succeed Thomas S. Hubbell, and after a hard contest, which is 
now historic, gained the office. The above contains the epochal events in 
his history and indicates his prominence in public life. He has been in- 
fluential in public affairs, and his official service has been characterized bv 
unfaltering fidelity to duty in all relations. He now owns a farming ranch 
and stock at Ranches of Albuquerque. 

Colonel Armijo was married in 1868 to Miss Febronia Garcia, a 
daughter of Pedro Garcia, of Dona Aha county. They had nine children, 
two of whom have passed away. The living are Yictoriano. the wife of 
Captain A. W. Kimball, quartermaster at Fort Snelling, Minnesota; 
David, of the City of Mexico; Candelario, the wife of Alfredo Otero; 
Solomon, a resident of Colorado; Chonah and Perfecto, both at home, and 
Juanita, the wife of Dr. Rogers Haynes, at El Vado, New Mexico. 

The Baca family in New Mexico is a large one, numerically, and 
many of its representatives have attained distinction in the political under- 
takings of the Territory. The family of which Major Jesus M. A. Baca 
and Salazar was a member traces its descent from ancient Spanish stock. 
Born in Santa Ft in 1820, Major Baca served in young manhood as 
sheriff of Santa Fe county for about ten years. Soon after the outbreak 
of the Civil war he was made major of the Second Regiment of New 
Mexico Volunteers and afterward was commissioned colonel of the regi- 
ment. He participated in the battle of Yal Verde, and on his way home 
was captured, in company with Nicholas Pino, but subsequently was ex- 
changed. He was the first United States collector of internal revenue for 
New Mexico. He died on his ranch near Glorieta, Pecos town, April 7, 

Santiago Baca, who is now living in retirement in Albuquerque, was 
born in Santa Fe in 1844, a son of Major Jesus M. A. Baca y Salazar, 
and was educated in the school in charge of Bishop Lamy. In 1861, at 
the age of seventeen years, he was elected chief clerk of the territorial 
council. During the Civil war he was appointed second lieutenant in the 
militia, but saw no active service. In 1864 he removed to Albuquerque, 
where he was engaged in business with his father-in-law, Salvador Armijo. 
From 1870 until 1877 he was a resident of the town of Pecos, San Miguel 
county, and while residing there was elected to the council in the legisla- 
ture from San Miguel county, serving in the twenty-first legislative as- 
sembly in 1873. He also served two terms in the council from Bernalillo 
county — 1878 and 1882 — and was chosen president of that body in 1878 
in the twenty-third legislative assembly. In Bernalillo county he served 
as probate clerk, assessor, sheriff, and collector, and during his incum- 
bency in the latter office the present court house was erected. For four 
years he served as postmaster of Albuquerque. Mr. Baca at one time 
received the most unqualified endorsement of the majority of the voters 
of New Mexico, regardless of politics, for the responsible post of United 
States marshal for the New Mexico district, but President Cleveland saw 
fit to appoint a non-resident of the Territory. He has always been a 
stanch Democrat, although he has taken a liberal view of local political 


At the age of nineteen Mr. Baca married Piedad Armijo, daughter 
of Salvador Armijo, a nephew of General Manuel Armijo. Their children 
are Francisca, wife of Milton Chavez, of the First National Bank of 
Albuquerque; Bernardino and Aurelia Baca, wife of Flavio Sandrae, from 
Seboyeto, Valencia countv. 

F. H. Kent, who became well known in connection with the develop- 
ment of the old town of Albuquerque, settling there in 1878, in which 
year he opened a drug store, was born in Massachusetts, in 185 1, and the 
first ten years of his life were spent in Boston. In 1861 he was taken to 
Kansas by his parents, and from 1874 until the year of his removal to 
Albuquerque, he resided in Colorado. In 1881, soon after the founding 
of the present town, he established himself in the same business on the 
east side of Third street, south of Railroad avenue, this enterprise being 
the first drug store in the new town. In 1882 he succeeded Major Harry 
R. Whiting as agent for the New Mexico Town Company, looking after 
the interests of that important promotion company until 1892. This com- 
pany, of which Henry L. Waldo was president, and Colonel William 
Breeden, secretary, owned not only the Albuquerque town site, but also 
the town sites of Raton. Springer, Lamy, Socorro and Las Cruces. E. S. 
Stover, W. E. Talbert. Mariano Armijo, Judge W. C. Hazledine, Franz 
Huning, were also among the stockholders. 

When the Albuquerque postoffice was established in the new town of 
Albuquerque, in 1881, Mr. Kent became the first postmaster, his commis- 
sion bearing date February ig, 1881. When he took charge of the affairs 
of the Town Company he closed out his drug business and opened a real 
estate and insurance office, — the oldest in the city. His only predecessors 
in this line were Charles Etheridge and Jesse M. Wheelock. In 1886 
Mr. Kent was elected probate clerk of Bernalillo county, holding the office 
two years. In politics he has always been a Republican, and has been a 
recognized leader in the local ranks of his party. He was made a Mason 
in Temple lodge, has passed all the chairs in that body, is a member of 
the local commandery and is past grand master of the grand lodge of 
New Mexico. He still conducts the real estate and insurance business 
which he founded, and is one of the oldest business men of Albuquer- 
que in point of years of residence in that city. 

One of the founders of the modern town of Albuquerque and the 
greatest individual developer of the city during its first decade, was 
Angus A. Grant, who first came to the town in 1880 as bridge contractor 
for the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Company. In partnership 
with Joseph Hampson, under the firm name of Grant & Hampson, he made 
Albuquerque his headquarters for construction work until 1886. when Mr. 
Hampson removed to Mexico, and Mr. Grant's brothers, Lewis A., now 
deceased, and John R.. now a resident of Los Angeles, both of whom had 
accompanied the firm here in 1880, entered the firm, which was then 
known as Grant Brothers. Soon after the organization of the latter firm 
Mr. Grant made San Francisco his family residence, though in no manner 
allowing his interest in Albuquerque affairs to abate. 

From the founding of the town he made heavy investments in real 
estate, toward the improvement of which he devoted his energies. He 
also became interested immediately in public utilities. With Mariano 
Armijo and others, in 1882, he purchased the Albuquerque Water Com- 


pany, which he at once began to improve and develop to meet the require- 
ments of the rapidly growing town. Three different companies had been 
organized — the Albuquerque Water Company, chartered August 25, 1882; 
the Albuquerque Water Supply Company, chartered March 29, 1882; 
and the Albuquerque Water Works Company, chartered March 4, 1882. 
On September 18, 1882, the Albuquerque Consolidated Water Works 
Company was incorporated. 

In 1882 he began the work of constructing an electric light system for 
the city, a charter having- been conferred upon the Albuquerque Electric 
Light Company March 10, 1881. In 1895 he purchased the property of 
the Albuquerque Gas Company, which had been incorporated December 
31, 1880. All these interests he maintained until his death, devoting many 
thousands of dollars to their improvement as the town grew larger. In 
1882 he erected the first theatre in town, a brick building known as the 
Grant Opera House, which occupied the site of the Grant building on the 
northwest corner of Third street and Railroad avenue. This was de- 
stroyed by fire in 1898. and the present budding erected upon its ruins 
and' completed within six months. He also owned and improved consid- 
erable property in town beside that mentioned. He was one of the early 
stockholders in the First National Bank, in which he was a director up 
to the time of his death. In 1890 he assisted in the organization of the 
Crystal Ice Company, which was incorporated September 24th of that 
year. He also had important stock interests. In 1895 he purchased the 
Albuquerque Democrat, which he leased to others. (See history of jour- 
nalism.) The company of which he was for so long a period the head 
ultimately became known as the Grant Brothers' Construction Company, 
with headquarters in Los Angeles, and is now one of the most important 
contracting concerns in the United States. 

Mr. Grant was born in Ontario, Canada, October 4. 1843, OI High- 
land Scotch ancestry. He began his career as a bridge builder in 1866 
on the Kansas Pacific Railway, was afterward engaged in mining in Ne- 
vada, and still later built bridges for the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad. 
From 1870 to 1878 his time was diversified in mining and railroad con- 
tracting in California. His connection with the Atchison, Topeka & Santa 
Fe Railroad began in 1870 and continued until his death, which occurred 
at Los Angeles, California, in 1901. As this brief outline of his opera- 
tions shows, he was one of the most extensive practical upbuilders of the 
greatest city in New Mexico, and is entitled to a permanent place in the 
history of the Territory. 

The extensive interests of the A. A. Grant estate in Albuquerque 
are now and for several years have been administered by Daniel A. Mac- 
pherson, a nephew of Mr. Grant and, like him, a native of Canada. He 
was born in Glengarry county. Ontario, in 1869. In 1887 he went to 
California as head bookkeeper for the Grant Brothers' Construction Com- 
pany of Los Angeles, remaining with that concern until 1899, when he 
came to Albuquerque at the request of A. A. Grant as the latter's per- 
sonal representative in the various companies which he had organized and 
still controlled there. He was at once elected secretary and treasurer of 
the water companv, the electric light company and the gas company, the 
affairs of which he administered until the death of Mr. Grant. At that 
time he was made one of the three executors of Mr. Grant's will, and con- 


tinuecl the management of these properties until, between 1903 and 1905, 
all had been disposed of. In 1903 he assumed personal charge of the Al- 
buquerque Morning Journal, having been president of the publishing 
company since 1901. In 1904 and 1905 he erected, for the estate, the 
building since occupied by the Economist dry goods house. February 28, 
1905, he effected the sale of the water works system to M. W. Flournoy, 
W. R. Whitney, Frank A. Hubbell, W. H. Gillenwater and A. B. Mc- 
Millen, all of Albuquerque. He was one of the organizers of the State 
National Bank of Albuquerque, of which he was vice-president until Janu- 
ary, 1906. 

George F. Albright, county assessor of Bernalillo county, came to 
Albuquerque in 1882, but had located in Santa Fe in 1880, being there 
employed on the Santa Fe Democrat. He was connected there with his 
brother, J. G. Albright, and removing the paper here he was identified with 
it through various changes until March, 1903. He was then appointed 
county assessor on the division of the county. He had previously been 
elected to the territorial council in 1902 and served for one term. In the 
fall of 1904 he was elected county assessor. He served as a member of 
the school board of Albuquerque in 1893-4, and thus in various official 
positions, has embraced his opportunity of doing effective, able and valu- 
able service for his fellow citizens. Fraternally he is connected with the 
Knights of Pythias and the Benevolent Order of Elks. He was born in 
Ohio in 1859, but the entire period of his manhood has been passed in 
New Mexico, where he arrived when twenty-one years of age. 

Manuel R. Springer, merchant and county commissioner at Old Al- 
buquerque, was born here November 29, 1871. He is a son of Henry 
Springer, now deceased, who was born in Wiirtemberg, Germany, and with 
his brother, Levi, was brought to the United States by their parents in 
their childhood days. Their parents died in Lexington, Missouri, in the 
'50s. Henry Springer came to New Mexico in 1861, making his way to 
Santa Fe, where he conducted a hotel for a year or two. Later he re- 
moved to Albuquerque and opened a store about 1863 or J 864. He spent 
his remaining days here, being closely identified with its business and 
public interests, and through the careful manipulation of his commercial 
affairs he became quite wealthy. He also had a store in Springfield, 
Arizona, but made his home in Albuquerque. At one time he owned the 
Springer addition to New Albuquerque, which he laid out into seventy- 
four town lots. He had an extensive store, which he conducted success- 
fully for years, but he lost about thirty thousand dollars in 1875 or 1876 
on a government contract for barley. Subsequently, however, he largely 
recuperated his losses. He married Placida Saabedra, and his death oc- 
curred in 1882, while his wife passed away in 1879. She was a grand- 
daughter of Jose Antonio Garcia, who lived to the advanced age of ninety- 
nine years, and up to the time of his death worked in his garden. He 
was a member of the first legislature after the Mexican war. He had 
twenty-five children and three hundred grandchildren. The father of 
Mrs. Springer was Francisco Saabedra. 

Manual R. Springer started out in business life for himself when 
about fifteen years of age, and for four and a half years was in the new 
town of Albuquerque. He was married on the 16th of May. 1892, to Miss 
Carlotta Garcia, a daughter of Manuel Garcia, once sheriff of Bernalillo 


county. They have the following children : Climaco. Flora. Mary, Henry 
and Alfred. 

In 1895 Mr. Springer established a mercantile business in the old 
town and has since conducted his store, which is well equipped with a 
large line of goods. He receives a generous patronage and is prospering 
in his undertakings. In his political views he is a stalwart Republican, 
and in November, 1904. was appointed county commissioner to succeed 
Thomas C. Gutierrez. He is a member of the Knights of Columbus. 

George E. Denny, postmaster and merchant in the old town of Albu- 
querque, was called to the office on the 24th of May, 1888. The post- 
office was originally called Armijo, after the first change in the city gov- 
ernment, two offices being established — Albuquerque and Armijo. At the 
present time, however, it is known as Old Albuquerque. Mr. Denny was 
born near Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania. November 19, 1856, and was reared 
and educated in Philadelphia. After his school life was ended he was 
engaged in the tobacco business there for four years, and in 1884 he re- 
moved from Pennsylvania to New Mexico, where he was first engaged 
in buying wool, pelts and hides, devoting four years to that business. 
Since 1888 he has engaged in general merchandising and has a well-ap- 
pointed store. In the same year he became postmaster and has filled 
the office continuously since. He is a member of the New Mexico So- 
ciety, No. 1, of Old Albuquerque, a mutual protective society, which was 
organized about 1896, 

The death of Mariano S. Otero, on February 1. 1904, removed from 
Albuquerque one of the strong characters in the life of that city. For 
many years he had been one of the most influential of the native-born 
citizens of New Mexico. He was born at Peralta, Valencia county, in 
August, 1844. and was a representative of one of the most prominent of 
the old Spanish families in the territory. He received a liberal English 
education in St. Louis University, after which he began freighting be- 
tween Albuquerque and Missouri. While still a young man he engaged 
in the stock industry, making his home in Bernalillo until 1893. when he 
removed to Albuquerque. He was financially interested in many under- 
takings of importance. Soon after the discovery of the great coal fields 
at and near Gallup he became associated with a number of other men in 
the organization of the Caledonia Coal Company, which for several years 
was the most important developer of those interests in western New 

Reference to the history of banking in this territory will show that 
Mr. Otero had varied interests in this direction in Albuquerque and else- 
where, notably in the Central (now the First National) Bank of Albu- 
querque, which was succeeded by the Bank of Commerce, and the San 
Miguel National Bank of Las Vegas, in the organization of all of which 
he was a central figure. He was regarded as a man of unusual financial 
ability and of integrity of character. He had interests in a number of land 
grants, notably in the Baca grant, and in the Lagunitas grant, in Sando- 
val county, which he procured by purchase in the early '80s. He was also 
the owner of the famous Jemez Hot Springs and the Sulphur Spring in 
Sandoval county, in addition to which he possessed a large number of 
sheep ranches in various portions of the territory, and held other land 


Air. Otero exhibited a deep interest in educational affairs and was 
made one of the original board of regents of the University of New Mex- 
ico. He was one of the recognized leaders of the Republican party in this 
Territory, and was elected as delegate to the Forty-sixth congress, serving 
from 1879 until 1881. He occupied other public offices and positions of 
trust, including that of county commissioner of Bernalillo county, during 
which term of office he helped to build the present courthouse, and he also 
served as probate judge. During the later years of his life he took an 
active part in the development of Albuquerque and owned a three-eighths 
interest in the Perea addition to the city, which was laid out by the Albu- 
querque Townsite Company in 1889 and 1891. This property was pur- 
chased by the company from the heirs of Jose L. Perea, of Bernalillo, 
whose daughter. Filomena, became the wife of Mr. Otero. Their chil- 
dren are : Mrs. George W. Harrison, of Albuquerque ; Fred J., of Albu- 
querque ; Alfred J., of Jemez Hot Springs; Mrs. J. B. Burg, of Wash- 
ington, D. C. ; and Mariano S., Jr.. of Albuquerque. All except Fred J. 
Otero were educated in Notre Dame College, at Notre Dame, Indiana. 

Fred J. Otero was born at Bernalillo in 1869 and was educated in 
Santa Clara College, in California, and the Georgetown University, in 
the District of Columbia. After leaving college he became manager of 
his father's landed interests, and upon his father's death the estate was left 
in trust to his widow, since which time Fred J. Otero has administered it. 
In this task he has exhibited splendid executive ability, having kept the 
entire estate intact and increasing its value year by year. He was the 
first sheriff of Sandoval county, where, in Bernalillo, he still maintains 
a handsome residence, though making Albuquerque his home. 

Congregation Albert, of Albuquerque, was organized in 1897 and 
named in honor of Albert Grunsfeld, the highest contributor for that 
honor. The temple was not erected until 1899. Services had been held 
for some time previous to the organization of the society, but on holidays 
only. H. N. Jaffa was the first president of the congregation, and Sam- 
uel Neustadt the first secretary. The rabbis in charge have been William 
H. Greenberg, Pizer Jacobs and Jacob H. Kaplan. Dr. Kaplan has offi- 
ciated since 1902. He was born in Germany in 1874. At the age of eleven 
years he was brought to America by his parents and was reared in 
Buffalo. Entering the University of Cincinnati, he was graduated in the 
classical course in 1901, and from the Hebrew^ Union College in the same 
city in 1902, also holding a Ph.D. from University of Denver in 1906. 
His religious work has been confined to Albuquerque. Dr. Kaplan is 
president of the Associated Charities of Albuqueroue, which he helped to 
organize in 1905. and is a Mason, having been initiated into the craft in 
Temple Lodge. He is regarded as one of the most brilliant public speak- 
ers in Albuquerque. For some time he was the editor of Sunshine, a 
weekly non-sectarian paper founded in 1904 by Charles S. Carter. In 
May, 1906, this paper was merged in a new monthly periodical founded 
at that time by Rev. E. E. Crawford, pastor of the Christian church, and 
Dr. Kaplan, and called The Barbarian, and is edited by them jointly. 

The first Jewish organization in New Mexico was Albuquerque 
Lodge, No. 336. I. O. B. B. (B'nai B'rith), which was founded in 1882. 
Its members include practically the entire adult Jewish population of the 


Among the men who came to New Mexico and located in Albuquer- 
que during the early stages of the development of that city and who were 
eye witnesses of and active participants in its upbuilding for nearly a 
quarter of a century, was James A. Summers. Mr. Summers was born 
in Glengarry, province of Ontario, Canada, November n, 1832. His 
mother was a representative of a New York family, and it was but nat- 
ural that the son should lean toward republican institutions. He received 
a good education in the schools of Canada and in the academy at Frank- 
lin, New York. Leaving home in 1854, he went to California, evidently 
in the hope of winning a fortune from the gold fields. For some time 
he engaged successfully in placer mining in Tuolumne county. In 1861 
he returned to the east and entered the mercantile trade in Canada ; but 
the great west appealed so strongly to him that he could not resist its call 
and a few years later he returned as far as Rosita, Colorado, where for 
three years in the early seventies he served as county clerk. 

Soon after the construction of the Atlantic & Pacific Railroad as 
far west as Albuquerque, the news of the remarkable growth of the vigor- 
ous young town reached Mr. Summers and he soon after yielded to the 
temptation to cast his lot with that of the New Mexico pioneers. Arriving 
in Albuquerque in the spring of 1882, he soon afterward entered the em- 
ploy of the railroad company in its general offices there. After a service 
of four years with that corporation he resigned to become deputy probate 
clerk of Bernalillo county under F. H. Kent, continuing in that position 
under Henry V. Harris and J. C. Baldridge, occupying the post for 
eleven consecutive years. In 1898 he was nominated for the office of pro- 
bate clerk by the Republican party, was elected, and through successive 
re-elections filled the office until his death, February 12, 1906. 

The official records of that office during his regime are, as investi- 
gation will disclose, undoubtedly the most cleanly kept and the most sys- 
tematic and business-like of any in the entire territory. During the last 
three or four years of his public service, following the erection of Sandoval 
county, which had formed a part of Bernalillo, the duties of the office 
were most onerous, and the labor devolving upon Mr. Summers and his 
assistants reached the maximum in the history of the office. In his earn- 
est endeavor to complete the work of bringing all the records of both 
counties down to date within a reasonable time, Mr. Summers was com- 
pelled to overwork, and this, coupled with his somewhat enfeebled health 
due to close confinement at a sedentary occupation, and an affection of 
the heart of several years' standing, undoubtedly shortened his life — pos- 
sibly may have been primarily responsible for his death. 

Mr. Summers was a Mason in excellent standing, a member of the 
Presbyterian church, and highly esteemed for the numerous fine traits 
of his character. He was an extremely popular man among all classes, 
not only by reason of the general recognition of his integrity and ability, 
but also on account of his abounding good-fellowship. He was a stanch 
Republican, casting his first vote for John C. Fremont in California, in 
1856, but a citizen of rare liberality in his view of political matters when 
considering local affairs. September 18, 1866, he was united in marriage 
with Jane Robertson, of Martintown, Ontario, Canada, who survives 
him. Their children are : James A., of Los Angeles, California, a mes- 
senger in the employ of the Wells-Fargo Express Company ; David A., 


^-«*HW <^f y<^<2. 


of Douglas, Arizona, an engineer in the employ of the El Paso-South- 
western Railway; Maude L., wife of F. B. Schwentker, of Albuquerque, 
manager of the Conservative Life Insurance Company for New Mexico 
and Arizona; Ida B. and Melville R. Summers, of Albuquerque. The 
latter is secretary of the John M. Moore Realty Company. 

The years of 1901 and 1902 were marked by the construction and 
opening of the handsome new depot of the Santa Fe Railroad at Albu- 
querque, followed by the opening of the Alvarado Hotel in May, 1902, and 
of the Indian Museum and Indian and Mexican Building of Fred Harvey 
in August of the same year. The hotei. which is generally considered 
to be the most picturesque of any of the railroad hotels and eating houses 
in the world, is of frame, covered with gray stucco, and the architecture 
is of the so-called "'mission style." South of and connected with the hotel 
is the Indian and Mexican Building. The building was not designed by 
the railway company until after the erection of the hotel, was well under 
way, and when plans for the latter were being made there was no thought 
on the part of the company or the managers of the great Harvey system 
of constructing. such a pretentious building for the housing of Indian and 
archaeological collections. This establishment, which has been the gen- 
eral headquarters of the Harvey curio trade since its erection, is the great- 
est institution of its kind in the world, without doubt. In its general 
architectural style it is similar to the Alvarado, the ancient California 
missions furnishing the idea to its architect. Since its opening similar 
places, though their scale is more limited, have been built at Williams, 
Arizona (1903), and at El Tovar, at the Grand Canyon of Arizona (1905). 
the latter being an exact replica of the prehistoric Hopi houses of north- 
eastern Arizona. A remarkable feature of the structure at the Grand 
Canyon is that it was finished entirelv by the Hopi Indians, who were 
largely employed in its construction also. It is built exactly as these 
Indians build their own homes, not a nail or a hinge being found in the 
entire edifice. 

The Harvey Curio Rooms contain not only many thousands of dol- 
lars' worth of modern Navajo blankets, baskets, pueblo pottery, bead 
work, silver work, etc., but here are also to be found priceless archajologi- 
cal treasures, the delight of connoisseurs from all parts of the world. At 
the present time the building contains about twenty collections, some of 
them being of more than usual interest, and, indeed, rivaling in point of 
scientific value those in eastern institutions. A large proportion of the 
objects of the museum were gathered from the standpoint of a scientific 
collection. These collections have been constantly added to from time to 
time, as occasion offers, and are being supplemented by other collections. 
The museum contains no miscellaneous material, nor material which has 
not been properly identified, both as to tribe and locality, and this forms 
the basis of the classification. To characterize adequately the existing 
collections, would be a task of no small proportion. It will, perhaps, be 
of greater interest to indicate the regions of North America, which are 
represented, than to give a categorical list of the collections. In this man- 
ner it will be seen that practically all of the great areas of culture in 
North America are represented by one or more collections and in a more 
or less adequate manner. 

. The Eskimo, or Arctic region : This area is represented by a col- 


lection secured many years ago from tribes of Alaska, living in the neigh- 
borhood of Port Clarence. While the collection may by no means be re- 
garded as complete, the specimens are all genuine and of considerable 
age. Of special interest are a group of over twenty-five throwing sticks 
and about twenty Aleut masks. There is also an interesting collection of 
basketry, comprising about thirty specimens. 

The northwest coast : There are four cellections from this area. Of 
these the largest is from the Haida. In addition to a number of interest- 
ing old carved and painted chests, feast dishes and spoons, are several 
specimens of basketry and about fifteen masks, among which are several 
exceedingly rare and valuable specimens. A collection of carved spoons 
is of unusual interest, and has been made by selecting only the best speci- 
mens from about two hundred. There are also several very interesting 
and highly carved rattles. 

The Tlinkit tribes are represented by over thirty specimens of bask- 
etry, all old and of native design, among which are several of unusual 

From the Kwakiutl are exhibited about twenty masks worn in cere- 
monial dances and all genuine and of considerable antiquity. 

Columbia basin : The region just south of and adjacent to the north- 
west coast county is represented bv a collection of some fifty Thompson 
and Frazer river baskets, and about thirty Klikitat baskets, both of un- 
usual merit, and by a collection of about two hundred specimens from the 
neighborhood of The Dalles. Oregon. In this latter collection are to be 
found nearly every kind of objects used by these people, including a hand- 
some series of stone specimens, among which are several interesting carv- 

California : In the collection representing California, basketrv nat- 
urally predominates. The largest of all these collections, and perhaps the 
most valuable single collection in the entire museum, is that from the 
Porno. This collection contains a rare and complete series of objects il- 
lustrating the arts and interests of the Porno and a remarkable collection 
of Porno baskets, numbering about four hundred specimens and compris- 
ing every known form of weave, design and shape, as well as all the 
traps and appliances used by the Porno in harvesting, fishing, etc. Of 
unusual interest in the Porno collection is a raft-like boat made of tule, 
bearing a superficial resemblance to the balsa of Lake Titicaca. The sec- 
ond in value only to the Porno collection, and certainly second in the 
museum in point of beauty and completeness, is that from the Hupa, 
who occupy a small valley in the northwest corner of California. In addi- 
tion to the unusually complete collection illustrating the daily and cere- 
monial life of the Hupa and an especially interesting series of ceremonial 
ancient costumes, is a collection of Hupa baskets, numbering about eighty 
specimens, forming, perhaps, the most valuable collection of Hupa baskets 
in existence. 

Other regions of California are represented by basket collections only ; 
such are the Tulare, Wintum. Maidu, Washoe, Mono, Chimehuevi, etc. 

Central Plateau : From this locality is a single collection made from 
the Paiute Indians of Oregon, which comprises about forty specimens, all 
typical representatives of a condition which has now entirely disappeared. 

The southwest, or Pueblo region : This great area is represented 



by three collections — that from the Hopi being of considerable magni- 
tude, and importance, and numbering about four hundred specimens. The 
most valuable single category of objects in this collection is a series of 
about one hundred and fifty tihus or dolls, among which there are prac- 
tically no duplicates, and ah of which are carefully identified. In the 
collection is also a large number of interesting ceremonial masks worn 
by men representing Hopi deities. Also of unusual value is a complete 
series of costumes, such as are worn both by men and women in ordinary 
and ceremonial life. The prehistoric life of the Hopi is represented 1>\ 
an interesting collection of about one hundred ancient earthenware ves- 
sels from ruins lying between Holbrook and the Hopi villages of today. 
Among these specimens are several of rare form and design. 

The Navajos, near neighbors of the Hopi, are represented by two 
collections, both believed to be unique. The first collection comprises 
about forty ceremonial trays, containing a large number of designs not 
ordinarily seen in the so-called Navajo ceremonial basket. The second 
collection and undoubtedly the crowning feature of the Albuquerque col- 
lections, both in point of value and of general interest, is the old Navajo 
blankets, which represent the best and choicest of the thousands of blank- 
ets purchased by Fred Harvey during a number of years past. All of 
these specimens have been selected on account of their age, beauty of design 
and weave. In addition there have been recently purchased and added to 
this collection three famous collections that have taken from twenty-five 
to thirty years in gathering. Those who have viewed the blanket col- 
lection declare it to be the finest and largest in existence. This collection 
was awarded the grand prize at St. Louis Exposition in 1904. 

The Great Plains : From this region are collections which illustrate 
the life of five prominent tribes typical of this great area. First in im- 
portance is that from the Arapaho, one of the best known tribes of the 
plains. This collection is especially noteworthy for the large number of 
ceremonial objects, such as complete costumes, representing the different 
orders of the Buffalo Woman's Society and the paraphernalia of the War- 
rior Societies. These two groups of societies are not exceeded in interest 
by those of any of the plains tribes. 

The Cheyenne, close allies to the Arapaho. are represented by a col- 
lection which comprises typical specimens of Cheyenne life of twenty 
years ago. 

The most complete representation of the plains tribes is from the 
Crow, a prominent member of the Siouan stock, living in Montana. Espe- 
cially interesting in this collection is a large number of objects manu- 
factured from buffalo skins, such as war medicine shields, medicine pouches 
and cases, saddle blankets, horse trappings, etc. The Crow collection also 
includes a large group of objects devoted to medicine. 

From the Osage has been secured a collection which is, perhaps, its 
extensive and as representative as is possible to be made in this tiibe 
today. Of the greatest interest in this collection are two sacred medicine 
bundles, which it is believed are the only specimens, except one, of this 
phase of Osage reiigion, to be found in any museum. 

There is a single collection from the Sioux proper, gathered from the 
Ogallala band, probably the largest and best tribe of the Dakota Sioux. 
This collection consists entirely of the highest types of beaded buckskin 


objects, and is especially rich in the large number of full-beaded pouches 
which usually go in pairs, and were extensively used by plains tribes as 
traveling cases while on the march; today they are used largely as re- 
ceptacles for clothing in permanent camps. Many of these are made of 
ellc or buffalo hide. 

W bile some of these collections may be regarded as practically fin- 
ished, yet every effort is being made to increase in efficiency and value 
each and all of the collections, and it is expected that they will be supple- 
mented by other collections equally important and representative of the 
culture areas above mentioned. 

To add to the attractiveness of the museum and especially to illus- 
trate the manner in which certain ceremonial paraphernalia is employed, 
there has been installed in the center of the museum a faithful repro- 
duction of the Oraibi snake dance altar. This is neither the most im- 
portant nor most interesting ceremony among the Hopi, but it is cer- 
tainly the most spectacular, and has been visited by the greatest number of 
white visitors, and hence was selected for production. One of the inter- 
esting features of the altar is a dry sand mosaic about four feet square, 
made of concentric squares of four colored bands of sand. Occupying 
the space and enclosed by these bands are symbols of the mountain lion 
and of the serpents of the four world quarters. Various accessories of 
the altar also have been reproduced — such as the bags used by the priests 
when upon the snake hunt, the jar in which the snakes are confined after 
being brought into the Kiva or ceremonial chamber, the snake whips used 
by the priests, both upon the snake hunts and during the public per- 
formances, the bull roarers and lightening shooters. 

There has also been installed an interesting screen, The Balolokong 
Kihu, Water Serpent House, which is used by the Hopi in an evening 
ceremony in their various kivas. 

Some one has written, "The crowning feature at Albuquerque, both in 
point of value and in genera! interest, is undoubtedly the old Navajo 
Blanket Collection, — the beautiful rose-colored bayettas, the soft old dyes 
and fine weaves said by experts to have no equal — which represent the 
best and the choicest of the many blankets purchased by Fred Harvey. In 
addition there was acquired a year or two ago and added to this col- 
lection three other famous collections that have been from twenty-five to 
thirty years in gathering. Those who have viewed the blanket collection 
state it is the finest in existence. Rare old Navajo blankets are superior 
in softness of coloring and quaintness of design to the antique rugs of the 
Orient. Every year old Oriental rugs are imported in large quantities. 
The old Navajos are practically extinct." The management of the Albu- 
querque institution is in the hands of Herman Schweizer, who acts as the 
direct representative of J. F. Huckel. the general manager. 

Mr. Schweizer, who has been identified with the Harvey system for 
ten years, is recognized as one of the authorities on Indian wares and 
curios in this country. He is a native of Germany, but has resided in this 
country for seventeen years. Few residents of the southwest are more 
widelv known by eastern tourists. He has been in charge of the Albu- 
querque house since its establishment. 

The Baca family in New Mexico is numerous, and many of its repre- 
sentatives have occupied positions of distinction. That branch of the 


family residing in the northern part of the territory is descended from 
Pedro Montes de Oca Vigil de Santillana. Through him his son, or his 
grandson, Jose Vigil, became heir to the Piedra Lemebre grant of 48,336.12 
acres, situated in Rio Arriba county. Jose Vigil, one of the most promi- 
nent native inhabitants of Rio Arriba county in his day, married Rosa 
Martinez de Vigil. Their youngest daughter, Rosita, married Jose Man- 
uel de Baca, and they had the following children : Ramona B., Tafoya, 
Soledad Romero, Trinidad Romero, Felipe Baca and Jose Manuel Baca. 

Felipe Baca, who was born in Rio Arriba county, married Dolores 
Gonzales, a native of Taos county. Their children were: Dionicia 
Abeyta, Juan Pedro, Lucy. Apolonia Archibald and Grogaria, all deceased, 
and Catarina B. Salas, of Mora county ; Rosa Padilla and Louis, of Trini- 
dad, Colorado ; Felix Baca, of Albuquerque, and Dr. Facundo Baca, of 
Park View, New Mexico. 

Felix Baca was born in Trinidad, June 7, 1868. He was graduated 
from the law department of the Northwestern University at Chicago in 
1889, and practiced his profession in Trinidad until 1893. In 1893 and 
1894 he was located in Albuquerque, and from the latter year to 1904 
remained in practice in Trinidad. Since 1904 he has followed his profes- 
sion in Albuquerque. In politics he is a Republican. Mr. Baca was mar- 
ried in 1894 to Ida Wootton, a daughter of Richens Wootton, one of the 
most widely known pioneers of the southwest. 

Wallace Hesselden, contractor and builder of Albuquerque, has been 
one of the most potential and practical builders of the modern metropolis 
of New Mexico. Aside from his private undertakings as a contractor 
he is connected with the Superior Lumber & Planing Mill Company and 
the Standard Plumbing & Heating Company. Born at Halifax in 1858, 
son of William and Sarah, he came to New Mexico from Yorkshire, 
England, in 1883, and first engaged in his trade at Las Vegas, where he 
erected the San Miguel county court house and the Jewish synagogue. 
Since 1888 he has been located in Albuquerque. In that city he erected 
the handsome Commercial Club building, the county jail, the public library 
building, the Columbus Hotel, the Strong block, the Whiting block, and 
many of the finest private residences in the city, including those of Hon. 
B. S. Rodey, Fred J. Otero, Dr. J. F. Pearce.'lvan Grunsfeld, Adolphus 
A. Keen and J. W. Johnson. He also erected the buildings of the School 
of Mines at Socorro, the territorial buildings at Belen and furnished the 
government Indian school buildings at Black Rock, on the Zuhi Pueblo 
Indian reservation. The character and importance of the work that he 
has done in this direction is indicative of the prominent position which 
he occupies in building circles, and moreover stands in proof of his su- 
perior ability and understanding of the great scientific principles which 
underlie his work as well as his practical knowledge of the business in all 
of its details. 

Mr. Hesselden was one of the organizers of and is a director in the 
Commercial Club, and was at one time president of the Fair Association, 
and for two years was a member of the Albuquerque city council. He is 
also a charter member of the Elks lodge, and his identification in these 
various organizations indicates the character of the man and his interest 
in those measures which are a matter of civic pride and lead to substan- 
tial improvement. 


Ben Myer, now a member of the real estate firm of Wootton & Myer, 
is one of the oldest and most widely known among the pioneer inhabitants 
of Albuquerque. He was born in Germany, and at the age of seventeen 
years came to the United States. In 1862 he was a resident of Louisville. 
Kentucky, but soon after his arrival his relatives in that city sent him to 
California to prevent him from following his inclination to enlist in the 
Confederate army. In Solano county, California, he was engaged in mer- 
chandising for twelve years, and during his residence there was married 
in San Francisco in 1872. In the fall of that year the gold excitement at 
Denver attracted him to the latter city, where he established a grocery 
store. Soon afterward he sold this business and went to Trinidad, where 
for a few months he bought wool for the firm of Nusbaum & Epstein. 
In the summer of 1874 he drove to Santa Fe and thence made his way t<> 
Old Albuquerque in August of that year. For several years he continued 
to buy wool for the Trinidad firm, and in the meantime, in 1876, he estab- 
lished a general store on the Rio Puerco. twenty-five miles west of Albu- 
querque, where he remained until 1882, being the first of the eastern men 
to locate in business in that vicinity. 

In the fall of 1882 Mr. Myer returned to Albuquerque and entered 
the real estate business in the growing new town, and four years later 
began acting as attorney for numerous individuals who had claims against 
the United States government on account of Indian depredations. Since 
that time he has handled about six hundred thousand dollars in claims of 
this character, and has secured manv adjustments in favor of his clients. 
Claims aggregating about two hundred thousand dollars are still pend- 
. ing before the United States court of claims. 

Mr. Myer is a charter member of the Masonic lodge, in which he is 
a past master. 

Rev. William Daily Clayton, a retired minister of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, now living in Aubuquerque, came to Xew Mexico in 
1883. He was born at what is now Clayton, St. Louis county, Missouri, 
in 1838, the town having been named in honor of his father, Ralph Clay- 
ton, who gave one hundred acres for the county seat, and who lived 
there, a most respected citizen, for sixty-three years. 

The children of Rev. Clavtcn are : Dr. Edmund Mills Clayton, of 
Albuquerque: William Moore Clayton, a practicing attorney, and a daugh- 
ter, Delia McKnight, at home. 

Rev. J. D. Bush was the first regular Methodist Episcopal minister 
in the new town of Albuquerque. Rev. Clayton prepared for the ministry 
in New Mexico, and is a graduate of Dickinson College of the class of 
1863. He came to Xew Mexico in 1883. A few years afterward he en- 
tered upon the active work of the ministry and preached in Xew Mexico. 
He. was located at Gallup for four years, at Cerrillos for two years, and 
was presiding elder of the district for three years. He afterward bad 
charge of the churches at Watrous and Wagonmoimd (one charge), and 
later entered into superannuate relations of the church. Rev. Clayton was 
the first man to join the Xew Mexico conference, and is the only surviyor 
of it^ original members who, up to the time of the organization, had been 
members of the Colorado conference. 

Albuquerque Foundry and Machine Works, at Albuquerque, New 
Mexico, were established in 1884 by a stock company, and came under 


the present management in 1887. The present company is a close corpora- 
tion, consisting of R. P. Hall, his wife and daughter, Mr. Hall owning 
and controlling it completely. He came into New Mexico from Missouri 
twenty-six years ago, or in July, 1880. He was born in Xew York, and 
for some years was a resident of Wisconsin. When he arrived in the 
Territory he was employed on the construction of the Atlantic & Pacific 
Railroad, and so continued up to the time that he purchased the foundry, 
in 1887. At one time the plant was greatly injured by fire, but he imme- 
diately resumed business, and the same spirit of determination and enter- 
prise has been manifest throughout his business career. The foundry 
gives steady employment to about fifty men the year round. Air. Hall 
was a county commissioner for two terms, being nominated for the office 
on three tickets, and many progressive public movements were instituted 
and carried through during his term of office. 

Among the enterprises established in 1882 was the I. X. L. Laundry, 
started by A. L. Morrison. Beginning as a small enterprise, it has grown 
to great proportions. Mr. Morrison subsequently became the senior mem- 
ber of the firm of Morrison & Handley, who sold oul to Mr. Crosson. He 
was succeeded by M. W. Mulligan, the latter by Brockmeier & Candee, 
and they in turn by Brockmeier & Beaton. From 1892 until 1896 Mr. 
Brockmeier controlled the business. In the latter year J. A. Hubbs, who 
had entered the employ of the concern in 1890, leased the plant and oper- 
ated it twenty-two months. At the expiration of that time Mr. Hubbs 
and George A. Kaseman purchased it. but since 1900 Mr. Hubbs has been 
the sole proprietor. The present home of the laundry, a commodious 
and finely equipped structure, was erected by Mr. Hubbs in 1905-6. The 
patronage of the laundry extends as far north at Raton, south to Las 
Cruces and Silver City, and west to Chloride and Kingman in Arizona. 
Mr. Hubbs has become recognized as one of the successful business men 
of Albuquerque. 

Born in Minnesota in 1867, he was reared in Kansas and came to Xew 
Mexico with his parents in 1881. After spending about a year at the 
Bonanza mining camp, near Santa Fe, he removed to Albuquerque. He 
was one of the organizers of and is a director in the State Xational Bank, 
is a member of the Commercial Club. Odd Fellows, the Elks and the 
Masons. For two years he served in the city council and has been promi- 
nent locally as a representative citizen. 

Robert Wilmol Hopkins, who has been postmaster of Albuquerque 
since August 15. H)Oi, was one of the first men to locate in the modern 
town. He was horn in 1848 in Lawrence county. Ohio, which enjoys the 
distinction of being the banner Republican county in that state. Arriving 
in Albuquerque in August. 1880. he was first employed as clerk by Moore, 
Bennett & Company, then by their successors, Putney & Frask, and finally 
by L. B. Putney, remaining with this house through its various changes 
for eleven years continuously. After serving one year as city clerk he 
became superintendent and general manager of the Crystal Ice Company, 
occupying that post for nine years, or until his appointment as postmaster 
by President McKinley. He first received a recess appointment, his nomi- 
nation afterward being confirmed by the senate. In March, 1906, he was 
re-commissioned by President Roosevelt. Mr. Hopkins' interest in edu- 
cational matters is exhibited by the fact that he has served continuously 


for nine years as president of the Albuquerque school board. He is un- 
swerving in his devotion to the principles of the Republican party. In 
Odd Fellowship and in the Ancient Order of United Workmen he has 
passed all the chairs in the local lodges and has represented both in the 
grand lodges. 

General Eugene A. Carr, U. S. A., assumed command of the district 
of New Mexico, November 26, 1888, after having served in Arizona for 
a number of years, with headquarters at Fort Wingate, and remained in 
command until the close of the year 1890. He is a native of Buffalo, New 
York, and was graduated at West Point in 1850. During the Civil war 
he was brevetted major general for gallantry in action, and the medal of 
honor conferred upon him for distinguished services. His military service 
in New Mexico dates from 1882, when he was stationed at Fort Bayard, 
being in command there until assigned to duty at Fort Wingate. He 
made many scouting trips and expeditions through the Indian country, 
and did much to rid the countrv of hostile Indians. He is now retired, 
living in Washington, D. C. 

His son, Clark M. Carr, of McKinley county, president of the Zuiii 
Mountain Lumber and Trading Company, at Guam, has been active for a 
number of years in the development of lumber and live stock interests of 
western New Mexico. He served as a delegate to the National Repub- 
lican convention in 1904, was nominated for the legislature from McKin- 
ley county, was a prominent candidate for appointment as governor of the 
Territory in 1905. He served in Cuba during the war with Spain, and in 
the Philippine Islands, as captain of infantry, participated in many cam- 
paign expeditions. 

George A. Kaseman, who recently resigned the office of chief deputy 
United States marshal at Albuquerque, where he has resided since 1887, 
was born in Shamokin, Pennsylvania, in 1868. He was a student in Buck- 
nell University at Louisburg, Pennsylvania, but before completing his course 
there ill health forced him to abandon his studies, and hoping that a 
change of climate might prove beneficial, he came to New Mexico. For 
four years, from 1887 until 1891, he was employed in connection with the 
management of the Harvey eating houses, and for eight years thereafter 
was with the Santa Fe Railroad Company in the general attorney's office 
at Albuquerque, and with the auditing department. He was afterward 
expert accountant in going over the Bernalillo county books, six months 
of his time in the year 1900 being devoted to that work. He was also 
connected with the A. A. Grant enterprises for one year and spent a year 
in the fuel business in El Paso. It was in the spring of 1897 that, in con- 
nection with W. H. Hahn, he organized the firm of W. H. Hahn & Com- 
pany for the sale of fuel and erected a plant on Railroad avenue, east of 
the Santa Fe Railroad. He is still a member of the company, having for 
the past nine years successfully operated in this line of trade. It was 
Mr. Kaseman who built the first long-distance telephone line in this part 
of the territory, extending from Albuquerque to Belen, the year of its 
construction being 1902. He was manager of the Automatic Telephone 
Company, organized in 1895, and absorbed bv the Bell Telephone Com- 
pany in 1906. His term as manager covered the last two years of the 
independent existence of the Automatic Company. In July, 1904, Mr. 
Kaseman organized the Albuquerque Lumber Company in connection 


with W. H. Hahn and Frank McKee, with Mr. McKee as president and 
Mr. Kaseman as secretary. The capital stock is fifty thousand dollars. 
For five years Mr. Kaseman has been interested in the sheep industry, 
having in 1901 organized the Las Animas Sheep Company, which was in- 
corporated in 1905 with W. H. Hahn as president, L. A. McKee, Frank 
McKee and George A. Kaseman as directors. The range, partly patented, 
lies in Socorro county. He is interested also in other parts of the Terri- 
tory, mort particularly in Santa Ft and San Miguel counties. 

In October, 1901, he was appointed deputy United States marshal by 
C. M. Foraker, and was, till his resignation, chief deputy, having prac- 
tical charge of the work in connection with this oifice. His political alle- 
giance is unfalteringly given to the Republican party, and he is a stanch 
advocate of its principles. Mr. Kaseman is a Mason, having become a 
member of the blue lodge in Shamokin, Pennsylvania, while he has mem- 
bership with the chapter, commandery and shrine in Albuquerque. He is 
a charter member of the Elks lodge at Albuquerque, and belongs to the 
Commercial Club. The extent and importance of his business operations 
classes him with the most enterprising citizens of the Territory, and since 
coming to the southwest he has made rapid and substantial progress. He 
is quick to recognize opportunities, and with the rapid development of the 
Territory he has utilized his advantages until his invested interests are 
now large and his business interests prosperous. 

William R. Forbes, chief deputy United States marshal, and a resi- 
dent of Albuquerque, New Mexico, was born in Portage, Wisconsin, and 
came to the Territory from Chicago, where he had been engaged in the 
livery business. The year of his arrival was 1896, and for three years 
he was in the employ of the Colorado Fuel & Iron Company, and for one 
year with the Alamogordo Lumber Company. In 1902 he was appointed 
deputy under United States Marshal Foraker, and still continues in that 
office. He was made a Mason in Fort Winnebago Lodge, No. 33, A. F. 
& A. M., at Portage, Wisconsin, in 1886, is a member of Fort Winnebago 
chapter and commandery, and of Ballut Abyad Temple of the Mystic 
Shrine, at Albuquerque. 

Charles Edwin Newcomer, deputy United States marshal of New 
Mexico, residing at Albuquerque, has been a resident of the Territory since 
1890. He was born in Mount Morris, Illinois, and spent the years from 
1878 until 1890 in Pueblo. Colorado, where he served as county assessor 
and deputy sheriff. After his removal to Albuquerque he became a clerk 
in the office of the probate clerk and assessor, acting in that capacity for 
about five years, or until 1895, when he was made under sheriff and chief 
office deputy under Sheriff Thomas S. Hubbell, serving until August 31, 
1905. He was then appointed deputy marshal on the 1st of April, 1906, 
and is filling this position at the present writing. In politics he has al- 
ways been an unfaltering Republican, with firm faith in the principles of 
the party and their ultimate triumph. He is also a prominent Mason, be- 
longing to the lodge, chapter, commandery and shrine, and he is a charter 
member of the Elks at Albuquerque. His official record has been char- 
acterized by unfaltering fidelity to duty. 

Harry J. Cooper, deputy United States marshal, and a resident of 
Albuquerque, came to the Territory from St. Louis in 1887. locating in 
Silver City. For some time he served as deputy sheriff of Grant county 
Vol. 11. 3 



which, during those days, was infested with desperate characters. In the 
performance of his duties his life was frequently in jeopardy, and though 
on many occasions he was the target for bullets from those whom he was 
commissioned to apprehend, he lias never suffered serious injury. For 
five years Mr. Cooper was a member of the police force of Albuquerque. 
Since 1905 he has been deputy under United States Marshal C. M. Fora- 
ker. Mr. Cooper was born in Pilot Grove, Cooper county, Missouri, in 
1857, and spent the first thirty years of his life in that state. He is now 
one of the most widely known men in New Mexico. 

Fred 1'.. Heyn, chief deputy sheriff of Bernalillo county, and now a 
resident of Albuquerque, arrived in the Territory in 1887, coming from 
Texas. He was born in Wisconsin, where he had learned and followed 
the machinists trade, and he here engaged in the furniture business with 
his father, F. \Y. Heyn, on Railroad avenue. The father, soon after com- 
ing, established a furniture store here, but is now located on a farm six 
miles from the city, having withdrawn from the furniture trade after two 
or three years. 

After disposing of their furniture business Fred B. Heyn was me- 
chanical engineer for the Crystal Ice Company for six years, and in Sep- 
tember, 1905. he was appointed chief deputy sheriff of Bernalillo county 
by Perfecto Armijo. 

Air. Heyn married Josefa Armijo, a daughter of Arbrosia and Can- 
delario (Griego) Armijo. and a direct descendant of General Don Manuel 
Armijo, the last of the Mexican governors of New Mexico. 

M. A. Ross, of Albuquerque, timber inspector, has resided in Xew 
Mexico for many years, and has become recognized as one of the best au- 
thorities on the timber resources of the Territory. His duties have car- 
ried him to most of the timbered sections of this part of the country, and 
his familiarity with the district and his sound judgment in placing a 
valuation upon timber renders him an exceedingly capable man in the 
office which he is filling. 

H. E. Fox, who for many years was engaged in the jewelry trade in 
Albuquerque, came to the town when it was in its infancy and established 
himself in business. He took an active part in the upbuilding of the com- 
munity, contributing in various ways to the development and progress of 
the city. Mr. Fox was active in many, wavs in the building up of the 
city, a member of the board of directors of the Commercial Club, and for 
four years a member of the Board of Education. In the spring of 1906 
he removed to Spokane, Washington, to engage in the manufacturing lum- 
ber business. 

Harry H. Tilton, of Albuquerque, came to New Mexico in the spring 
of 1895 from Chicago. He was born in Dayton, Ohio, in 1857, and while 
residing in Chicago was connected with the manufacture of furniture and 
with a publishing house. Entering upon his business career in the south- 
west, he' spent four years, from 1897 until 1901, on the staff of the Citizen, 
and at the same time he became interested in real estate. He saw the 
need of modern cottages and began to build for rent and sale. This was 
in 1899. He built many cottages on West Railroad avenue, and in 1902 
he was elected secretary of the Co-Operative Building & Loan Associa- 
tion. He has watched with interest the signs of the times in the real estate 
market in this section of the country, and has foreseen many needs for 


which he has provided. In May, 1904, he organized the Security Ware- 
house & Improvement Company, combining his private interests there- 
with. This company erected warehouses and other buildings, including 
the first exclusive storage warehouse in New Mexico. Mr. Tilton became 
secretary and manager of the company and brought much capital to the 
town, at least two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, which, being ex- 
pended here, has been of the utmost benefit to the city in its material 
development and progress. 

Air. Tilton is a prominent York and Scottish Rite Mason, holding his 
membership largely in Chicago. He is also a Sbriner and a past poten- 
tate of Albuquerque Temple of the Mystic Shrine. He likewise belongs 
to Temple Lodge and Rio Grande chapter, both at Albuquerque. He is 
also an Odd Fellow and was grand instructor in Illinois. His recogni- 
tion of business opportunities in the west and the readiness with which he 
has met these and provided for them, have made him a distinguished and 
able business man of this section of the country. 

George P. Learnard. a music dealer of Albuquerque, came to this 
city and established a music and piano business in 1900 in partnership with 
Henry G. Lindemann, which relation has been profitably maintained con- 
tinuously since. A native of Napoleon, Michigan, Mr. Learnard trav- 
eled for a number of years for the Ann Arbor Organ Company before 
coming to Xew Mexico. He has since figured prominently in musical 
circles in this city, and in addition to managing a well equipped store in 
which a liberal patronage has been secured, he is at present organizing 
and promoting the Learnard & Lindemann Boys' Band, which, if the 
plans are successfully carried out, will be an important feature in musical 
circles of the city and Territory. It is to be composed of about thirty- 
boy s between the ages of twelve and eighteen years under the instruction 
of George Leo Patterson, who is a graduate of Harvard College, and has 
been a member of various famous musical organizations in the United 

Not only has Mr. Learnard been prominent and influential in advanc- 
ing the musical interests of the city, but has also been closely connected 
with measures bearing upon its government and the shaping of its muni- 
cipal policy. He has been a member of the city council of Albuquerque 
for the past two years, and at the last election was re-elected for the 
succeeding four years. During the past five years Mr. Learnard has been 
closely associated with the executive committee of the Territorial Fair 

Isaac H. Cox, president of the Standard Plumbing and Heating Com- 
pany, of Albuquerque, is a native of Iowa, where he learned the plumber's 
trade. In 1886 he located in San Diego, California, where he remained 
in business until 1894, when he established himself in Albuquerque. For 
six years he had as a partner Henry Brockmeier, under the firm style of 
Brockmeier & Cox. He was also for a time a stockholder in the firm of 
J. L. Bell & Co., but disposed of his interests in that concern in June, 
1904. when he organized the Standard Plumbing and Heating Company, 
with Wallace Hesselden as a partner. This concern is one of the most 
widely known of the character in New Mexico, and has done much of the 
best work in Albuquerque, having now a large patronage, which is a 
fruitful source of success. 


Much of the urban improvement of Albuquerque during the past 
fifteen years has been effected after designs planned by Edward Buxton 
Cristy, architect. Mr. Cristy is a native of New York city and a gradu- 
ate, in the architectural course, of Columbian University, from which he 
received the degree of Ph. D. in 1891. While he engaged in his chosen 
calling for a brief period in New York before removing to Albuquerque, 
his best work is to be seen in the latter city. He has been architect for 
the A. A. Grant estate, and drew the plans for the new Presbyterian 
church erected in 1905-6; for Hadley Science Hall, the Girls' and Boys' 
apartments, and the power house of the University of New Mexico, and all 
the university building undertaken in late years. Tbe girls' apartments 
are a radical departure from the conventional style, being a modernization 
of the old Pueblo style of architecture, constructed of brick covered with 
cement. He remodeled the Congregational church after its partial de- 
struction by fire, and several of the public school buildings, including the 
plans for the Central school building, the work on these, the university 
building and the city hall, erected in 1906, being in competition with 
other architects. Among the other work planned by him, either for the 
entire construction or for remodeling buildings previously constructed, 
should be mentioned Pearson Hall, the First National Bank building, the 
Barnett block, adjoining the postoffice, the Armijo block, on the corner 
of Third street and Railroad avenue, the remodeled interior of the Im- 
maculate Conception church, Episcopal church and Methodist Episcopal 
church, and most of the finer residences in the city. Many other build- 
ings in the Territory are monuments to his skill. 

Mr. Cristy was a member of the park commission for several years, 
and planned a large portion of the work in connection with its improve- 
ment. He is a Mason and has passed all the chairs in the local lodge of 
Odd Fellows. 

The progress of Albuquerque received an unparalleled impetus dur- 
ing the years from 1 903 to 1906. New capital was brought into the city, 
new projects for the improvemeni of the city as a place of residence were 
inaugurated, new public utilities were introduced and old ones greatly 
improved, and new blood generally was infused into the life of the com- 
munity. On the 7th of November, 1904, the Surety Investment Company 
was incorporated, with Colonel Sellers as general manager. Early in 1905 
this company began development operations on an extensive plan, platting 
and disposing of nearly seven hundred lots in Perea addition, the eastern 
addition, and Luna Place. Colonel Sellers personally platted and sold 
within thirty days the Grant tract on North Fifth street. 

In April, 1906, he effected the organization and incorporation of the 
University Heights Improvement Company, which began the develop- 
ment of a large section of land in the eastern suburbs of the city, beyond 
the University, at the south side of Railroad avenue. Soon afterward 
Colonel Sellers applied to the Albuquerque city council for a franchise for 
a new electric railroad connecting this portion of the city with the busi- 
ness section, and immediately interested a large majority of the property 
holders along the proposed route in the project. 

Colonel Sellers has been active in the promotion of various enter- 
prises of this character in New Mexico for several years. Before locat- 
ing in Albuquerque he devoted several years to the development of the 


San Juan valley. Though confronted by numerous obstacles which had 
been placed in his path by the more conservative citizens and business 
rivals, he has proven a strong factor in the growth of Albuquerque, which 
unquestionably owes much to his assiduous efforts toward the advance of 
the city. 

Albert Faber, a furniture dealer of Albuquerque, was born in Ger- 
many, and came to Albuquerque in 1888. For ten years he worked for 
Ilfeld Brothers, at the time the leading mercantile firm in the Territory. 
In 1898 he engaged in business for himself as a dealer in carpets and 
draperies, and since the 1st of January, 1906, has occupied the new Staab 
block, a thoroughly modern store building with twenty thousand square 
feet of floor space. He carries a stock valued at $15,000, which includes 
furniture and general household goods. He is not active in politics, but 
is a firm believer in the future of the country and in the ultimate triumph 
of principles for its best interests, and is active in all public enterprises 
for the development of the part of the country in which he lives. He 
has, without doubt, the largest business of this kind in this section of the 

Am hew Borders, engaged in the undertaking business at Albuquerque, 
came to this city in February, 1891, from California, and throughout the 
intervening years has been engaged in this business. He was born in 
Sparta, Illinois, in 1862. He was made a Mason in his native city and 
holds membership with the lodge and chapter. He is also a Knight of 
Pythias, of Mineral Lodge No. 4, at Albuquerque, and is connected with 
the Elks lodge here. 

The first wholesale liquor business established in Albuquerque was 
that of Dougher & Baca, founded in April. 1880. They built the first two- 
story business house in the old town. Santiago Baca purchased the busi- 
ness in September, 1880, and Ernest Meyers became manager. The busi- 
ness was removed to the new town in 1881, and on January 6, 1885, was 
purchased by Lowenthal & Meyers. They were succeeded by Meyers, 
Abel & Company, and the latter firm, of which Ernest Meyers was the 
senior member, continued the business until January. 1905, when Mr. 
Meyers established the firm of Ernest Meyers & Company, on Silver 

Major Meyers enjoys the distinction in commercial circles of having 
been the first man to travel for a local liquor house of any kind in New 
Mexico, engaging in that work before the advent of the railroad. Born 
in Woodville, Wilkinson county, Mississippi, on July 6, 1857, he came to 
Las Vegas, New Mexico, by rail late in the year 1879, and proceeded from 
that point to Albuquerque by stage. In March, 1881, he made a trip on 
horseback from Albuquerque to Needles, California, about the same time 
the railroad surveying party started out under Klingman. This was the 
first trip ever made by a traveling salesman for any house through that 
part of the country. Major Meyers also shipped the first carload of beer 
to Prescott, Arizona. The majority of the men who engaged in the liquor 
business in the region west of Albuquerque in those early days, some of 
whom have since become millionaires, owe their start to him. Before 
the business was established in Albuquerque, Santa Fe dealers received 
from eighteen to twenty dollars per gallon for brandy that cost them not 
to exceed two dollars and a half per gallon, with a tax of but ninety 


cents. Major Meyers is authority for the statement that the first beer 
sent to this territory was that brewed by Dick Brothers, of Quincy, Illi- 
nois, and that the first cigars sold in Albuquerque, that is, sold by a job- 
bing house in any quantities, were known as the Red and Black. Whiskey 
was originally sold only by the barrel, but about the time the railroad came 
those buying in quantities purchased at a gallon rate instead of so much 
per barrel. Double Anchor and Pike's Magnolia, both rectified ninety- 
proof goods, were the popular brands in those days. The second man to 
establish a wholesale liquor house was William E. Talbot. In a short 
time afterwards Charles Zeiger started the other liquor house. 



It is said that Dona Ana county received its name in memory of Miss 
Anna, the daughter of a Spanish colonel. It appears that the young lady 
was engaged in playing hand-hall, or some other solitary game, in a se- 
cluded place in the Gila river region, when she was stolen by Apache 
Indians, and disappeared from her world. She was a very beautiful maiden, 
or her father a man of considerable standing; it may be that both of these 
facts were taken into consideration in the naming of the county. 

Doiia Ana was one of the original nine counties into which the Terri- 
tory was divided by the legislative act of January 9, 1852, and its bounda- 
ries were given therein as follows : The southern boundary, on the left 
bank of the Rio del Norte, is the boundary of the state of Texas, ami on 
the right, the dividing line between the Republic of Mexico; on the north, 
the boundary of the county of Socorro; and on the east and west, the 
boundaries of the Territory. By an act of January 15, 1855, all of the 
Gadsden Purchase was annexed to the county, but upon the organization 
of Arizona Territory, in 1861-2, it retained only that portion within the 
present limits of New Mexico. 

At one time Dona Ana was anxious for a union with El Paso county, 
Texas, but finally settled down to single blessedness. In 1867 her citi- 
zens, with those of the county across the line, petitioned congress to erect 
a new Territory of the districts named and call it Montezuma. They 
claimed that the area of the united counties would be sufficiently large, 
and the population much greater than that of most territories upon their 


Like those of most of the older counties of the Territory, the records 
of Dona Ana county are incomplete, being entirely missing for the period 
1871-5. The following is as complete a record as can be collected from 
1853 to date: 

Probate Judges. — 1853-5, Richard Campbell; 1856, Pablo Melendez: 1856-59, Rafael 
Ruelas; i860, Anastacio Barela ; 1861, Thomas J. Bull, Frank Higgins : 1862, Frank 
Higgins. John P. Dens; 1863, Neponi Y. Ancheta, John Lemon; 1864-8, John Lemon; 

1869, Daniel Fietze. Pablo Melendez; 1870, Pablo Melendez; 1876, Pablo Melendez; 
1877, Henry J. Cuniffe; 1878-9, Pablo Melendez; 1881, Maximo Castaneda ; 1899-1902, 
Albert J. Fountain ; 1903-6, Marcial Valdez. 

Probate Clerks.— 1853. Joseph H. Tucker: 1854-9, James A. Lucas; i860. G. H. 
Oury: 1861-2. Charles A. Hoppin ; 1863-5. James M. Taylor: 1866-g, J. F. Bennett, 

1870, Ygnacio Orrantia; 1876, Daniel Frietze ; 1877-9. William T. Jones (H. F. Ste- 
phenson appointed in 1879 to fill vacancy caused by the death of Mr. Jones) ; 1880-4, 
Horace F. Stephenson; 1885-6. Jesus S. Garcia; 1887-96, Horace F. Stephenson; 1897- 
1900. Jose R. Lucero: iqoi-6, Isodoro Armijo. 

Sheriffs— 1853-4. John Jones; 1855-60, Samuel G. Bean; 1861, Marcial Padilla ; 
1862, John A. Roberts; 1863, Fred Burkner; 1864-5, Apolonio Barela; 1866-8. Mariano 


Barela 1869-70. Fabian Gonzales; 1881-2. J. W. Southwick; 1897-1900, Patrick F. 
Garrett; 1901-6, Jose R. Lucero. 

County Commissioners.— 1876. Thomas J. Bull (chairman), Jacinto Armijo, Pablo 
Melemlez; 1877-8, Charles Lesinsky (chairman), John D. Barncastle. Pablo Melendez ; 
1879-80, Guadalupe Ascarate (chairman). Eugenio Mareno, Sixto Garcia; 1881-2, Carlos 
H. Armijo (chairman), Nicholas Galles, Amado Arvizii ; 1883-4. R- E. Smith (chair- 
man), Benjamin E. Davies, Eugenio Mareno; in August, 1884, Jacinto Armijo appointed 
to succeed R. E. Smith; 1885-6. Mariano Barela (chairman), John D. Barncastle, 
Jacinto Armijo: 1887-8, Thomas J. Bull (chairman), Leon Alvarez, Brigado Garcia; 
1889-90, George Lynch (chairman), George W. Mossman, Thomas J. Bull; 1891-4, 
Tomas Gonzales (chairman), Numa Raymond, Leon Alvares Lopez; 1895-6. Acheson 
McClintock (chairman), Charles Miller, Rosalio Baldonado; 1897-8, Charles E. Miller 
(chairman), Rosalio Baldonado, Jesus Silva; 1899-1900. Frank S. Oliver (chairman), 
Doyle Murray. Jesus Silva; in 1899, D. M. Sutherland was appointed to succeed Mr. 
Murray, and in 1900. E. E. Day succeeded Mr. Sutherland; 1901-2, W. B. Murphy 
(chairman), Charles E. Miller, A'gapito Torres; 1903-4, C. E. Miller (chairman), Aga- 
pito Torres. Samuel Geek; 1905-6. Richard Nietzschmann (chairman), Francisco Jara- 
millo. Samuel Geek. 

Physical Features. — -While the surface of the county is mainly com- 
poses of plains and mesas, there are, nevertheless, the San Andres, Organ 
and Franklin mountains running north and south, at some distance from 
the eastern banks of the Rio Grande, which is the only water course of 
importance. Near the southern boundary between the Territory and 
Texas, where the Rio Grande sweeps toward El Paso, the mountain ranges 
approach nearer the river valley. The Organ mountains lie about eigh- 
teen miles east. Although unique in appearance, they do not derive their 
name from a fancied resemblance to any musical mechanism, but from the 
Orajons, a numerous tribe of Indians who inhabited the region in early 
days. The Spanish word, Orajon, means "long ears," and was given to 
the tribe on account of the physical peculiarity of its members. 

The county slopes from north to south. Rincon, at the northern end. 
is 4,031 feet above the sea; Anthony, at the southern, 3,789 feet. Organ 
peak is 9,108 feet in height, and Florida station, on the Santa Fe, near 
the western boundary of the county, is 4.484 feet in altitude. What was 
acquired from Mexico by the Gadsden treaty of 1853 is mostly embraced 
within the limits of Dona Ana county, and the famed Mesilla valley lies 
entirely within it. 

The plains of the county furnish an abundance of gramma grass, an 
unexcelled forage plant for beef cattle. The most progressive stockmen, how- 
ever, raise or lease large alfalfa fields, on which they give their cattle a final 
feeding before sending them to market. Dona Ana has acquired a high 
reputation for her vintage, the vineyards yielding from 1,300 to 1,500 
gallons of wine per acre. Bee culture is also a growing source of profit, 
the wide-stretching alfalfa fields yielding a peculiar variety of honey, 
which is said to be very efficacious in all throat and pulmonary diseases. 

The principal mining is carried on in the Organ mountains, the ores 
occurring on the contact line between limestone and porphyry, and embrace 
silver, galena and sulphuret of iron. 

The Mesilla Valley. — This far-famed region has given a special 
reputation to Dona Ana county, as it was the first portion of New Mexico 
to attract the attention of the Anglo-Saxon and secure settlement. 

In the early days its richness attracted immigration from the four 
corners of the earth, and its fame had reached to the oldest Caucasian 


cities. The era that succeeded the war, during which the great trans- 
continental roads were building, drew off from it the tide of immigration. 
It is one of the most fruitful areas in the world. At Fort Selden the 
valley spreads out to a fertile plain, some six miles in width and forty 
miles in length. Through it the Rio Grande meanders to where it enters 
the canyon above El Paso, Texas. On the east, some seventeen miles dis- 
tant, rises the range of mountains whose tall pinnacles resemble the pipes 
of a monster organ, while on the west the walls of the table land rise some 
.200 feet above the level of the valley. 

The agricultural crops of Dona Ana, and especially of the Mesilla 
valley, are alfalfa, fruits and the cereals. In the gardens and vineyards 
the finest fruits of the temperate zone reach perfection. Nowhere does 
alfalfa flourish better or produce a greater tonnage. Indian corn grows 
to an almost fabulous height. But it is of its fruits that the valley is 
justly proud. 

All hardy fruits reach perfection in Dona Ana county. Peaches, 
pears, plums, apricots, quinces, prunes and, above all except peaches, 
apples flourish. There are many large orchards. The earliest ones were 
entirely of apples, the future trees having been brought out on the stages 
of those days in the form of root-grafts. 

The vineyards of this valley have long been famous. For a long time 
they were composed entirely of the Mission grape, but a large number of 
•other foreign varieties have been introduced with great success. These 
include the Muscat of Alexandria, Flaming Tokay, Rose of Peru, Gros 
Coleman, Cornichon, Black Burgundy, etc. 

Las Cruces. — Las Cruces, the county seat, is situated nearly mid- 
way in the Rio Grande valley as it passes through Dona Ana county, and 
is on the branch of the Santa Fe road running from Rincon to El Paso. 
Various origins are given for the name, "The Crosses." One is traced 
to the crosses on the old mission. It is also said that a number of travel- 
ers were killed a little north of the present site of the town in 1848, and 
over their bodies, which were buried by soldiers, were erected two crosses. 
The present town has a fine court house, churches, an academy conducted 
by the Sisters of Loretto. and is the seat of the Territorial Agricultural 
College. Attached to the college is an experimental station. 

With this general description of the town and the county, the sketches 
of several worthy pioneers who have materially assisted in the develop- 
ment of the Mesilla valley are presented below. 

Horace F. Stephenson, for many years probate clerk of Dona Ana 
countv, and one of the pioneers of 1853, ' s spending the closing period of 
his life as a resident of Las Cruces. He was born in Mexico in 1834. and 
in early life assisted his father in a general merchandise store in Texas. 
He did not come to New Mexico to reside permanently until i86g, when 
he located at Victoria, Dona Ana county, and engaged in trade. For sev- 
eral years thereafter he was in the stock business. 

Among those who lived in Dona Ana county in the '50s, Colonel 
Samuel P. Jones was one of the most striking of the many picturesque 
frontier characters of those davs. Colonel Jones was the last collector of 
United States customs to be located at Las Cruces, occupying the office in 
1863, when it was removed to El Paso. He had served as sheriff in 
Kansas during the border troubles, and was an eye-witness to the burn- 


ing of Lawrence. In fact, he was one of the class of men known by the 
people of Kansas as a •'border ruffian," and was a Confederate sympa- 
thizer. He was one of the early United States marshals for New Mexico, 
his first location being at Mesilla. He also practiced law, and United 
States Senator Stephen B. Elkins was at one time a student in his office. 
Colonel Jones was a man of excellent education, fine personal appear- 
ance, and unusually courageous. He finally removed to Silver City, 
where he lived in retirement until his death. 

Stephen B. Elkins crossed the plains to Xew Mexico as a "bull- 
puncher," arriving in Mesilla with less than a dollar in his pocket. He 
prepared for the practice of the law in that town, and for a time was 
associated with Thomas B. Catron. The two made a strong combination 
— Catron as a lawyer, Elkins as a politician. He was early recognized as 
being extremely shrewd and diplomatic, and quick to take advantage of 
the slightest technicalities in the crudely framed early laws of the Terri- 
tory. One of his early undertakings in New Mexico was in the capacity 
of clerk in the Quartermaster's Department at Mesilla. Mr. Elkins might 
have remained there indefinitely and missed a brilliant career, had he not 
spelled the name "Arizonia" in one of the reports he was writing for his 
superior. This resulted in his immediate discharge, and he concluded to 
study law. 

Numa Raymond was another of the "old-timers" of Doha Ana county 
and of the Territory. Born in Switzerland, he came to New Mexico as a 
boy in the late '50s. He was industrious and keen to seize advantages in 
the new country, and as years passed obtained quite a monopoly in the 
management and ownership of the old coach lines which traversed New 
Mexico, Colorado and Kansas. His chief source of profit in those days 
was the carrying of the government mail, for which he held a large num- 
ber of contracts, and in the defense of which he and his agents had their 
full share of fierce encounters with Indians and outlaws. 

Mr. Raymond prospered financially, and, being a man of intelligence 
and good character, was a prominent participant in the public affairs of the 
counties in which he resided at different times. He served as probate 
judge of Socorro county, and when the railroad reached Las Cruces lo- 
cated there to engage in mercantile pursuits. With the development of the 
cattle industry he secured large interests in Lincoln county. He was 
sheriff of Doha Ana county, and a member of the first Board of Regents 
of the Agricultural College, being largely instrumental in securing its 
location at Las Cruces. 

Still another pioneer of the county and widely known throughout the 
Territory was ex-Governor Amy, who, in November. 1881, died very 
suddenly in Topeka, Kansas, while on his way from New York to New 
Mexico.' He had visited England in behalf of the heirs to the great Hyde 
estate, and is said to have had in his possession papers disposing of prop- 
erty amounting to $450,000,000. In the prosecution of these cases the 
deceased had spent all his money, mortgaged his home, and based his 
livelihood and his reputation upon the eventuality of establishing the 
rights of his clients; but sudden death cut him off when success seemed 
near at hand. 

A Picture of the Sixties. — A copy of the Mesilla Times of < )ctober 
10, 1861, gives a fair idea of those actively engaged in business there, at 


Las Cruces, and at other points in the county. It also indicates that the 
people of New Mexico were having troubles of their own, besides the 
Civil war. 

At the date mentioned. R. P. Kelley was editor of the Times, ami 
B. C. Murray & Co. publishers, and the copy of the paper is now in pos- 
session of John D. Barncastle, of Dona Ana.' From its columns it is seen 
that in 1861 the following business and professional men were located 
at Mesilla: Freitze & Applezoler, bakers; M. H. Macwillie, lawyer; 
Pedro Duhalde, merchant; W. Claude Jones, lawyer; Dr. J. A. Butler, 
physician and surgeon : Hayward & McGrorty, merchants ; E. Angerstein. 
merchant : Kelley & Hughes, steam flour mills ; Buchoz. Grangdeau & 
Co., general merchants ; R. P. Kellev, surveyor : Joshua S. Sledd. saloon 
and market; John Minis, proprietor of Casino Hotel. 

John G. Ward was located at Las Cruces as proprietor of the Las 
Cruces Hotel, and M. Cahan was the jeweler and watchmaker of the 
town. Buhl & Gross advertised their Pino Alto House, on Bear Creek ; 
Samuel G. and Roy Bean called attention to their large saloon at Pino 
Alto; Sweet & Lacoste were merchants at Santa Rita, and A. T. Swa- 
bocher & Co. had a sawmill at "Tuleroso." 

A news item, referring to the Indian troubles in the fall of 186 1, 
says : "A meeting of the citizens of Mesilla was held at the court room 
for the purpose of organizing two companies of vounteers for three 
months' service against the Apache Indians. Isaac Langston had been 
commissioned as captain of one of these companies by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Bavlor. The meeting' chose the following company officers : Anastacio 
Barela, captain ; Stanislaus Albillar. first lieutenant ; Juan Jose Duran. 
second lieutenant; Yincenta Mestes, third lieutenant. The other officers 
of Langston's company were: Cayetano Goningus. first lieutenant; Juan 
Maribai, second lieutenant: Erangastur Charvis, third lieutenant." 

Another item conveyed the following intelligence: "An express 
reached here on the 8th from Pino Alto bringing most urgent appeals for 
assistance. The Indians have Pino Alto, the copper mines and several large 
trains at different points, and even a company of fortv armed men from this 
valley, perfectly besieged. The expressman had a horse shot from under 
him a mile from Pino Alto by the Indians, but started again and succeeded 
in making the trip alone and safely. Captain Mastin of the Arizona Guards 
is in a critical condition. The main artery of his arm is injured, and has 
begun to bleed several times, and unless he receives speedy surgical relief 
death must ensue. We are informed that Major Waller will also go to 
Pino Alto with a command of eighty men. He will be accompanied by 
about the same number of citizens of Mesilla. under command of Captains 
Anastacio and Barela." 

Until 1880 Mesilla was the county seat, and the headquarters of the 
United States land office and of the Third Judicial District. The town is 
chieflv noted for its magnificent orchards and vineyards, its streets being 
regular and lined with beautiful shade trees. Besides fruit and wine, its 
principal resources are the hay and grain raised in the surrounding dis- 
tricts. An abundance of water is obtained by means of irrigating ditches 


from the Rio Grande and from drive wells. The town is about two miles 
west of Las Cruces. 

A visitor to the peaceful, beautiful little village can scarcely conceive 
that its streets were the scene of one of the bloodiest tragedies which has 
ever marred the history of the Territory. It was a political riot of thirty-five 
years ago. which created widespread consternation throughout the Mesilla 
valley, and the story of its origin, occurrence and results is told by S. M. 
Ashenfelter, in an article furnished to the Silver City Independent. He 
says : 

Col. J. Francisco Chaves and Jose M. Gallcgos, familiarly known as "Padre" Galle- 
gos, were opposing candidates for the office of delegate to Congress. The Republican 
and Democratic parties were both thoroughly organized, in Dona Ana county, the 
former under the leadership of Col. W. L. Rynerson and John Lemon, the latter led 
by Pablo Melendrez and Mariano Barela, Democratic candidates, respectively, for pro- 
bate judge and for sheriff. From the opening of the campaign, intense party feeling 
had prevailed, and the struggle had assumed a bitter personal, as well as partisan, as- 
pect. Both parties appeared to be ready for serious trouble and eager to invite it. 

It had been announced that, on Sunday, the 27th of August, 1871. a Democratic 
mass meeting would be held in the plaza of Mesilla, to be addressed by Mr. Gallegos. 
This was followed by an announcement that the Republicans, also, would hold a mass 
meeting at Mesilla. on that day. Among the best people, there was at once a general 
expression of fear that the two meetings could not be held without danger of serious 
collision. So strong was this belief that, at the request of the business men of Las 
Cruces and Mesilla, the leaders of the two parties came together in the interest of peace, 
and it was agreed that the Democrats should have the plaza, as originally arranged, 
and the Republicans would hold their meeting in front of the residence of John Lemon. 
This program was carried out, and with what appeared to be most satisfactory results. 
Both meetings had been held, and many of the people had departed for their homes 
in other precincts. So general was the impression that all danger of collision had 
passed, that Horace Stephenson, who. in support of Mr. Gallegos, had come up from 
La Mesa with over one hundred mounted men, mostly armed, withdrew from the plaza 
with his followers, started for home, and was out of hearing, before the trouble com- 

But the agitators were not satisfied. On one side, it was suggested that it 
would be a fitting ceremonial to close the day by forming in procession and march- 
ing around the plaza. On which side this suggestion first took form, it was im- 
possible to determine, that day ; and it cannot be determined now. But, the other 
party, not to be outdone, immediately followed the example set. with the result that 
the two processions marched in opposite directions around the plaza. And the 
cheapest of whisky had flowed freely. 

The two processions met, nearly in front of the Reynolds & Griggs store. I. 
N. Kelley, a printer, on the Democratic side, and John Lemon, on the Republican 
side, engaged in angry political discussion, as the heads of the processions came 
together. Tn the excitement. Apolonio Barela. intentionally or otherwise, fired his 
pistol into the air. Immediately upon the firing of the shot. Kelley, who carried 
a heavy pick handle, struck Lemon a fierce blow upon the head, felling him to the 
ground. The next instant, Felicito Arroyas y Lueras shot Kelley. inflicting a mortal 
wound, and. in turn, was shot through the heart by some person unknown. Then, 
the fighting became general, and. durins about ten or fifteen minutes, the sound was 
that of a "sharp rattle of musketry. The plaza was crowded, and that no greater 
fatalities resulted, seems marvelous. Men. women and children, in confused masses, 
rushed for the streets leading out from the corners of the plaza. In the narrow 
street between the residence of Col. Bennett and the building then used as a court 
house, several women and children were severely injured in the crush of the frantic 
mob. Terror stricken people, as they fled, screamed aloud in an agony of fright, 
the continued sound of pistol shots adding to the wildness of the panic which pre- 

The firing commenced about half past three o'clock in the afternoon. Half an 
hour before. Generals Gregg and Devin. deeming the events of the day to be con- 
cluded, had started upon return trip to Fort Selden. Two companies of the Eighth 


Cavalry were stationed at that post, and, shortly after the outbreak, a federal officer 
then at La Mesilla, dispatched a messenger asking for the aid of troops to restore 
order. The messenger overtook the two officers on vhe road, delivered his message, 
and thereupon, these officers pushed forward to the post with all possible speed. 
"Boots and saddles" was sounded, and, about ten o'clock that night, a command of 
sixty cavalrymen drew rein in front of the residence of Colonel Jones, just at the 
outskirts of Mesilla. Major Kelly, with a small detachment, moved into the plaza. 
He was met by a few citizens, among whom 1 were men of both parties, and who 
joined in a request that the entire body of troops should be brought in. The bugle 
was sounded, and the rest of the troops came up at a gallop. These troops camped 
in the plaza that night. The next day the main body withdrew, and Major Kelly 
was left there with a detachment of twenty men ; and with an additional detachment 
of fifteen men under Lieutenant Godwin, established at Las Cruces. These detach- 
ments remained in the valley about a fortnight, and were of service in preventing 
another outbreak when Colonel Chaves made his visit to the county, and addressed a 
meeting at Mesilla. 

Nine men were killed, and between forty and fifty were wounded, in this ugly 
affray. Only partial lists can be obtained at this date. John Lemon, whose skull 
was fractured by the blow he bad received, was removed to his home, where he 
died that evening. Among the others killed, were I. N. Kelley, Sotello Lopez, Fran- 
cisco Rodrigues, Felicito Arroyas y Luera, Fabian Cortez, the Chihuahua bully, and 
an idiot boy who was shot down while standing beside Mariano Barela. It was 
never possible to get even an approximate list of the wounded. Many were taken 
to their homes and treated in secrecy. Those who were known, are as follows: 
Pedro Garcia, Hilario Moreno, Jose M. Padilla, Cesario Flores, Oraquia Luna, 
Juan de Dios Sais, Jesus Calles, Dr. Black. Manuel Nevares, Simon Gallegos, Jesus 
Barela. Jose Quesada, Isidoro Apodaca, Leandro Miranda, Mateo Madrid, Francisco 
Lopez, Jesus Lopez and Pilar Caudelario. Daniel Freitze. who was running for 
probate clerk on the Democratic ticket, had a narrow escape, no less than four 
bullets passing through his clothing. That many women and children were not 
killed or injured is considered one of the marvels nf that day. Of the crowd in 
the plaza they were thought to be in the majority. 

We had no judge of the district court, in this third judicial district, at that 
time. In truth, the country was a trifle "wild and woolly," and Waters, the last 
appointee, had recently resigned and gone home, after holding one term of court. 
A few partisans, in hasty judgment, got together and wrote to Judge Hezekiah S. 
Johnson, of the second district, to come down and hold an investigation. He came, 
stayed three days, made up his mind that it would be dangerous to do any investi- 
gating, became demoralized, and returned to his home without action. The matter 
never was investigated. Nobody was ever punished by law for an act done that day. 
A few men were arrested the night of the riot, but they were immediately released' 
by the arresting officer, on their own rcognizances. The leaders on both sides called 
a' halt. Both had had enough, and both knew it. 

The first effects of this riot were felt in Grant county, numbers of people aban- 
doning their homes in the Mesilla valley, and making settlements along the Mim- 
bres. But the most marked effect was the etsablishment of a colony from Dona 
Ana county, in the Republic of Mexico. Fabian Gonzales, then sheriff of Dona 
Ana countv ; Ygnacio Orrantia, the LInited States deputy marshal for southern 
New Mexico; Fred Buckner, the postmaster at Mesilla; Apolonio Barela, and some 
thirty or forty others, residents about Las Cruces and La Mesilla, formed a colony, 
sent emissaries to Mexico City, and procured a land grant on the stream; above 
and below the site of what is now the town of Ascencion in Mexico. They removed' 
to the new settlement in the early days of 1872. feeling that they were driven to seek 
safer homes. Of this party. Apolonio Barela afterwards came to Silver City, and 
resided here for several years, finally returning to Ascencion. 

Other Towns. — Dona Ana is in the central portion of the county, sur- 
rounded by a rich country, devoted to the cultivation of the grape, fruits 
and vegetables. Mesilla Park is a village and railroad station adjoining the 
Agricultural College, being mainly a residence suburb. Chamberino, a busy 
little town, drawing its prosperity from an outlying country of good ranches 
productive gardens and fruitful orchards, is on the west bank of the Rio 


Grande, about eighteen miles south of Las Cruces, and three miles west 
of Anthony, a station on the A.. T. & S. F. Earlham, a railroad station 
fifteen miles south of the county seat, and Colorado, in the western part of 
the county, live miles from Rincon, are also centers of well irrigated and 
productice areas. 

The Water Users' Association of Dona Ana County was organized 
at a mass meeting held at Las Cruces. in December, 1904. Representatives 
gathered from all parts of the district, and the meeting was of a very 
enthusiastic characler. H. B. Holt, of Las Cruces, was elected president, 
and has filled the office since. Oscar C. Snow is vice-president ; H. D. 
Bowman, treasurer, and Numa C. Freuger, secretary. 

The Cass Land and Cattle Company was organized in Cass county, 
Missouri, in March, 1884, all of the officers being residents of that state. 
The ranch is located sixty miles northeast of Roswell, on the Pecos river, 
at Cedar Canyon, and consists of 3,600 acres of land and 20,000 cattle. 
The enterprise was started with 2,2^2 cattle. Since the organization of 
the company its active managers have been Lee Easlev (1884), J. D. 
Cooley (1885), W. G. Urton (1886-99), and Mr. Cooley," who has held the 
position since 1899. The capital stock of the company is $100,000, as 
originally. Until 1889 the ranch brand was "T. H. L.," but in July of 
that year the "Bar V" brand was purchased of the estate of J. J. Cox, and 
has since been retained. An idea of the magnitude of the business con- 
ducted by the Cass Land and Cattle Company may be gained from these 
items : Number of cattle branded since organization. 88,336 ; cattle sold, 
46,996; dividends, $420,000. or an average of 20 per cent on the capital 
stock for twenty years. 

Hon. Jacinto Armijo, deceased, was one of the distinguished native 
sons of New Mexico who won high official preferment and whose course 
honored the commonwealth that honored him. He was for many years a 
resident of Las Cruces. His birth occurred in Socorro, Socorro county, 
New Mexico, on the 13th of August, 1845. Don Isidoro Armijo, his father 
and Dona Catarina Montoya de Armijo, his mother, were the first colonists 
in the Triple expedition of the counties of Valencia, Socorro and Paso del 
Norte (city of Juarez) to settle the county of Dona Ana. When but 
three years of age. Jacinto Armijo accompanied his parents on their re- 
moval to Las Cruces, where he made his home until called to his final rest. 
He attended the public schools, obtaining the best education afforded in 
those days. As he grew to manhood his worth and ability were recognized, 
and he became one of the prominent political leaders of the Territory, 
eventually advocating Republican principles. In 1873-4 he represented his 
district in the legislative halls in Santa Fe, and in 1875-6 he was elected by 
a majority of five hundred votes as a member of the council, representing 
the southern counties of the Territory, including Dona Ana, Grant and 
Lincoln. He was probably the first native regent of the Agricultural Col- 
lege of New Mexico, receiving his appointment to that position from 
Governor Otero. He held various local offices, being president of the 
board of county commissioners and school trustee and deputy sheriff. 
He was likewise probate judge and he was chairman of the Republican 
county central committee. He was impartial in the discharge of all his 
official duties, serving the people well and faithfully, for he ever regarded 
a public office as a public trust — and no trust reposed in him was ever 



betrayed in the slightest degree. He studied closely the needs and possi- 
bilities of the Territory and labored along lines of general progress and 
improvement. His liberal and progressive course won him a most honor- 
able name in his community, and he was respected alike by Americans and 
natives. The cause of education found in him a stalwart friend, and 
eventually connected with the local schools and as regent of the Agricul- 
tural College he labored untiringly for the great educational interests of 
the Territory. Mr. Armijo was married, November 24, 1869, to Miss 
Juanita Silva. and they became the parents of five sons and two daughters: 
Isidoro, Catarino, Max, Jacinto. Henry, Josephine and Jennie. 

Mr. Armijo departed this life June 9, 1898, and the family still reside 
in Las Cruces. He was a man of unquestioned integrity, both in public 
office and in private life, and the consensus of public opinion was altogether 
favorable regarding his ability and his devotion to duty. He was spoken 
of as one of the most progressive and esteemed citizens of Xew Mexico, 
and he stood as a high type of the citizenship of the southwest. 

Jose Ramon Lucero. sheriff of Dona Ana county and regent of the 
Agricultural College of New Mexico, makes his home in Las Cruces. 
He was born in Dona Ana county, February iq, 1867, a son of Barbara 
and Macedonia (Trujillo) Lucero. His father is operating a flour mill at 
Las Cruces and is a representative business man of the city. He was born 
in Janos, Chihuahua, Mexico, in 1837, and when seventeen years of age 
was employed by the government of the United States to assist in making 
the survey of the boundary line of the Gadsden purchase under Major 
Emory. He was at Mesilla in 18=54 when the first American flag was 
raised there, and he has since resided in New Mexico, and is a prominent 
cattleman of this part of the country, having extensive and valuable ranches, 
mostly in Dona Ana county. In late years, in connection with his son, 
Jose R., he has operated a roller flour mil! and is yet associated with this 
enterprise. He is a strong Republican, active in support of the party and 
thoroughly in sympathy with its policy and principles, yet he does not seek 
nor care for office. 

Jose R. Lucero pursued a common school education, and after putting 
aside his text-books was engaged in the sheep raising industry with his 
father for six years. He then sold his interest in the sheep business and 
turned his attention to cattle raising, also becoming connected with the 
milling business as manager of his father*s mill. He still has cattle interests 
in the county, having a good ranch which is well stocked. In 1896 he was 
elected probate clerk, serving in the office for four years, or until 1900. 
He was then elected sheriff, and was re-elected in 1902, and again in 1904, 
so that he is for the third term the incumbent in the position. He has also 
been school director of Las Cruces. and i? a Republican in his political 
views. In April, 1890, Mr. Lucero was married to Miss Simona Lopez, 
and to them have been born four children : Adela, Jose, Arturo and 

Captain Thomas Branigan, a fruit grower and mine owner of Las 
Cruces, whose varied experience in the west have made him thoroughly 
familiar with its history in all its phases, was born in Edinburg, Scotland, 
in 1847. and when two vears of age was brought to the United States, the 
family home being established in Ohio in 1849. He was educated in the 
public schools of Ohio, where he spent his early youth. In 1862. at the 


extremely early age of fourteen years, he enlisted for service as a private 
of Company I, One Hundred and Third Regiment of Ohio Volunteers. 
He participated in the siege of Knoxville under Burnside, in the battle of 
Armstrong Hill, and many engagements in eastern Tennessee. In May, 
1864, the Army of Ohio joined Sherman near Dalton, Georgia, and he 
thus became a part of Sherman's magnificent army during the memorable 
Atlanta campaign. On the 14th of May, 1864, the brigade to which he 
belonged, consisting of the regiments under General Manson, made the 
charge at Resaca and took the first line of works in the fierce fight which 
ensued. He was wounded at Resaca, but continued with the command 
and was in many engagements during the advance upon Atlanta. Captain 
Branigan was the first man of Sherman's army to cross the Chattahoochee 
river in front of Atlanta, and thus lead the way across that historic stream. 
The hazardous feat was accomplished in the face of almost insurmountable 
difficulties and after the failure of a detachment of troops from Colonel 
Cameron's brigade to effect a crossing of the wide and rapidly flowing 
stream. The thunder of a rebel battery concealed about ten hundred yards 
down the river, and the possibility of unknown foes on the opposite bank, 
only spurred this boy of scarce sixteen years to greater effort. He struck 
boldly into the water, and upon reaching the opposite shore, finding the 
field clear, signaled to Colonel Casement, whereupon he was quickly fol- 
lowed by his own company under Captain George Redway, then by the 
One Hundred and Third Ohio, and eventually the whole Twenty-third 
Corps was thrown across on pontoons. According to the diary of Captain 
George Redway, of the General Land Office, Washington, D. C. this 
occurred on July 8, 1864. In recognition of this meritorious service the 
boy was made a corporal. After the close of hostilities he was mustered out 
on the 1 2th of June at Raleigh, North Carolina, being then but seventeen 
years of age; yet on the field of battle he displayed valor and loyalty equal 
to that of many a veteran of twice his years. 

When the war was over Captain Branigan entered the Mennonite Col- 
lege at Wadsworth, Ohio, continuing his studies for a year, and in the spring 
of 1867 came to the west. He first engaged in buffalo hunting, killing 
those animals on the plains for Shoemaker for a few months, but later 
went to Fort Lyon, where he remained in the government employ until the 
fall of 1867, when he made his way to the Elizabethtown mines in northern 
New Mexico. Losing all he had here in a mining venture, in 1868 he went 
to Denver, attracted by the Pike's Peak gold discoveries, and entered the 
employ of the well known stage owner, Holladay, acting as a driver on his 
stage line from Denver to Cheyenne. He next turned his attention to 
bridge building, and became an expert in that line in the employ of the 
Northern Pacific Railroad Companv. These early days on the plains of 
the middle west and over the old Santa Fe trail, when law and order were 
left behind at the Mississippi river, and where the wild Indian and buffalo 
roamed the lonely wastes, were years full of adventure and thrilling ex- 
perience. Captain Branigan has volumes of plain lore and personal ex- 
perience with which to fill the willing ear. He had an intimate acquaintance 
with many of the well known characters of the frontier. The famous "Wild 
Bill," Will Hickox. and the brave Tom Smith, of Abilene, Kansas, fame, 
were comrades in many a stirring incident of frontier life. 

Later Captain Branigan returned to Ohio, where, in companv with 


his brother, he operated successfully in lands and stock. Subsequently he 
spent two years as an officer at the Ohio State penitentiary, and in 1882 
went to the Mescalero Apache Indian Reservation as captain of Indian 
police and chief of scouts, which position he occupied until the fall of 1885, 
when he resigned. In the capacity of chief of Indian scouts he had marked 
success and an interesting and varied experience. He brought his com- 
pany of Indian scouts to a high state of training and soldierly discipline, 
which enabled them to protect themselves and the people living on the 
frontier. The following year he was appointed head detective on the 
Texas Pacific Railroad, and in August, 1886, he received a telegram from 
General Bradley, commander of the department, asking him to go to the 
reservation and raise a company of scouts for campaign service against the 
Indian chief, Geronimo, and his band of hostile red men, for the Apache 
war was then on. Captain Branigan immediately responded to the re- 
quest and served with a scouting party under Lieutenant Wrenn, guarding 
the waters of southern New Mexico and of old Mexico. In the fall, after 
the capture of Geronimo, he went to Fort Stanton and called for his dis- 
charge. He then came to Las Cruces, purchased land and began the 
raising of bees and the production of honey. At the same time he was 
interested extensively in gold mining in Sierra county. After disposing 
of a part of his mining property, he settled on a ranch near Las Cruces, 
and has since been engaged in the raising of fruit and alfalfa farming, and 
in copper, gold and silver mining. His land is well watered, and he has 
met with a creditable measure of success in his horticultural pursuits. 
On June 1. 1897, he was married to Miss Alice B. Montgomery, at Las 
Cruces, New Mexico. 

Captain Branigan has also been called to public office during his resi- 
dence in Doiia Ana county. He was elected on the Republican ticket to 
die office of county assessor for the years 1899 and 1900. For eight years 
he has been a member of the Dona Ana county Republican central com- 
mittee, and during this time treasurer of said committee. He is a com- 
missioner of the Las Cruces Ditch Association and secretary and treasurer 
of said organization. He is also one of the two appraisers on the board 
of the Dona Ana Bend Colony Grant. He is at present and has been for 
several years a member of the board of education of Las Cruces, and dur- 
ing said term of service has been clerk of said board. Captain Branigan 
has taken a great interest in the educational affairs of his community and 
has given liberally of his time and energy in this behalf, especially during 
the erection of the handsome new high school building which has just 
been completed at a cost of $20,000. He had assisted materially in raising 
the grade and improving the condition of the public school of his town. 

Captain Branigan belongs to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
to Phil Sheridan Post No. 17, G. A. R., and is at present junior vice-com- 
mander of the department of New Mexico. He is and has been at all 
times during his long residence in the Territory closely identified with its 
substantial progress and improvement, co-operating in all movements that 
are of direct benefit to the community in which he resides. 

Tohn Martin, a pioneer of New Mexico of 1861. now deceased, was 
born' in Caledonia, New York, in 182Q. At the age of fifteen years he ran 
awav from home and joined General Winfield Scott's army as a drummer 
bov." He was at the storming of Chapultepec, and after the war he rounded 


Cape Horn. landing- in San Francisco probably in the year 1849. There 
he remained until the call for volunteers, when he was elected first lieu- 
tenant of Company D, First California Volunteer Infantry, Colonel Carle- 
ton commanding. The regiment marched from San Francisco to Rio 
Grande, and as the captain of the company deserted at Fort Yuma, Lieu- 
tenant Martin assumed command and brought the troops through. He 
was in active service, largely engaged in suppressing the Indian depreda- 
tions. For some time he was stationed at Jornada, and with his company- 
was engaged in escorting mail until mustered out at Las Cruces, New 
Mexico. Captain Martin was married in Las Cruces to Esther Catherine 
Wadsworth in 1865. He then went to Fort Seldon, a mile below the 
crossing of the Rio Grande, where he built and conducted a ferry-boat, 
while his wife had charge of the officers' mess. In 1867 he went to 
Aleman, on "La Jornada del Muerto." to prospect for water. He dug to 
a depth of one hundred and sixty-four feet, the well being four by six 
feet and the cost was twelve dollars per foot. He struck water at eighty- 
three feet. He then established a horse and cattle ranch and stage stand, 
and his place was known as the Aleman ranch, or Jack Martin's well. 
It was also the government forage agency. Mr. Martin conducted his 
stock raising there until 1875, when he went to Santa Fe, where he re- 
mained until his death, in 1877. In that city he was proprietor of the 
old Exchange Hotel, then called the Fonda, continuing in the business up 
to the time of his demise. It was the only place on the Jornada for years 
where a traveler could secure entertainment. About 1874 Adolph Lee 
built a place at Point of Rocks, hauling water from the river, and about 
1877 Henry Toussaint built a place at Round Mountain, these being all 
on the overland stage route. For a long time, however, Captain Martin's 
place was the only point for a stretch of ninety miles where water could 
be secured. 

To Captain and Mrs. Martin were born six children, of whom four 
are living: William E., a resident of Socorro; John S. A., living in Colo- 
rado; Benjamin C, a resident of Garfield, New Mexico, and Katherine, 
the wife of Orrin Rice, at Manhattan Beach, California. The other two 
died in youth. Captain Martin was master of Las Cruces lodge. He was 
a typical pioneer resident of New Mexico, living in the Territory in the 
early staging days, when mammoth tracts of land were held by ranchers 
and when much of their range was "open." He became well known to the 
visitors to the Territory and to business men throughout this part of the 
country, and he aided in shaping the early historic annals of the Ter- 

William Edward Martin, of Socorro, clerk of the Third Judicial Dis- 
trict of New Mexico, was born at Fort Seldon, February 16, 1867, and is 
a son of Captain John Martin. He was educated under private instruction 
in his own home by Nicholas Galles and through attendance at St. Michael's 
College in Santa Fe, from which institution he was graduated in 1880. 
He then returned to the ranch to live, and was elected deputy clerk of the 
third district, which position he filled from July, 1889, until 1891. He then 
resigned to" become chief clerk in the United States land office, where he 
remained for more than a year, when he resigned that position to become 
interpreter to the fifth judicial district, filling the office until Judge Free- 
man retired from the bench. In the meantime, in 1894, he was elected to 


the lower house of the territorial legislature from Socorro and Sierra coun- 
ties, and in 1896 was chosen a member of the council of Socorro, and 
two years later was elected mayor. On the 1st of May, 1899, he was 
appointed assistant superintendent of the New Mexico penitentiary under 
H. O. Bursum, in which capacity he remained until January 21, 1904. 
He was then appointed clerk of the fifth judicial district by Judge Pope, 
and when a change in the judicial districts occurred he was appointed by 
Judge Parker clerk of the third district. He was twice interpreter of 
the council and three times chief clerk. Almost continuously in public 
office during the period of his manhood, he has made a creditable record, 
over which there falls no shadow of wrong or suspicion of evil. His 
political allegiance has alwavs been stanchly given to the Republican party, 
and fraternally he is connected with the Elks at Santa Fe. He has busi- 
ness relations as one of the stockholders in Socorro Light, Heat & Power 
Company, of which he was also one of the incorporators. This was 
organized in November, 1905, with a capital stock of thirty thousand 

William E. Martin was married, June 3, 1891, to Miss Louisa New- 
comb, a daughter of Jerome Newcomb, of Huntington, Indiana. 

Elias E. Day, vice-president and manager of the F. H. Bascom Com- 
pany of Las Cruces, came to that city from Massachusetts on the 29th of 
March, 1886. He was born in Gloucester, Massachusetts, pursued his 
preliminary education in the public schools, and was graduated from 
Tuft's college with the bachelor of arts degree. He saw reports of the 
immigration bureau at Washington, and being just out of college, he de- 
cided to try western life. Going to Las Cruces, he began farming, but 
found that pursuit was neither congenial nor profitable, and he afterward 
acted as bookkeeper for a contractor and also learned the business, remain- 
ing in that position for a vear and a half. Tn August, 1889, he entered 
the hardware store of F. H. Bascom, familiarized himself with the trade, 
and when the business was incorporated on the 1st of January, 1902, under 
the firm style of F. H. Bascom Company, he became one of the stock- 
holders, and is now the vice-president and manager, with F. H. Bascom 
as president and G. W. Frenger secretary and treasurer. They draw 
thirty per cent of their trade from Las Cruces. and the rest is divided over 
the district from the Texas line on the south to the Sierra county line 
on the north, to Deming on the west, and on the east to the east side of 
the Organ mountains. Their establishment is an extensive one, supplying 
all this district, and the firm also does a large business as builders and 
contractors. They introduced the typical mission architecture with 
modern improvements, and the firm has recently erected a convent in 
mission style for the Sisters of Loretto. Mr. Day devotes his time prin- 
cipally to the contracting and building branch of the business. The trade 
of the house is constantly and rapidly gaining. 

In 1893 Mr. Day was married to Miss Grace Center, a native of 
Massachusetts, and they have three daughters. Fraternally he is con- 
nected with Aztec Lodge No. 3, A. F. & A. M. ; Palma Camp No. 8, 
Woodmen of the World; Modoc Tribe No. 12, Improved Order of Red 
Men. He likewise belongs to Valley Lodge No. 15, I. O. O. F., Ridgly 
Encampment at Silver City; Canton D, El Paso, Patriarchs Militant. He 
is also a member of Deming Royal Arch Chapter and is past grand master 


of Masons of New Mexico. Interested in community affairs, he was 
appointed county commissioner for Dofia Ana county in 1899 by Gov- 
ernor Otero, and was superintendent of schools of the county in 1901-2. 
He was the first president of the Mesilla valley chamber of commerce, 
and is closely identified with many movements for public progress and 
substantial improvements. 

Demetrio Chavez, who was a pioneer merchant at Mesilla and is 
now deceased, was for a long period a representative business man of the 
Territory, whose labors proved an effective force in promoting general 
progress and upbuilding. He was born in Valencia county, New Mexico, 
in 1853, and was educated in St. Michael's College at Santa Fe. His edu- 
cation completed, he entered business life, and for a time was employed by 
the firm of Reynolds & Griggs. Later he established a mercantile busi- 
ness at Mesilla. This was about 1872 or 1873, and he continued in the 
conduct of the store until his death, which occurred on the 22d of March, 
1905. He was also interested in the cattle industry, and operated quite 
extensively in real estate in Mesilla. He was a business man of marked 
enterprise and broad outlook. He quickly recognized and improved oppor- 
tunities and utilized his force and advantages to the best ability, producing 
excellent results. 

Mr. Chavez not only prospered in his business undertakings, but was 
also an active and influential factor in affairs relating to the welfare of 
the Territory. He served as probate judge of Dona Ana county, was 
also treasurer and collector of the county, and was regent and treasurer of 
the Agricultural College. His political support was given to the De- 
mocracy. Mr. Chavez was married in Mesilla to Miss Louisa Gonzales. 
Eight children were born : Manuel R., Maria A., Candelaria N., Louisa 
R., Josefa E., Adelina F., Pomposa N. and Demetrio J. Having spent 
his entire life in the Territory, Mr. Chavez was widely known, and his 
recognized ability and many excellent traits of character won him business 
success, political prominence and the warm regard of many friends. 

Manuel R. Chavez, the eldest son, now owns and manages the mer- 
cantile business established by his father. He was born May 22, 1882, 
and supplemented his early education by study in St. Michael's College at 
Santa Fe and by three years' study in the Agricultural College at Las 
Cruces. His education completed, he became associated with his father 
in business, and they continued together until the father's death, since 
which time Manuel R. Chavez has been proprietor of the store, which is a 
well conducted general mercantile establishment. He has by close and 
earnest attention to business enlarged the trade and become a recognized 
factor in commercial circles in Mesilla. 

Oscar Lohman, treasurer of Dofia Ana county, who also owns and 
operates a ranch, came to Las Cruces in 1884. He is a native of St. 
Louis, Missouri, and at the usual age entered the public schools there, 
continuing his studies until he had completed the high school course. 
He afterward engaged in bookkeeping in a wholesale grocer)- house, where 
he remained until coming to New Mexico in 1884. For two years there- 
after he was employed as a clerk in a mercantile establishment in Las 
Cruces, and 1886 he established a retail grocery business, which he sold 
in 1892. In that year he was appointed deputy sheriff of Dona Ana 
county for a term of two years, and was continued in the office of deputy 

t^wz/ioa \pft<2<p&u> 


collector by various reappointments from 1894 until 1901. In the mean- 
time, in 1895, he had established a meat market, which he is still conduct- 
ing in Las Cruces. In 1901 he was elected county treasurer and collector 
of Doha Ana county, and his capability in office is indicated by the fact 
that he has twice been re-elected and is now acting in that capacity. His 
political allegiance has always been given to the Republican party, and in 
1900 he was chosen for the office of county school superintendent, in which 
position he served for two years. He has thus continuously been in office 
for a long period, and over the record of his official career there falls no 
shadow of wrong or suspicion of evil, for his course has been actuated by 
fidelity to duty and by faithfulness in the discharge of every task devolving 
upon him. While discharging his official duties he has at the same time 
continued an active factor in business life, and is engaged in the raising 
of cattle and goats, having a ranch in the Organ mountains, where he runs 
about four thousand head of goats, being the largest raiser of goats in 
this part of the Territory. 

On the 2d of October, 1889. Mr. Lohman was married in Las Cruces 
to Miss Alice B. Cuniffe, a daughter of Henry J. Cuniffe. one of the old- 
time settlers of the Territory and American consul at Juarez during the 
Maximilian rule. To Mr. and Mrs. Lohman have been born three sons 
and two daughters. Mr. Lohman's fraternal connection is with Aztec 
Lodge No. 3, A. F. & A. M., of Las Cruces ; Polma Camp, Woodmen of 
the World, and the Improved Order of Red Men. His military experi- 
ence consists of two years' service as captain of Company A of the First 
New Mexico Infantry Regiment of the National Guard. 

Edward Clemens Wade, an attorney practicing at Las Cruces, was 
born in South Carolina, but was reared in Georgia, and during five years of 
his youth was a student in the schools of England. He returned to 
America in 1872 and secured a position in the postoffice department in 
Washington. He afterward read law and was graduated from the National 
University Law School in 1876, being admitted to the bar the same year. 
On the 1st of February, 1880. he made his way to Santa Fe on the first 
passenger train reaching that point, and for a year practiced in that city. 
He was also collector of customs in 1881-2, and in 1883 came to Las Cruces. 
He has, however, since resided on the Pacific coast for a few years, but 
has remained permanently in Las Cruces since 1898. In January, 1884, he 
was commissioned district attorney of Dona Ana county for two years, but 
the term was extended to three vears by a change in the law. He was then 
removed by Governor E. G. Ross in 1885, S. M. Ashenfelter being ap- 
pointed his successor. He contested the right of the governor to remove 
him, however, and won his case, but Ashenfelter appealed and the case was 
afterward compromised. The term expired in 1887. The Republicans had 
a majority in the legislature and took the power of appointment from the 
governor and conferred it on the council, and the council reappointed Mr. 
Wade in 1887. He then served for seven years, save for the brief period 
of a year and a half, when his position was contested by Ashenfelter. This 
brought forth a decision on a ooint of law which had never been decided 
by the Supreme Court of the United States, concerning the power of the 
governor to remove officers appointed bv the council. This case attracted 
widespread attention, being the only one of the kind on the legal records 
of the countrv. Mr. Wade in his practice confines his attention largely to 


the litigation of his district. In politics he has always been a Republican. 

In 1886 Mr. Wade was married to Hattie B. Wilson, a native of Wash- 
ington, D. C. and they have three children : Edward C, Wilson and 

W. B. Murphy, a merchant of Las Cruces, was born and reared in 
Steubenville, Ohio, and in 1876 went to Austin, Texas, for the benefit of 
his health. Thence he went to Socorro, New Mexico, in 1882, and soon 
afterward went to Kingston, being there at the time of the great strike of 
that year. He took up claims, but was not successful in his mining opera- 
tions, and turned his attention to freighting from Kingston to Nutt station. 
In 1884 he went to Las Cruces and leased an orchard on the river bottom. 
For a year his attention was devoted to horticultural pursuits and his 
labors resulted successfully. He then bought land adjoining Agricultural 
College and endeavored to establish a vineyard. On selling that place he 
purchased a tract of land above the town of Las Cruces. where he engaged 
in fruit growing. In the time of the "boom" started by the Rio Grande 
Land Company, about 1887, when Mesilla Park was established, he sold 
out to the company, and soon afterward, in 1888, established a mercantile 
enterprise in Organ. Since that time he has been interested in mining in 
the Organ mountains. He continued to conduct his store in the town 
until i8q6. when he returned to Las Cruces, where he established a general 
mercantile business, which he is now successfully conducting. He keeps 
a well appointed store and has a good patronage, and his business methods 
are characterized by system, by honest dealings and unfaltering enter- 
prise. He is likewise interested in Las Cruces real estate, and through 
judicious investment in property has added materially to his income. 

During a part of his residence in Organ, Mr. Murphy served as post- 
master of that town, and for one term has been county commissioner of 
Dona Ana county. In 1876 he became a member of Steuben Lodge No. 1, 
K. of P., but is not now affiliated with the order. His wife died in 1897. 

William Spencer Gilliam, a farmer and fruit grower at Mesilla Park, 
has made his home in New Mexico since t888. He was born in Arkansas 
in 1850, a son of William T. Gilliam, who was a native of Tennessee, and 
was of Scotch-Irish descent. He died in 1864. He was a strong Union 
man. His wife, who bore the maiden name of Mary Spencer, was a 
native of North Carolina. 

William Spencer Gilliam was reared to the occupation of farming, 
spending his youth largely in Arkansas. In 1888 he came to New Mexico 
and homesteaded one hundred and sixty acres of land at Berino, and fur- 
ther added to his property until he had a total of 209.5 acres. In Septem- 
ber, 1899. he came to Mesilla Park, where he has since resided. In 1905 
he started a fruit orchard, making a specialty of peaches and small fruits, 
which are especially adapted to the soil and climate, and his orchards give 
every evidence of healthful growth and a promise of good crops for the 

In 1878 Mr. Gilliam was married to Miss Delia Davis, a native of 
Texas, who died in 1890, leaving three children : Rexie E. and Carmen, 
who are attending the Agricultural College, and Rodney, who is a student 
in Las Cruces. Since losing his first wife Mr. Gilliam has married Jose- 
phine Newton, a native of Texas. 

Isidore Armijo, clerk of the probate court and a resident of Las 


Cruces, was born February 15, 1871, in the city where he yet resides, and 
after attending the public schools of Las Cruces, continued his education 
in the Agricultural College. He conducted a store in Las Cruces for three 
or four years, and has since been in public office, first acting as official 
interpreter in the third district under Judge Parker for several years, the 
district then comprising Dona Ana, Grant and Sierra counties. He re- 
signed to become a candidate for probate clerk in 1900, was elected in 
that year, again in 1902, at which time he had no opposition, and for a 
third term in 1904. He is a strong and stalwart supporter of Republican 
principles, but not a machine man, and is strenuously opposed to misrule 
in public office. He served for three years as a member of the school 
board, or until October, 1905, and was the first man to propose the erection 
of the new school house in Las Cruces, being still a member of the board 
when the building was completed in the summer of 1905. 

Mr. Armijo was married, January 18, 1901, to Miss Jennie Archibald, 
a native of Trinidad, Colorado, and a daughter of Ebenezer and Anna 
(Wheaton) Archibald. Their only child is Ernestina, two years old, the 
pride of parents and town. 

Mr. Armijo enlisted for service in the Spanish-American war with 
the Rough Riders, under Major W. H. H. Llewellyn, but the company 
was not accepted. He has served, however, with the national guard, has 
been quartermaster sergeant of the regiment, and a member of the thirrT 
battalion staff of the First Regiment Infantry. He was commissioned 
December 5, 1899, and served for two years. Fraternally he is connected 
with the Red Men and with the Fraternal Brotherhood. 

W. N. Hager, who is engaged in real estate and ranching operations, 
making his home at Mesilla Park, was born in Shelbyville, Illinois, in 
1859, and when but twelve years of age went to Kansas. While in that 
state he learned telegraphy, and in 1881 he came to New Mexico, settling 
at Albuquerque as operator for the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Rail- 
road. He spent two years in that city, after which he went upon the road, 
being employed in different capacities until 1S90, when he became station 
agent for the railroad company at Mesilla Park, filling the position ac- 
ceptably for twelve years, his courtesy and consideration making him a 
popular official, while his devotion to the interests of the corporation was 
never called into question. With the money saved from his earnings he 
embarked in ranching and also in buying and selling hay. He is likewise 
engaged in real estate dealing as agent for the Rio Grande Land Com- 
pany, and as its representative has erected a number of houses, which 
have contributed to the improvement and progress of this part of the state. 

Mr. Hager was married in 1893 to Mrs. Tucker and has a son and a 
daughter. He is now associated with two important business interests 
having direct bearing upon the progress and upbuilding of the Territory, 
and at the same time they are proving a very desirable source of income 
to him. 

John Baumgarten, proprietor of a grocery and bakery at Las Cruces, 
was born in Lorraine, Germany, and acquired his education in his native 
land. He came to the United States in 1873 to avoid service in the German 
army, and for three years was employed in different ways in the east. He 
then enlisted for service in the United States army in 1876, becoming a 
member of Company B, Eighth United States Cavalry, with which he was 


connected for five years. He did service in Texas, being engaged in 
scouting duty and in keeping down the Indians until discharged in 1881, 
when he came to New Mexico. He made his way to the Territory from San 
Antonio. Texas, proceeding up the Rio Grande valley to El Paso, where 
the Southern Pacific Railroad was in course of construction. He was ac- 
companied by a friend who had also just been discharged from the army. 
They did not like El Paso, however, and came on to Las Cruces, where they 
had been on scouting duty while in the army. They continued on to Santa 
Fe, where they sold their outfit. Mr. Baumgarten then proceeded to the San 
Pedro mining camp and secured employment in a large hotel. He was 
afterward employed in a smelter until disaster overtook the camp, after 
which he returned to Santa Fe and worked in a bakery. He later went to 
Socorro, New Mexico, where he was employed for one month in a smelter, 
and in 1884 came to Las Cruces, where he worked for a short time in a 
hotel. He then established a restaurant, which he conducted for two and 
a half years. On selling out he turned his attention to ranching, but this 
venture proved unprofitable and he lost all that he had. After about a 
year and a half he returned to Las Cruces, where he again opened a res- 
taurant, which he conducted for a year and a half. Later he returned to 
ranching and devoted four and a half years to the dairy business, but in 
1891 again came to Las Cruces, where he established the bakery and 
grocery which he now conducts and manages. He has prospered since 
embarking in this line of trade, and has a well-equipped establishment. 

Mr. Baumgarten is a member of the Woodmen of the World. He 
was married in Santa Fe to Miss Anne Klauer and they are well known 
in Las Cruces and this part of New Mexico, where Mr. Baumgarten has 
lived for almost a quarter of century, thus being one of the pioneers. 



In area San Miguel county is the largest in New Mexico, embrac- 
ing within its borders nearly 5,400,000 acres. In population it is second 
to Bernalillo, affording homes to some 25,000 people. The taxable valua- 
tion of its property is more than $4,500,000, and its inhabitants are noted 
for their progressiveness. 

San Miguel county is richly endowed by nature, whether considered 
from the standpoints of material riches or magnificent scenery. Its for- 
ests are yet extensive, and its mines have scarcely begun to be developed. 
It is a county of mountain peaks, fruitful valleys and wide plains. It has 
rivers and lakes by the score, and its canyons are majestic. Its verdant 
plains sweep for unbroken miles to the eastward, covered with thousands 
of sheep and cattle. At the present time the people of the county are 
compelled to import much grain, hay, vegetables and other food and forage. 
It is said that the entire cultivated area of the county does not exceed 
3,000 acres. 

An interesting and important territorial feature of the county is the 
Pecos River Timber Reservation, set apart by President Harrison to pre- 
serve the forests and prevent a diminution in the water supply of that 
stream. It comprises about 702 square miles, and, while portions of the 
reservation are in Santa F'e, Mora, Taos and Rio Arriba counties, as the 
Pecos valley is in San Miguel, the tract is usually considered an institu- 
tion of this county. The region is rugged and mountainous, and in San 
Miguel innumerable small streams form the headwaters of the Pecos 
river, which cuts the reservation about midway between Las Vegas and 
Santa Fe. 

San Miguel countv has heretofore figured as pre-eminently a stock- 
raising district, but its agricultural future is bright. From the high water- 
shed, well to the center of the county, the abundant rains and heavy snows 
find their way to the Rio Grande and to the Mississippi, the Canadian, the 
Pecos, the Gallinas, the Sapello and the Tecolote rivers, while numerous 
small streams flow through the woodlands and the valleys and out upon 
the bosom of the broad plains, and wherever their courses lie crops of 
grain, hav and vegetables are plentifully and naturallv raised. 

On the grounds of the Territorial Hospital for the Insane has been 
recently found what appears to be artesian water. On a hill a hundred feet 
above the valley a well was sunk to a depth of 500 feet and water gushed 
to within twenty-five feet of the surface in a strong volume, running at 
the rate of 2.400 gallons per hour. As the constant volume of water cannot 
be accounted for by surface streams, it is believed that the entire valley 
is underlaid with an artesian flow, and that if the wells are sunk on the 
lower levels the water will rise above the surface. Should this prove to 


be the case, it would be the source of great agricultural development for a 
large district of the county. 

Like all districts of the country which are the resorts of lovers of the 
picturesque and seekers for health, San Miguel county is especially inter- 
ested in the establishment of good roads, and Las Vegas has the honor of 
entertaining the first convention ever held in New Mexico in their in- 
terest. It was held at the Duncan Opera House on the 26th and 27th of 
September, 1905. The convention was formally opened by Governor 
Miguel A. Otero, and the utmost enthusiasm prevailed throughout its 

Original Boundaries of the County. — San Miguel was one of the nine 
counties formed by enactment of the Territorial Legislature, January 9, 
1852, and its boundaries were described as follows : On the east, the bound- 
ary line of the Territory ; on the west, the boundaries of Santa Fe ; on the 
north, the boundaries of the counties of Taos and Rio Arriba ; and on the 
south, drawing a line from Cibolo Spring toward the north in the direc- 
tion of the Berrendo Spring, thence drawing a perpendicular line toward 
the east, crossing the Pecos river and continuing until it reaches the bounda- 
ries of the Territory. 


Following is as complete a list of San Miguel county officials as can be 
obtained from existing records : 

Probate Judges. — 1863, Severo Baca: 1864-5. Miguel Romero y Baca: 1868-71, 
Trinidad Romero ; 1872-3, Desiderio Romero : 1874, Lorenzo Lopez ; 1875-6, Severo 
Baca; 1877-9, Simon G. Baca; 1880, Carlos Blanchard ; 1881-2. Lorenzo Lopez; 
1883-4, Tomas C. de Baca ; 1885-6. Severo Baca, 1887-8, Jose Rafael Lucero ; 1889-90, 
Manuel C. de Baca; 1891-2, Dionicio Martinez; 1893-4, Juan J. Herrara; 1895-6, 
Gregorio Varela ; 1897-8, Antonio Varela; 1899-1900, Pedro Marqttez ; 1901-4, Jose 
E. Ramirez ; 1005-6, Jose Gregorio Alarcon. 

Probate Clerks.— 1863, Antonio Nieto ; 1864-5, V. Vasquez ; 1866. Jose L Ri- 
vera; 1867, Demetrio Perez; 1872. B. Jesus Marquez ; 1873-4, Roman Lopez; 1875-6, 
Mariano Montoya; 1877-8, Jose Felipe Baca; 1879-80, Jesus Maria Tafoya ; 1881-2, 
Jose Felipe Baca: 1883-5, Jesus Maria Tafoya: 1889-00, Miguel A. Otero; 1891-2, 
R. F. Hardy; 1893-4, Charles F. Rudulph : 1895-8, Patricio Gonzales; 1899-1904, 
Gregorio Varela : 1905-6. Manuel A. Sanchez. 

Sheriffs. — 1863, Desiderio Romero; 1864-5 (records missing); 1866-7, Victorino 
Baca; 1868-71, Juan Romero: 1872, P. Leon Pinard ; 1873-4, Lorenzo Labadie; 
1875-8. Benigno Jaramillo ; 1S78, Jesus Froncoso ; 1879. Benigno Jaramillo ; 1880 
Desiderio Romero; 1881-2. Hilario Romero; 1887-8. Eugenio Romero; 1889-90, Lo- 
renzo Lopez; 1S91-2. Jose L. Lopez; 1893-4, Lorenzo Lopez; 1895-8, Hilario Ro- 
mero: 1899-1900. Tose Gabriel Montano; 1901-6. Cleofes Romero. 

Assessors.— 1883-4, Jesus M. Tafoya : 1885-6 (records missing) ; 1887-8, Jesus 
M. Gallegos: 1880-00. Eugenio Romero; 1891-2, N. Segura ; 1893-4. John Pace; 
1895-6. Jose Gabriel Montano; 1897-8, Adelaido Gonzales; 1899-1902, Jose Felix 
Esquibel : 1003-4, Francisco Chaves; 1905-6, Epitacio Ouintana. 

Treasurers.— 1887-90, Antonio Varela: 1801-4, Jesus M. Tafoya; 1895-98, Henry 
Goke : 1899-1000, Margarito Romero; 1901-6, Eugenio Romero. 

Cnuntv Commissioners— 1881-2, Dometrio Perez (chairman). Aniceto Salazar, 
Juan E. Sena; 1S83-4. Leandro Sanchez (chairman), Jose Ignacio Esquibel, Pascual 
Baca; 1885-6. George Chaves (chairman), Andreas Sena, Jose Aragon ; 1S87-8, 
Charles Bfanchard (chairman), Francisco A. Manzanares. Jose Sanchez; 1880-00, 
Stephen E. Booth (chairman). Placido Sandoval, Jose L. Rivera; 1891-2. John 
Shank (chairman). Jose Montoya. Antonio Solano; 1893-4, Aniceto C Abeytia 
(chairman), Leandro Lucero. Thomas W. Hayward : 1895-6. Francisco C. de Baca 
(chairman), Dionicio Martinez, Gregorio Flores ; 1897-8. Henry G. Coors (chair- 
man), Catarino Romero, Petronilo Lucero; 1899-1900, William Frank (chairman), 


Epitacio Ouintana. A. T. Rogers: 1901-2. Roman Gallegos (chairman), Jose Felix 
Esquebel, A. T. Rogers; 1905-6, Robert C. Rankin (chairman), Benigno Martinez, 
Roman Gallegos. 

Las Vegas, the comity seat of San Miguel county, is a place of about 
9,000 people, being the second in population within the Territory. It is 
situated in the midst of one of the finest sheep countries in the world, and is 
the largest wool market in New Mexico, besides being an important whole- 
sale point. Las Vegas is also the division headquarters of the Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe railroad system, and is the location for extensive shops. 

Las Vegas is thoroughly lighted by electricity and has an abundant 
supply of pure mountain water. It has three parks, including the Plaza 
of West Las Vegas, one of the most beautiful public grounds in the Terri- 
tory ; good streets and many miles of cement sidewalks. It has churches 
of every denomination, fine schools, and is the seat of the New Mexico 
Normal University, the only institution of its kind between Lawrence, 
Kansas, on the east, Colorado Springs on the north and Los Angeles on 
the west. There are several good hotels, including the famous Casteneda; 
a large race course at the beautiful Gallinas Park, and a number of large 
business houses and small mills and factories. It publishes one daily, six 
weekly and two monthly papers, and is the center of one of the most famous 
health-resort districts in the world. Six miles from Las Vegas is the new 
National Fraternal Sanitarium, designed to accommodate 5,000 or 6,000 
tuberculosis patients, either indoors or without, and having as its center — 
the home of the fraternalists. as it is called — the stately Montezuma Ho- 
tel. A short distance from Las Vegas is also the New Mexico Hospital 
for the Insane. 

It is impossible to speak of Las Vegas as a city or a town. It is di- 
vided into three parts — one portion incorporated as a city, the western sec- 
tion (across the Rio Gallinas) incorporated as a town, and Upper Las 
Vegas, unincorporated. 

History of Las Vegas. — The old town of Las Vegas was first settled 
by the Mexican inhabitants some time prior to 1835. It was named for 
the meadows lying along the Gallinas river, on which it is located, the words 
Las Vegas, translated from the Spanish, meaning "the meadows." The 
first settlers were colonists. 

On March 20, 1835, Juan de Dios Maes, Manuel Duran, Miguel Archu- 
leta and Jose Antonio Casaus petitioned the Mexican authorities for a grant 
of land to the new town, consisting of 400,000 acres, as a basis for the 
settlement. The petition was granted and this munificent land grant, in 
the center of which stands Las Veeas, is community property, in which 
every taxpayer has an interest. The land will eventually make the 
place wealthy, but at present the principal revenue is derived from the 
sale of timber. 

The following is a late and interesting account of the condition of this 
unique land grant,* whose value will be immeasurably increased by the de- 
velopment of the irrigation plans now well under way: "The grant ex- 
tends in all directions. About 2,500 acres are under irrigation and are 

*1he full history of the grant is given in Volume I. 


cultivated by squatters. About one-half is covered with timber, which is 
being cut under contract ; the rest is range, common to all, upon which 
any one can pasture cattle or sheep under certain regulations. Shortly after 
the grant was made, certain tracts were allotted to various citizens, whose 
descendants are still occupying them and claim ownership. These were 
called 'allotments,' and it is probable that the claims will be recognized. 
The descendants of these original settlers, about sixty in number, laid claim 
to the entire property In order to determine their rights the case was 
put through two courts, both of which decided in favor of the corporation. 
In other words, the courts held that, under the terms of the grant, the land 
belonged to the community in common, not only to those who happened to 
be here at the time, but to all who have come since or may come here- 
after. Under this decision the court appointed a board of trustees, with 
authority to sell land and convey titles, and to straighten out the tangle. 
The descendants of those to whom the allotments were made have had 
their, titles confirmed. The remainder of the grant is being surveyed and 
platted and will be held for the benefit of the community until disposed of. 
The proceeds of all sales are paid into the public treasury. Ten thousand 
acres were recently presented to the National Association of Fraternities 
for the use of the sanitarium mentioned. The remainder of the land will 
be leased for use as a common grazing ground under proper regulations." 

In the early days Las Vegas was a quasi-military fort, the reports of 
the prefects showing that arrangements were made by which each adult 
male inhabitant was to be provided with arms, and all were to be inspected . 
everv eight days by a lieutenant of police. The inhabitants were con- 
stantly annoyed by bands of Indians, and the records show that in 1836 
Santiago Montoya invited Don Miguel Romero y Baca, who was on a 
visit to Las Vegas from Santa Fe. to take part in a short expedition against 
some Navajo Indians who had stolen his sheep and were holding captive 
two of his nephews. The Romero family subsequently became identified 
with the growing town of Las Vegas, members of it attaining great promi- 
nence in its commercial and political affairs. 

Soon after the American occupation of Santa Fe, American citizens 
began visiting Las Vegas for purposes of trade, some of them remaining 
and establishing themselves in business. Among the earliest of these set- 
tlers from "the States" were Henry Connelly, afterward governor of the 
Territory; E. F. Mitchell, John Kitchen and his three brothers, Charles, 
Richard and James; Alexander Hatch. James Broadwell, John and An- 
dres Dold, Frank O. Kihlberg. Dr. J. M. Whitlock and George W. 

Henrv Connelly and E. F. Mitchell entered into partnership for gen- 
eral merchandising some time prior to 1850. They occupied the building 
known as Buffalo Hall until about 1855. 

John Kitchen was a native of Missouri and came in the late '40s. He 
developed a farm on the banks of the Gallinas, and soon after his arrival 
his three brothers became settlers. Charles Kitchen purchased Buffalo Hall 
of Connellv & Mitchell and converted the building into a hotel, saloon and 
amusement hall. Richard Kitchen was engaged in the stock business. 
James Kitchen established a general store at Tecolote. 

James Broadwell, who first came to the Territory as a soldier in the 


army of occupation, afterward engaged in freighting over the Santa Fe 
trail, and still later erected the hotel in Denver which bore his name. 

John and Andres Dold, brothers, had a general merchandise establish- 
ment on the west side of the Plaza. Dr. J. M. Whitlock was the first physi- 
cian to practice in Las Vegas. Dr. Whitlock. James Broadwell and John 
Sease erected a sawmill at the Hot Springs in 1849 — the fi rst establishment 
of its kind in that part of the Territory. 

Alexander Hatch was also an earlv settler. Dr. Stephen Boyce, a 
Canadian by birth, engaged in practice at Las Vegas about 1850. but soon 
embarked in trade and abandoned his profession. He married Mrs. Helen 
Hatch Streeter, a daughter of Alexander Hatch. After his death she 
married D. W. McCormick, a well known pioneer of Trinidad, Colorado. 
Mr. Hatch came from Xew Vork State about 1849, an d f° r several years 
had a farm at Chaperito, about thirty miles south of Las Vegas. One of 
his daughters married E. F. Mitchell, and another a Mr. McClure, who 
was connected with the quartermaster's department of Kearny's army. 

Frank O. Kihlberg, the only one of these pioneers who still resides in 
Cas Vegas, was engaged in business as a general merchant and distiller, 
having as a partner George W. Merritt. 

Mr. Kihlberg was born in Mobile, Alabama, November 31, 1831, his 
parents being Peter and Louise Kihlberg, the former a native of Sweden 
and the latter of Wurtemberg, Germany. In his childhood days Frank O. 
Kihlberg was taken by his parents to Venezuela and was educated in the 
Spanish college at Caracas. The father was engaged there in the manu- 
facture of handsome and costly furniture, all of which was made by hand. 
Having completed his education, Frank O. Kihlberg spent nearly two 
years as a clerk for Frederick Cordes & Company, a Hamburg (Germany) 
firm, doing business in Caracas. The revolution of 1848, however, caused 
his mother to leave Venezuela for St. Louis, Missouri, and the father died 
soon afterward. Because of these events Mr. Kihlberg went to Baltimore, 
Maryland, in May, 1849, an d thence to St. Louis. Missouri, accomplishing 
the greater part of the overland journey by stage. He continued in St. 
Louis until July, 1852. when he came to New Mexico and engaged in mer- 
chandising and overland freighting as one of the pioneer settlers, identify- 
ing his interests with the new west, where the settlers were very widely 
scattered, there being few evidences of improvement or civilization or indi- 
cation that rapid progress would soon be made. From January, 1853, until 
the spring of 1855 he acted as a clerk for Connelly & Mitchell at Las Vegas, 
and in the latter year became a partner of George W. Merritt in the con- 
duct of a general mercantile store in that city. He continued in business 
until 1869 and in the meantime made many trips to Kansas City for 
freight. In the '60s he had a train of thirty large freight wagons, carrv- 
ing from six to seven thousand pounds, and freighted extensively for 
others as well as for himself. The long trips across the plains were fraught 
with hardships and dangers, and he had many encounters with the In- 
dians. During that period he used cattle trains entirely, having six or 
seven yoke of oxen in a train. In the year 1869 he went to Kansas Citv 
to fill a contract for transporting military stores for the government from 
Fort Harker. Kansas, to Camp Supply and Fort Sill, and also from Fort 
Kit Carson. Colorado, to New Mexico, and to military posts in Colorado. 
He was thus engaged for two years. 


After the contract had been completed, Mr. Kihlberg established a 
forwarding and commission house at West Las Animas. Colorado, for- 
warding to New Mexico points from 1874 until 1876. During this time 
he made frequent trips to Las Vegas, and in the latter year he returned 
to the citv and entered the real estate and live stock business. He has 
done much surveying in this vicinity, especially in Las Vegas, and has 
intimate knowledge of property interests in the city and surrounding 

Mr. Kihlberg was married, in 1858, to Lena G. Hoffelmann in 
Natchez, Mississippi. They had one son, Alfred E., who was educated at 
the Kemper school, Booneville, Missouri, and died in St. Louis, March 25. 
1 88 1, at the age of twenty-one years. 

With the interests of Las Vegas Mr. Kihlberg has been identified from 
the period of its early development down to the present, and has watched 
with interest its growth since it was a pioneer settlement. Today it has 
all of the conveniences, advantages and accessories of a modern civiliza- 
tion, and Mr. Kihlberg has always stood for improvement here. In 1881 
he began building a park in the plaza at Las Vegas. An attempt had 
previously been made to build a court. He met with radical opposition, 
but continued the work on his own responsibility, and as time has passed 
by he has received the indorsement of all public-spirited citizens on account 
of his excellent work in this direction. One of his pleasant recollections 
of a long and useful life full of dramatic incidents and stirring events is 
of a great buffalo hunt in 1872, which was planned for the amusement of 
the Russian grand duke, Alexis. This occurred near Kit Carson, Colo- 
rado, and was participated in by Mr. Kihlberg, General Phil Sheridan, 
Colonel William F. Cody (Buffalo Bill), General McCook and other 
famous plainsmen and hunters. 

Las Vegas was a place of slow growth as long as the old-school 
Mexican element predominated, and by 1870, even, the plaza was entirely 
unimproved. In that year Americans commenced to locate in business 
in that vicinity, and the entire population seemed to be inoculated with 
the spirit of enterprise. Then all the buildings but one on the plaza were 
adobe (the roofs generally of the same material), and the only two-story 
structure in the place was Havs' store (stone). The adobe court house, 
which stood back of Iifeld's store, is now used by C. Ilfeld as a ware- 
house. In 1870 the river covered most of the present line of Bridge 
street, and what was not under water was quite unimproved. 

If a directory of that period had been in existence it would have 
shown the following residents and facts: Judge Hubbell. Major Breeden 
(brother of Colonel William Breeden), and Max Frost, attorneys; Major 
Havs, Emil Wesche, Rosenwald Brothers (Joseph and Emanuel), Dr. F. 
Knauer. Charles Blanchard. Letcher (Otto) & Ilfeld (Charles), Chapman 
& Dold, Geof & Desmerais, Brunswick & Romero (Trinidad), and Fr. 
Gerselachovsky. general merchants — the last named being a priest who 
had resigned his charge for a business career; Charles Kitchen, Exchange 
Hotel (site of Barber's saloon) ; Pendaries' Hotel (site of Plaza Hotel) : 
Wagner's Hotel (site of old First National Bank) ; a dancing hall on the 
east side. 

An issue of the Las Vegas Optic of November 5, 1879, indicates de- 
cided growth. Among the attorneys were Judge Palen, Senator Stephen 


B. Elkins, Thomas B. Catron, Colonel William Breeden, Conway, 

Frank Springer, O. P. Lydon (Old Town), and D. P. Shield; physician 
and surgeon, A. G. Lane ; notaries public, C. R. Browning, H. L. Trisler, 
Russell Bayly, J. Severson, C. R. Browning (also real estate), and H. L. 
Trisler (also conveyancer). Locke & Brooks were proprietors of a health 
office in East Las Vegas, and made this startling claim : "All diseases in- 
cident to mankind cured on short notice." The following were other 
lines represented in the columns of the paper, which obviously covered 
the bulk of the business houses in Las Vegas. Unless otherwise specified, 
they were located in East Las Vegas: F. C. Martsolf, contractor; Miguel 
D. Marcus. "The Boss Cigar Store" ; G. H. Moore, "conductor" of Rail- 
road Commissary Department ; Kate Nelson, restaurant ; John J. Connor, 
boots and shoes; Rupe & Castle, builders' hardware: Mills & Beecher, 
insurance agents ; Browne & Inanzanares, wholesale grocers, forwarding 
and commission merchants; Denver Restaurant (Old Town), H. H. Bell, 
proprietor; O. L. Houghton, hardware; Erank Chapman, general mer- 
chandise (Old Town), C. E. Wescbe, dry goods and groceries (Old 
Town); Otero, Sellar & Co., commission merchants; N. L. Rosenthal, 
general merchandise ; William Steele, Jr.. real estate ; Philip Halzman. 
general merchandise; Robinson House (opposite depot), J. C. Robinson, 
proprietor; F. E. Herbert & Co.. druggists (East and West Las Vegas); 
"Cheap John Restaurant"; Santa Fe Bakerv, Quissenberry & Willis, pro- 
prietors ; St. Louis House, B. Ladner, proprietor ; Chicago Boot and Shoe 
House ; George McKay, Pan Handle Restaurant ; Variety Hall. Chase & 
Patterson, proprietors; R. C. Richmond, watchmaker; C. W. Mack, boots 
and shoes : R. G. McDonald, liquors ; Lockhart & Co., contractors and 
builders ; E. G. Arment, meat market ; E. Munsch, painter ; Jaffa Broth- 
ers, general merchandise ; Monarch Hall, Ward & Tamme, proprietors ; 
W. G. Ward, contractor and builder; H. G. Neill, justice of the peace. 

The late seventies may be said to have closed the pioneer period of 
Las Vegas, and at a banquet given by the settlers of '79, in February, 
1902, a striking list of departed pioneers was presented to the guests. 
Only the "old-timers" recognized the names of the deceased : Caribou 
Brown, French Pete, Billie the Kid, Dutch Charlie. Dirtv-f&ce Mike, 
Hoodoo Brown, Red Laughlin, Scar-faced Charlie, Pawnee Bill. Kickapoo 
George. Jack-Knife Jack, Off Wheeler, Sawdust Charlie, Johnnie Behind 
the Rocks, Fly-speck Sam, Beefsteak Mike, Mysterious Dave, Hatchet- 
face Kid, Broncho Bill, Solitaire, Texas George, Durango Kid. Jim Lane, 
Pancake Billy, Cock-eyed Frank, Rattlesnake Sam, Kansas Kid, Red the 
Hack Driver, Split-nose Mike, Kim Ki Rogers, Charlie the Swede. Web- 
fingered Billy, Nigger Bill, Curley Moore, Light-fingered Jack, "Chuck." 
Billy the Kid the Second, Prettv Dick, Forty-five Jimmy. Lucky Dick, 
Wink the Barber. Red Mike. Silent Henry, Double-out Sam, Dutch Pete, 
Curley Bill, Black Kid. "Kingfisher," Handsome Harry the Dance-Hall 
Rustler, Big George the Cook. Jimmie the Duck. Cock-eyed Dutch, Little 
Dutch the Detective. "Smooth," Pock-marked Kid. Flap-jack Bill, Buck- 
skin Joe,' "Tennessee," Brocky-faced Johnnie, Piccolo Johnnie, Pistol 
Johnnie. Big-foot Mike, China Jack, "Pinkev," Happv Tack. Big Burns. 
Cold-deck George. Hop-fiend Bill, Pegleg Dick. "Rosebud." "Sandy" (Red 
Oaks), Dutch the Gambler (Jim Ramsey), Red-face Mike, Dummy the 
Fox, Red River Tom, Hold-out Jack, Short Creek Dave, "Skinny," Long 


Vest George, Smokey Hall, Bald-faced Kid, Cockey Bill, One Armed Jim 
the Gambler, One Armed Kelley, Lord Locke, ' Long Lon, Maroney 
the Peddler, "Shakespeare," Chuck Luck Betts, Hog Jones, Hog- foot 
Jim, Bostwick the Silent Man, Hurricane Bill, Pawnee George, "Blondy." 
Shotgun Bill, "Scotty," Big Murphy, Box Car Bill, Little Jay. "Ken- 
tuck,'" Tommy the Poet, Sheeney Frank. "Shorty," Skinny the Barber. 
Elk Skin Davis, Broken Nose Clark, Soapy Smith, Squint-eyed Bob, 
Stuttering Tom, Repeater Shan, Buttermilk George. Billie-Be-Damned, 
and Candy Cooper. 

Schools of Las Vegas. — The school buildings of the city are two in 
number, located on Doug-las and Baca avenues, and the town, or the 
West Side, has a substantial two-storv structure of its own, besides smaller 
buildings, devoted to the cause of education. The Douglas avenue build- 
ing was the first erected in New Mexico from public moneys. It is a 
handsome stone building, comprising eigbt school rooms and two offices, 
with large basement, and is heated bv the hot-water system. 

The Baca avenue building is one of the most tasteful and unique 
edifices of the kind in the west. It is built of a beautiful red sandstone, 
and in its towers, copings and general architectural features resembles a 
feudal castle. From this fact it is popularly known as the "Castle" school 
building. It contains ten well-lighted and commodious rooms, two offices 
and a large basement, and is heated by steam. The high school occupies 
the entire upper floor. 

The Las Vegas citv schools now_offer a semi-kindergarten course, the 
regular eight primarv and grammar grades and the full curriculum of 
four years in the higher branches. The high school was not organized 
upon its present basis until in 1002. One of the recent additions to its 
educational facilities is a laboratorv for physical and chemical work. 

Previous to September, 1004. the schools in the town of Las Vegas 
were unclassified, and each was under a separate board of directors. At 
that time the movement was begun which, under the active superintendency 
of Anna J. Rieve, of Baltimore, resulted in the grading of the pupils. 
The system is also now under one board of directors. Progress has been 
made in the establishment of both a library and museum, and under the 
new management both schools and grounds have been repaired and 

The New Mexico Normal University was established at Las Vegas 
in i8q8, and has already accomplished a good work in educating teachers 
for the territorial schools, which in years past have been in sad need of 
competent instructors. The number of students now ranges from sixty- 
five to ninetv. For several years past summer schools have been held 
under the auspices of the faculty for the benefit of teachers who are em- 
ployed during the winter, and the increasing attendance shows that they 
are steadily gaining in popularity. 

The system of the Normal University embraces a department of 
music, comprising the theory of music, sight reading, history of music, 
ear training, interpretation, voice culture, chorus, piano, violin and other 
strinced instruments, ensemble playing- and elementary harmony. 

Churches and Societies of Las Vegas. — Las Vegas has ten places of 
^yorship, nine church buildings, representing eight denominations, and five 
pastoral residences. All have Sunday schools and the usual societies, and 


the Young Men's Christian Association has recently completed a large, 
handsome and modern structure — the first of the organizations in the far 
southwest to be so honored. 

The Catholics, of course, first occupied the field in Las Vegas, as they 
did in New Mexico as a whole. There are two Catholic churches, that on 
the west side being in charge of Fr. Paul Gilberton, and that on the east 
side, of Fr. Henry C. Ponget. 

The Baptists were the first Protestants to enter the Territory, coming 
as early as 1849. They organized a congregation in Las Vegas in 1880 
with seventeen members, and now occupy a handsome frame structure. 
The Methodists came into New Mexico and, in August, 1879, organized 
a local society. 

The Protestant pioneers of Las Vegas, however, were the Presby- 
terians, who established a church on the west side in 1869. In 1881 their 
east side edifice was dedicated. St. Paul's Episcopal church was estab- 
lished in 1879, being the first of that denomination in New Mexico. The 
Jewish synagogue of the Congregation Montefiore was also the pioneer 
of that sect in the Territory, and the society is the wealthiest in the city. 
In 1887 the African Methodist Church was organized, and has a large 

The Young Men's Christian Association has recently completed the 
first building erected by that organization along modern lines in the south- 
west. The handsome stone structure is 100 feet deep and has a frontage 
of fifty feet on Sixth street, has a height of two stories and basement, and 
is located half a block from the principal business corner of the city. 

The Ladies' Home was organized over twenty years ago by the min- 
isters of Las Vegas. It is managed by a board of ladies, and is supported 
partly by the Territory and partly by private funds. During 1900, which 
was the busiest year in the history of the society, 180 patients were 
cared for. 

Another worthy charity is St. Anthony's Sanitarium, erected in 1896 
by the Sisters of Charity of Leavenworth, Kansas. It is a solid three-story 
structure built of stone, 160 feet in length, and has a broad veranda extend- 
ing along three sides of the building. 

Las Vegas Clubs. — The Commercial Club of Las Vegas, whose pur- 
poses are both social and of a business character, was organized in No- 
vember, 1903, with the following officers: A. A. Jones, president; Max 
Nordhaus, vice-president, and George P. Money, secretary. It occupies 
the building jointly erected by the Masons and the Montezuma Club. 

The Montezuma Club is strictlv social in its nature. It was incor- 
porated in the fall of 1886, with O. L. Houghton as president. 

The Owl Club is a social organization of young bachelors. 

The Las Vegas Street Railway. — This line, which not only connects 
the city and town, but extends nine miles up the picturesque canyon on 
the Gallinas, is owned and operated by the Las Vegas Electric Railway & 
Power Company, of which W. A. Buddecke, late of St. Louis, is presi- 
dent. Its plant consists of a large powerhouse of stone and brick, a two- 
story office building, street car stables, shops and sheds. 

New Mexico Hospital for the Insane. — This institution was created 
by act of February 28, 1889, and the buildings, at the authorized cost of 
$25,000, were erected on land donated by Benigno Romero. The hospital 


contains an average of some 150 patients, and is well conducted. Its 
grounds are neatly kept, and include a small farm, on which the inmates 
raise fodder, vegetables and fruits. In March, 1905, an addition was com- 
pleted to the main building which added fifty-five rooms to the previous 
accommodations. The completion of this building made it possible to 
remove a good number of the insane from the county jails, as well as to 
furnish quarters for those who were being cared for in their homes. The 
capacity of the hospital is now about 180 beds. 

The National Fraternal Sanitarium. — The greatest sanitarium in the 
world for the treatment of tuberculosis, in all its stages and by every 
means known to science and medicine, will be established on a tract of 
land about fifteen miles square, six miles from Las Vegas. Its nucleus is 
the superb Montezuma Hotel, erected by the Santa Fe Railway Com- 
pany to take the place of the former structure, destroyed by fire in 1884. 
The new hotel is three stories in height, built of stone and brick and 
contains 350 rooms. There are also a group of cottages, and the famous 
hot springs, which first called the attention of the country to Las Vegas 
as a health resort. 

In 1902 a movement for the establishment of such a sanitarium orig- 
inated with several high officials of the fraternities of the country, which 
was finally recommended by the National Fraternal Congress and the 
Associated Fraternities. The ultimate outcome was that 163 orders, rep- 
resenting over 5,000,000 members, supported the enterprise to the extent 
of almost $1,000,000 a year. Thereupon the Santa Fe Company trans- 
ferred the title to all this property, covering 1.000 acres and appraised at 
$1,000,000, to a board of trustees representing the fraternal societies of 
the United States, among whose members tuberculosis was making such 
fearful inroads. The transfer was made without consideration and upon 
the only condition that a sanitarium should be established and permanently 
maintained at this point. If the plan should ever be abandoned, or the 
property be used for any other purpose, it will revert to the railroad 

In addition to this property the citizens of Las Vegas presented to 
the fraternal trustees 10,000 acres of land — a portion of the old Mexican 
grant, which they had held for seventy years. This immense tract adjoins 
the Montezuma property, and will eventually be well covered with tents, 
varying in sizes from those designed to accommodate families to those 
erected for individuals. 

With every variety of amusement near at hand, surrounded by a 
country of great beauty and natural interest, it is believed, from the ex- 
perience of the past, that the treatment of those in the early stages of tuber- 
culosis will be even more wonderful than in the past. 

Gallinas Park and Gallinas Canyon. — Although Gallinas Park, on the 
line of the electric railway, was founded as late as 1903, it is already a 
strong feature of the attractions surrounding Las Vegas. It embraces a 
race track, upon which a world's record for a mile was made in June, 1905. 
Over the brow of a hill to the northward is a wooded part, diversified bv 
verdant slopes, running water and mossv dells, and this portion of the 
grounds is becoming a very popular resort, both with residents and vis- 

The Gallinas Canyon, near Las Vegas, is a continuous panorama of 


picturesque and unique scenery. A short distance above the Montezuma 
Hotel it presents a phenomenon which is quite startling. Here the south- 
ern banks are so high and steep that the low-lying winter sun never strikes 
the surface of the narrow stream, the ice forming two feet thick. In 
summer, even, its rays are so short lived and ineffective that the canyon at 
this point never really gets warm, and "where," as remarked by a trav- 
eler, "the thermometer will stand at freezing point for weeks at a time, 
while the people at the hotel half a mile below will be sitting on the 
porches without wraps, and the ranchmen will be working in their shirt 
sleeves." The natural ice factory and storage house have been utilized by 
a company, which lias constructed several dams across the river and erected 
nine ice houses with a capactity of 25,000 tons. 

Margarita Romero, engaged in merchandising in Las Vegas, has 
been an important factor in the development and progress here. He was a 
prime mover in having the old town of Las Vegas incorporated, that the 
work of public improvement might be carried on and that a postoffice might 
be established, and he has continuously aided along practical lines in the 
work of general development. He was born in Santa Fe county, New 
Mexico, February 22. 185 1, a son of Miguel Romero y Baca, who was 
several times probate judge of San Miguel and was highly esteemed 
throughout the Territory. He engaged in general merchandising in Las 
Vegas, establishing his "business about 185 1. He was the first jobber in 
groceries in that city and during the period of the Civil war he furnished 
horses and supplies to the northern army. He married Josefa Delgado, 
who was born November 15, 1816, at Santa Fe. Her ancestors were of 
high Castilian birth and held many distinguished offices during Spanish 
rule. They came to Las Vegas in 1851 and were widely knownfor deeds 
of kindness and charity, as well as for efficient service and business ca- 
pacity. Miguel Romero y Baca died about 1881 or 1882, and his wife's 
death occurred in Las Vegas. August 5, 1877. 

Margarito Romero was educated in the Christian Brothers College at 
Santa Fe and entered business life as a salesman in the mercantile store of 
M. Brunswick. In this employ he remained for five years. He then es- 
tablished a general mercantile business and also engaged in the cattle and 
sheep industry at La Cuesta, New Mexico, in 1880. There he continued 
for two years, after which he removed his store to Las Vegas. During 
the first two years of his connection with commercial interests in Las 
Vegas he was in partnership under the firm style of T. Romero & Brothers. 
He afterward established a store of his own, which he has since conducted, 
and at the same time he is a well known representative of cattle interests, 
having a ranch at Trementina. where he runs about one hundred head of 
cattle. A man of resourceful business ability, he has extended his efforts 
to other lines, carrving forward to successful completion whatever he un- 
dertakes. In 1895 he built a hotel of forty rooms at Porvenir for a health 
resort, but this was destroyed by fire in 1903. He also operates a saw- 
mill at Porvenir and is engaged in the lumber business, and for the past 
ten years he has conducted trade as a railroad timber contractor. The 
scope and variety of his business interests indicate his capacitv and en- 
terprise and capable management, this bringing him gratifying success. 

Mr. Romero was married in 1872 in Santa Fe to Miss I. D. de 
Romero, of that city. To them were born seven children, but all are de- 


ceased. Mr. Romero is a member of the Knights of Columbus, belong- 
ing to Las Vegas lodge. In politics he is a Republican, and was treasurer 
and collector of San Miguel county in 1898-99. during which time he col- 
lected three hundred and sixty-eight thousand dollars — an exceptional rec- 
ord — which put the county on a good financial basis. He was the first 
mayor of the old town, serving for two terms in 1903 and 1904. In public 
office he has ever given a practical and progressive administration, bringing 
to bear in the discharge of his official duties the same safe and conservative 
qualities which mark his business record. 

Charles Tamme, city clerk of Las Vegas, was born in the duchy of 
Braunschweig, January 27, 1844. He was educated in Germany and in 
1865 came to the United States for recreation and travel, intending to re- 
turn to his native land. However, he crossed the plains four or five times, 
freighting with ox and mule teams. Being pleased with this country he 
determined to make it his home and has lived at different times in Mil- 
waukee, St. Joe and Neenah, Wisconsin. He has also visited more west- 
ern and northern towns as a freighter and in 1867 he went to Trinidad, 
Colorado, with government freight. In 1871 he engaged in the stock busi- 
ness in that locality, continuing therein for three or four years, and at the 
same time he occupied the position of clerk in the United States Hotel at 
that place. 

In the spring of 1879 Mr. Tamme came to Las Vegas, located on the 
east side of the city and engaged in business here. It was largely through 
his influence that James Hamilton, the noted shoe merchant of St. Louis, 
built an opera house which he rented to Mr. Tamme. and which was called 
the Ward & Tamme Opera House. This was in 1882. In the fall of 1884 
Mr. Tamme erected another opera house, which is a fine, substantial build- 
ing. This was done at the suggestion of Frederick Warde. the actor, and 
has been a valuable addition to amusement circles of the city. He also 
built one of the early business blocks here and has erected one of the finest 
residences in Las Vegas. 

In his political views Mr. Tamme is in harmony with many of the 
principles of democracy, and vet is liberal. He always takes an active 
interest in public affairs concerning the progress and welfare of his city, 
and has been the champion of many movements for the general good. He 
was a member of the first city council of Las Vegas, elected in 1882, and 
also a member of the first citv council of East Las Vegas in 1887. In 
1897 he was chosen city clerk and has since filled that position with credit 
to himself and satisfaction to his constituents. In fact he has won high 
encomiums in all the various offices that he has filled. 

Mr. Tamme was married in 1882 to Miss Emelie Schaeffer, a native of 
Lee's Summit, Missouri, and their children are: Eunice, who is a teacher 
in the schools of I-as Vegas ; Lawrence, and Emma. In the same year of 
his marriage Mr. Tamme was made a Mason in Las Vegas, and he now 
holds membership in Chapman lodge No. 2, A. F. & A. M. ; Las Vegas 
chapter No. 3. R. A. M.. and Las Vegas commandery No. 2, K. T. He 
is also a clerk of the local camp of the Woodmen of the World. 

D. C. Winters, a druggist of Las Vegas, who came to the Territory 
in 1880, was born in Par'kersburg. West Virginia, in 1854, and went to 
Colorado in 1873 at the age of nineteen years. His education was largely 
acquired in the school of experience. He was the first druggist in Trini- 


dad, Colorado, continuing in business there until coming to New Mexico, 
when he entered the employ of F. E. Herbert & Company, with whom he 
continued for a year. Later he was employed by M. R. Griswold, and in 
1886 established his drug store, which is now the oldest business of the 
kind in the Territory under the guidance of one man. He was originally 
in partnership with William Frank, who sold his interest to E. G. Mur- 
phy, and after six or seven years Mr. Winters purchased Mr. Murphy's 
interest and has since been alone in business. 

He was married in Trinidad, Colorado, in June, 1880, to Miss Marion 
A. Bloom, and they have three children : Marion, Ruth and Frank W. 
He has served four years as a member of the East Las Vegas school board 
and for two years was its president. He is now a trustee of the insane 
hospital at Las Vegas, and in 1904 was elected to the territorial council, so 
that he is the present incumbent in the office. 

Robert L. M. Ross, deputy county treasurer and collector, Las Vegas, 
was born in Dungiven, County Derry, Ireland, June 18, 1856, and was 
educated at Foyle College, Londonderry, and Trinity College, Dublin. He 
came to America in 1877 and located in Boston, where he was employed 
as a clerk in a furniture establishment until 1880. That year he came 
to New Mexico and engaged in the cattle business in the eastern part of 
San Miguel county, his nearest postoffice being La Cinta. He was in the 
cattle business ten years. In 1891 he was appointed deputy probate clerk 
and recorder of San Miguel county, which position he filled a few months. 
Then he turned his attention to real estate and insurance in East Las 
Ve.q-as, in which he was engaged for eight years. Again, in 1899 and 1900, 
he served as deputv county clerk and recorder, and in 1901 was appointed 
deputy treasurer and collector of the county by Eugenio Romero, who was 
elected to the office in 1900. He is strong politicallv to a marked degree 
because of his superior knowledge of the Spanish language and general 
knowledge of the customs and business methods of the Spanish-American 
people. He is uniformly courteous to all. and this, too, has been a strong 
factor in the making of his popularity. 

Mr. Ross is prominent and active in both church and lodge; is a 
vestryman in St. Paul's church (Episcopal), and twice has beenworship- 
ful master of Chapman Lodge No. 2, A. F. & A. M., of Las Vegas. In 
1884, at Watrous, New Mexico, he married Miss Laura Shaver, of Califor- 
nia, and they have two children, Caroline and May. 

• George A. Fleming, who at the organization of the Investment and 
Agency Corporation on the 20th of August, 1905, became manager of the 
business and maintains his residence in Las Vegas, was born in Chicago, 
Illinois. March 23, 1872. He attended the public schools of that city, and 
when his education was completed entered upon an active business career, 
occupying several clerical and office positions with important insurance 
agencies in Chicago until 1896. He then opened a general real estate and 
insurance business under the name of George A. Fleming & Company, 
continuing this with much success until 1899, when ill health forced him to 
seek a change of climate and he came to New Mexico. 

Mr. Fleming greatly improved under the beneficial climatic conditions 
of Las Vegas and re-entered business life here as a lime manufacturer un- 
der the name of the Hot Springs Lime Company. While managing that 
enterprise he was also bookkeeper for James A. Dick and later for the Dunn 


Builders' Supply Company. He resigned the latter position to accept the 
office, of secretary and manager of the Crystal Ice & Cold Storage Com- 
pany of Las Vegas, manufacturers of artificial ice, thus serving until the 
1st of January, 1903, when he went to Santa Fe to become chief clerk in 
the office of Hon. James Wallace Raynolds, secretary of the Territory. The 
legislature of 1903 created the office of assistant secretary of the Terri- 
tory, and to this Mr. Fleming was appointed, being the first incumbent in 
the position. He performed the duties of the office in excellent manner 
and established a record for painstaking energy and capability, but re- 
signed in order to return to Las Vegas and become manager of the In- 
vestment and Agency Corporation, organized on the 20th of April, 1905. 
He is peculiarly fitted, by reason of his varied and thorough business train- 
ing and by his general acquaintance throughout the Territory, for the duties 
of the new position. 

On the 17th of June, 1903, Mr. Fleming was married to Miss Maude 
E. Woods, of Chicago. Their home soon became a popular resort in lead- 
ing social circles of Santa Fe, and already they have won many friends 
in Las Vegas, where Mr. Fleming was previously well known. When he 
left this city to go to the capital he was secretary of the Business Men's 
Protective Association, of which he had been one of the first and principal 
organizers. He was also secretary of the Montezuma Club, now known 
as the Commercial Club, of Las Vegas, and has recently been elected its 
treasurer. He takes an active interest in politics as a stanch and unfalter- 
ing advocate of Republican principles and is a member of the Presbyterian 

Judge Henry S. Wooster, justice of the peace at Las Vegas, comes of 
an ancestry which in its lineal and collateral branches through many genera- 
tions has been distinctively American. He is a direct descendant of Daniel 
Wooster, who at an early day settled in Connecticut, having crossed the 
Atlantic from England. The judge was born in Tully, Xew York, April 20, 
1820, and remained a resident of that state until 1840, when he went to 
Ohio, where he spent four years. The succeeding six years were passed in 
Wisconsin, and on the expiration of that period he went to California, re- 
maining on the Pacific coast for ten years. He then returned to Beloit, 
Wisconsin, and on leaving that place came to Las Vegas, where he con- 
ducted the Wooster House for six years, making it a leading hostelry of 
this city. In January, 1891, he was elected police judge and justice of the 
peace and has since continuously filled both positions, his decisions being 
strictly fair and impartial. His early political support was given the Whig 
party, and since its dissolution he has been a stalwart Republican. 

Judge Wooster was married in Wisconsin to Miss Nancy Pierce, a 
native of Jefferson county, New York, whence she went to the Badger 
State in early life. Her father, Joseph Pierce, was a farmer of Wisconsin 
and was a member of the convention which framed the state constitution. 
Unto Judge and Mrs. Wooster were born the following named : Clarence 
A., of Atlanta, Georgia; Bennett P., of Santa Rosa, New Mexico, and 
Mary, the wife of George E. Johnson, of Missouri Valley, Iowa. The wife 
and mother departed this life in February, 1888. 

For nearly thirty years Judge Wooster was an active member of the 
Masonic fraternity and' was also affiliated with the Odd Fellows. He has 


now passed the eighty-fifth milestone on life's journey, and is a most 
respected and venerable citizen of Las Vegas. 

John S. Clark, engaged in the insurance business at Las Vegas, where 
he arrived in 1883, was born in the county of Haywood, in Tennessee, 
October 29, 1858, and was educated in the public schools, but they were of 
a rather poor character on account of the war, which had crippled all edu- 
cational advancement as well as commercial and industrial progress. He 
came west to better his conditions, and was married in Tennessee twenty- 
six years ago, on the 22d of January, 1880, to Miss Nannie C. Watson. 
They have two children, Herbert W. and Lawrence D. 

Mr. Clark arrived in Las Vegas in 1883. He was engaged in the 
restaurant business for a time, and was afterward for four years associated 
in the sheep business with Judge Mills and Governor Otero, while for four 
years he was coal oil inspector of the Territory. He entered the insurance 
business in December, 1904, and is thus engaged at the present time. He 
has also been prominent in political circles, serving as a member of the 
council of the Territory in 1904-;. He became chairman of the Republican 
central territorial committee in 1898, and has been a member of the com- 
mittee continuously since 1894. He belongs to the Commercial Club, to 
Chapman Lodge No. 2, A. F. & A. M., Royal Lodge No. 3, of Las Vegas, 
and is past high priest of the chapter. He also belongs to Las Vegas Com- 
mandery No. 2, K. T.. of which he is past eminent commander, and he is 
a member of the Mystic Shrine at Albuquerque, while of the lodge of Elks 
of Las Vegas he is likewise a representative. 

C. D. Boucher, who is engaged in the grocery business in Las Vegas, 
New Mexico, came to this Territory on a visit to his brother in February. 
1883. and, being so well pleased with the country and the climate, decided 
to remain here. He obtained employment from the Santa Fe Railroad 
Company, with which he was connected in the capacity of conductor until 
1898. That year he purchased the grocery business of L H. Hofmeister 
in the old town of Las A'egas, conducted the store there successfully till 
August 1, 1903, when he removed to the new town, and here he has since 
continued to prosper. 

Mr. Boucher was born in Bureau county, Illinois, near Mendota, and 
in the public schools of bis native county received the foundation for his 
broader education which he obtained in the practical school of experience. 
From Illinois he went to Dakota. There he took claim to a tract of land, 
and while "proving up" on same conducted a grocerv and drug business. 
He farmed his Dakota land until coming to New Mexico, as already stated. 
December 27. 1897, he had the misfortune to be in a wreck on the Cali- 
fornia Limited, at Hoehne, Colorado, where he sustained injuries which 
caused him to quit the railroad business. 

At Raton. New Mexico, in 1888, Mr. Boucher married Miss Olive 
Olive of that place, and they have two children, Cecil and Rov. Mr. 
Boucher for years has been prominent and active in Masonic circles. 
He is senior warden of Chapman Lodge No. 2 and eminent commander 
of Las Vegas Commanderv No. 2. 



Taos is in the northern tier of counties, extending from about the 
center of the northern boundary line in a narrow formation, and covering 
an area of 2,300 square miles. " Although the smallest county in the Ter- 
ritory, it is larger than Delaware and almost twice the size of Rhode Is- 
land. It has a population of about 1 1,000— substantially the same as that 
of Colfax, Dona Ana and Mora counties. 

In a previous chapter it has already been shown how Taos was orig- 
inally the largest division of the Territory, and the steps by which it was 
reduced to its present limits. Its first boundaries, as defined by the act 
of January 9, 1852, which divided New Mexico into nine counties, were as 
follows: On the south, from the first house of the town of Embudo, on 
the upper side, where the canyon of Picuries terminates, drawing a direct 
line toward the south over the mountain of Bajillo at the town of Rin- 
cones, until it reaches the front of the last house of Las Trambas on the 
south side ; thence drawing a direct line toward the east dividing the moun- 
tains until it reaches the junction of the river Mora and Sapeyo, and thence 
to the boundary line of the Territory; from the above mentioned house of 
Embudo drawing a line toward the north over the mountains and divid- 
ing the Rio del Norte in the direction of the Tetilla de la Petaca ; thence 
taking a westward direction until it terminates with the boundary line 
of the Territory, and on the north by all the land belonging to the Terri- 
tory of New Mexico. 

Records Open with Revolution. — The first existing records of Taos 
county, under the caption of "March term. 1847," begin as follows: "Be 
it remembered that on the nineteenth day of January, in the year of our 
Lord eighteen hundred and forty-seven, a revolution broke out in Don 
Fernandez de Taos, in the Territory of New Mexico, among the Mex- 
icans, in which many of the Americans in Fernandez were horribly mur- 
dered, besides the books, papers and property of this office were destroyed ; 
and also it is to be regretted that the lamented Cornelio Vigil, the late 
prefect, was one of the murdered, as well as the Governor of this Terri- 
tory. On the 25th clay of February Vicente Martinez took the oath of 
office as prefect for the county of Taos. Monday, the first day of March. 
A. D. 1847, being the second regular term of holding this court (Vicente 
Martinez, prefect, presiding, and Robert Cary, clerk), the sheriff, Archa 
Metcalf, presented his bond as such, and also his bond as ex-officio col- 

Thereafter, the officers of Taos county, as shown by the records were 
as below : 

Sheriffs.— 1848, Richens S. Wootton : 1849. Abrara Trigg: 1850, Henry F. Mink; 
1851. Julian Duran; 1852-3. Julian Lodu ; 1854. Nestor Martinez: 1855-7, Ezra N. 
Depew; 1858-9, Gabriel Vigil; i860, Juan Archuleta; 1861, Gabriel Lucero ; 1862-3, 

Festival Scene at Taos Pueblo 

Ancient Water Mill. Ranchos de Taos 


Francisco Sanchez; 1864-Q, Aniceto Valdez; 1870-1, Julian Ledoux; 1872-5, Jose D. 
Quesnel; 1876, Guillermo Trujillo; 1877-S, Gabriel Lucero ; 1879, Santiago F. Val- 
dez ; 1880, Juan de Dios Gonzales ; 1881-2, Leandro Martinez ; 1883-4, Guillermo 
Trujillo; 1885-6, Bonifacio Barron; 1887-8, Lorenzo Lovato ; 1889-90, Guillermo Tru- 
jillo; 1891-4, Caesario Garcia; 1895-6, Francisco Martinez y Martinez; 1897-8, Lu- 
ciano Trujillo (killed December 12, 1898, and Higenio Romero appointed to till 
unexpired term); 1899-1900, Higenio Romero; 1901-4, Faustin Trujillo; 1905-6, Sil- 
viano Tucero. 

Probate Clerks.— 1848-50, Elias T. Clark; 1851, Santiago de Valdez; 1852-4, 
Santiago S. Valdez ; 1855, Pedro Valdez ; 1856, Inocencio Valdez ; 1857-9, Pedro Val- 
dez ; 1860-1, Gabriel Vigil; 1862-71, Leandro Martinez; 1872-3, Inocencio Martinez; 
1874-5, Maximiano Romero ; 1876, Santiago F. Valdez ; 1S77-8, Juan M. Montoya ; 
1879, Vicente Mares; 1880, Guillermo Martinez; 1881-2, Vicente Mares; 1883-4, J- 
U. Shade; 1885-6, Juan B. Gonzales; 1887-8, D. M Salazar; 1889-90, Enrique Gon- 
zales; 1891-2, Fred P. Miller; 1893-4, Maximiano Romero; 1895-8, George P. Miller; 
1899-1900, Jesus M. Salazar (died March 10, 1900, and George P. Miller appointed to 
fill unexpired term); 1901-4, Tomas Martinez y Gonzales; 1905-6, Enrique Gonzales. 
Prefects.— 1848, Vicente Martinez, Jose Maria Valdez; 1849-50, Jose Maria Val- 
dez; 1851. Horace Long: 1852-4, Jose Maria Martinez; 1855, Jose Benito Mart- 

Probate Judges. — 1856, Horace Long ; 1857-9, Juan de Jesus Valdez ; 1860-1, 
Pedro Valdez; 1S62-3, Jose Maria Martinez; 1864-5, Juan Santistevan; 1866-7, Pedro 
Sanchez; 1868-9, Juan Santistevan; 1870-1, Pedro Sanchez; 1872-3, Jose Romulo 
Martinez ; 1874-5, Aniceto Valdez ; 1S76, Gabriel Lucero ; 1877-80, Antonio Joseph ; 
1881-2, Joseph Clouthier; 1883-4, Cristobal Mares; 1885-6, Antonio Tircio Gallegos; 
1887-8, Manuel Valdez y Lobato ; 1889-90, Juan D. Gonzales; 1891-2, Higenio Ro- 
mero; 1893-4, Gregorio Griego; 1895-6, Juan de Dios Martinez; 1903-4, Lucas Do- 
minguez ; 1905-6, Manuel Garcia. 

County Commissioners. — 1S76, Juan Santistevan (chairman), Fred Mueller; 1877, 
Cristobal Mares (chairman), Pablo A. Sanchez, Albino Ortego ; 1878, Cristobal 
Mares (chairman), Pablo A. Sanchez, Albino Ortego; 1879-80, Alejandro Martinez 
(chairman), Buenaventura Lovato, Severino Martinez; 1881-2, Manuel Valdez y 
Lovato (chairman), Ferdinand Meyer. Juan B. Gonzales; 1883-4, Alexander Gus- 
dorf (chairman), Joseph Clouthier, Manuel la Chacon; 1885-6, Gabino Ribera (chair- 
man), Manuel a Chacon, Felix Romero; 1887-8, Aloys Scheurich (chairman), Ju- 
lian A. Martinez, Santiago Abreuo ; 1889-90. Aloys Scheurich (chairman), Francisco 
A. Montova, Higenio Romero: 1891-2. J. P. Rinker (chairman). Eleonor Trujillo, 
Manuel Griego; 1893-4, J- Eulogio Rael (chairman), Manuel Gregario Vigil, Delfino 
Martinez; 1805-6, Aloys Scheurich (chairman), Juan N. Vallejos, Miguel Antonio 
Romero; 1897-8, Aloys Scheurich (chairman), Miguel Antonio Gonzales, Rafael 
Gonzales; 1899-1900, W. M. Adair (chairman). Francisco B. Rael, Jose de Jesus 
Cordova: 1001-2, J. M. Beall (chairman), Gregorio Leyba, Alexander Gusdorf; 
1903-4, Higinio Romero (chairman), Manuel a Chacon, Alexander Gusdorf; 1905-6, 
Alexander Gusdorf (chairman), Manuel a Chacon, Jose A. Lopez. 

The Turbulent Taos Valley. — The valley of Taos, with its two great 
Pueblos, the old town of Fernando de Taos and the still more ancient 
settlement known as Ranchos de Taos, is one of the most fascinating and 
historical points in the entire West. Taos was for many years following 
the American occupation, the chief political storm-center of the Territory. 
The presence there of such men as Charles Bent, the first Governor (whose 
death in the revolution of 1847 i s among the first events officially recorded 
in the county) ; Colonel Christopher ("Kit") Carson, the famous scout 
and guide ; Colonel Cerean St. Vrain, the well known merchant ; "Don 
Carlos" Beaubien. one of the original proprietors of the notorious Max- 
well land grant and first Chief Justice of New Mexico; Father Martinez, 
demagogue, traitor, conspirator against peace and as great a rascal as 
ever remained unhung in New Mexico, whether viewed from a political 
or moral standpoint — such as these gave the community a position in Ter- 


ritorial affairs equal to that of Santa F'e, the capital. The halo of romance 
and the glamour of tragedy with which it became invested in the early days, 
though somewhat dimmed during the more peaceful years that have fol- 
lowed, still surround the name of Taos, and always will. 

Among the Americans and other foreigners who became the pioneer 
white settlers of Taos and the valley near by, besides those mentioned, 
were Theodore Mignault, who was manager of Bent & St. Vrain's store, 
and afterward a partner of Marceline St. Yrain, a nephew of the Colonel ; 
Henry Green, a West Point graduate and formerly an officer in the regular 
army; Jesse Turley, a Missourian, who established a trading post there; 
James Herbert Ouinn who organized several scouting parties in times 
of trouble; Theodore Weedon, or Wheaton, a lawyer who came from Mis- 
souri in 1846; Charles Hardt, who also migrated from that state in 1846, 
and had a ranch near town: "Squire" Hardt, who was engaged in the 
overland trade for several years ; Webster, a merchant and miller, who 
became very wealthy ; the three Buedners — Solomon, Samson and Joseph — 
who had a general merchandise business ; Frederick Mueller, who married 
a daughter of Charles H. Beaubien, and "Uncle Dick" Woolton. 

The erection of the church at Fernando de Taos was begun in 1796, 
but the edifice was not completed until 1806. The ancient church at the 
Pueblo, which was ruined during the bombardment of 1847, was at one 
time the headquarters of the Roman Catholic diocese. 

While the present village of Fernando de Taos, the county seat, has 
been the scene of crimes innumerable and the hotbed of most of the early 
conspiracies against the American government, few criminals of note have 
made that town their headquarters since the establishment of peaceful 
conditions following the Civil War. Cue notorious character, however, 
made such a record there that the closing incident in his career deserves 
a permanent place in the historic literature of Xew Mexico. "Colonel" 
Thomas Means, a surveyor by profession, came to the Territorv soon after 
the inauguration of civil government by the Americans. He lived in Colfax 
county for some time, and for years was more or less identified with the 
tragic episodes which marked the early history of the infamous Maxwell 
land grant. He finally settled down in Taos, where he made life one con- 
tinuous round of misery for all who were forced into contact with him. 
He exhibited an insolence and obstreperous disposition that constantly 
precipitated him into trouble until he became such a nuisance to the more 
peaceablv inclined inhabitants as to render drastic measures necessary. He 
would not only grossly insult and frequentlv attack anybody who came 
within his reach, but beat his wife so badly on innumerable occasions 
that her life was despaired of. Finding that appeals to courts of justice 
were of no avail, in 1868 a number of citizens decided to organize that 
common frontier institution known as a Vigilance Committee and put an 
end to "Colonel" Means and all his meanness. After an unusually ag- 
gravating outbreak on his part, following a pointed warning as to what 
his fate would be, he was taken from his home to the old court house and 
hanged from a beam in the ceiling in front of the judge's bench. The 
day following was one of general rejoicing that the communitv had been 
summarily rid of one of its most disagreeable and dangerous factors. 
Thus ended the career of one of the most widely known, and at one time 
one of the most influential, men of northern New Mexico. 

Ancient Church, Ranchos de Ta 

Church Interior, Ranchos de Taos 


An episode which for a time threatened the peace of Taos county, 
and by some was regarded as a possible cause of a repetition of the bloody 
scenes of 1847, occurred at Fernando de Taos in December, 1898. ( hi the 
twelfth of that month, which is celebrated by the native inhabitants as 
Saint Guadalupe Day, in honor of one of their most honored patron saints, 
practically all the Mexican inhabitants of Taos and the surrounding coun- 
try, most' of whom are members of the order of Penitentes, were parading 
the streets of the village carrying an image of Our Lady of Guadalupe. 
Two young men who were strangers to the scene, and who were not aware 
of its" significance nor of the custom of the superstitious Penitentes — Bert 
Phillips," the famous Indian painter, and Mr. Myers— stood upon the side- 
walk watching the procession. An official who accompanied the procession 
stepped up to" them and ordered them in Spanish to remove their hats out 
of respect to the saint. As they did not understand the Spanish tongue 
they did not comply with the request, whereupon the constable, or deputy 
sheriff, attempted to pull their hats off. At this Myers promptly knocked 
the officer down. Soon afterward both Phillips and Myers were arrested 
and placed in the wretched building which served the purposes of a jail. 
Pail was immediately offered for their release pending a hearing, but the 
sheriff, Luciano Trujillo, who in the meantime had been drinking heavily 
and had become ugly, refused to accept bail, declaring that the two men 
must stay in jail and freeze to death, for all he cared. Later, however, 
he consented to allow them their freedom on bail. 

Early that evening Trujillo, who had been making dire threats against 
Phillips, Myers and Americans in general, entered a saloon where a num- 
ber of Americans were congregated. \mong them was a youth named 
Albert Gifford. aged nineteen, who had armed himself with a revolver in 
anticipation of trouble. Most of the Americans present had similarly pre- 
pared themselves for protection, for it was generally believed that Trujillo 
intended to kill upon the slightest provocation. Hardly had the drunken 
sheriff entered the room than somebody fired a shot. In an instant the 
room was a blaze of pistol shots, and when the smoke cleared Trujillo 
was found dead. 

The dead sheriff was one of the recognized leaders of the Penitentes, 
and the news of bis death aroused a strong- feeling of revenge in their 
breasts. Young Gifford, who was known to have been armed and who 
was a comparative stranger in Taos, was at once selected as the person 
upon whom their revenge should find an outlet, and a hunt for him was 
begun at once. Immediately after the shooting- he fled from the scene, 
and the chase proved fruitless, as he was hidden by faithful friends. The 
entire American community, less than a dozen adults, became alarmed at 
tin- aspect of affairs and stood on guard all that night, in zero weather, 
fully armed and determined to shoot upon the first indication of a desire 
for a fight upon the part of the Mexicans. For two or three davs a united 
attack on the part of the natives was feared, as open threats of revenge 
were made by the Penitentes: but Gifford soon made his escape and the 
trouble quieted down. At no time since the uprising of 1847 h ave the Amer- 
ican inhabitants of any portion of northern New Mexico stood in such 
fear of an organized native outbreak as on the night of December 12, 1808. 

Physical Features.— The county is traversed from north to south by 
the Rio Grande, wdiich from its eastern side receives the Red, Taos. Em- 


budo and Ojo Caliente, with smaller tributaries. On the western side the 
valley is practically devoid of streams suitable for irrigation supplies. 

Most of the eastern boundary of the county is occupied by the Taos 
range of the Rocky Mountain system, and the Taos valley itself is one 
of the most picturesque in existence. On the east it is surrounded by a 
half moon of mountains, with no foothills extending into the mesas to 
diminish the grandeur of the scene. Eleven streams issue from these 
mountains and across the valley in a westerly direction, and the Rio Grande 
cuts through it in a canyon '500 feet deep. At places the bed of the 
parent stream sinks abruptly from the high table lands, or cuts through 
the mountain spurs. That part of its course known as the Taos canyon 
is so deep and abrupt that it is one of the most awful and remarkable 
gorges in the world. 

Resources. — The soil of the Rio Grande valley is a dark loam and 
very deep, being particularly rich in wheat-bearing properties. The grain 
is large and plump, and weighs from sixty-five to sixty-eight pounds per 
bushel. This county is one of the few sections of the Territory that is 
adapted to the growth of potatoes, and vegetables grow to an astonishing 
size. Corn is a staple crop and grasses of all kinds grow luxuriantly. 
•Fruits are becoming a steady source of profit, the Taos vallev especially 
demonstrating what can be done, under irrigation, in the raising of apples, 
peaches, plums, pears, apricots and nectarines. 

The Rio Grande gravel, from the mouth of the Red river southward, 
carries fine gold, and in spots where the windings of the river or some 
other feature has caused it to accumulate, it is found in large quantities. 
Red river, the San Cristobal and Arroyo Hondo also are bordered by 
placers of much value. Copper and silver are found in the mountains 
east of the Rio Grande and above Rinconada. 

Taos. — The town by this name is the county seat, and is one of the 
oldest and most interesting points in New Mexico. Its full name is 
Fernando de Taos, or Don Fernando de Taos, and is only a few miles 
from the Indian pueblo which was such a hot-bed of revolution in the 
Indian uprisings against the early Spanish rule. The town, which has 
a population of some 1,200 people, is quaintly built around a large plaza, 
with a fenced park in the center, and possesses, among other attractions, 
a large adobe church of considerable antiquity. Before the advent of 
railroads it was a commercial center of considerable importance, and was 
the first port of entry established for merchandise brought across the 
plains to the Territory. 

The Taos Pueblos. — Onlv three miles to the northeast, under the 
shadows of great mountains and occupying both sides of a clear, bright 
river, is the pueblo of Taos, with its great terraced buildings, presenting 
one of the most primitive illustrations of Indian architecture. At the 
annual festival on September 30th tourists from all over the world, and 
Apache and Pueblo Indians from every pueblo north of Santa Fe gather 
here. The pueblo of Taos guards the sacred fire of the ancient Aztecs, 
which is kept by a company of priests. According to tradition this fire 
has not been extinguished for a thousand years. It was removed to Taos 
from the old village of Pecos, the birthplace of Montezuma, in 1837, and 
the Children of the Sun believe that as long as it continues to burn there 
is hope of the coming of their Messiah, who will return as he left them, 





9 ttv- 

ttA X^L,. 

. :«*?. 

:-^ijrt^L " | 

Cacique of Taos Pueblo Who is Alleged to Have Held Office for 118 Years 

The Present Cacique of Taos 


on the back of an eagle, at dawn. Hence the pious caciques climb to the 
housetops every morning at sunrise and, shading their eyes with their 
hands, gaze anxiously toward the east. 

The two Taos pueblos, erected in 1716, and occupied by what is left 
of the ancient tnbe of Tao Indians, are generally conceded to be the 
most remarkable specimens of Indian architecture in America. They are 
certainly the greatest of American pyramids. The Taos pueblos number 
something less than 500 souls. In the main, their system of government 
is similar to that of the other pueblos in the Territory. Their tradition 
states that the predecessor of the present casiquis, or cacique, held office 
for a period of 118 years. Fifty years before his death he fell from the 
roof of one of the rooms of the pueblo, while enjoying the effects of 
copious draughts of "vino," and broke his leg. Some of these Indians 
have received a fine English education, though for the greater part they 
profess to be unable to understand or speak this language. Like the in- 
habitants of most of the other pueblos, each person has three names — 
first, the one by which he is known by the Mexicans, usually a name more 
or less common among the descendants of the Spanish, like Antonio, Ro- 
mero, Jose Concha, or Juan Gonzales ; second, the name inherited from 
his Indian ancestors ; third, an interpretation of the latter, such as Yellow 
Shell, Yellow Deer, or Gray Wolf. They keep several "fiestas," or festi- 
vals — notably, the feast of Our Lady of Guadalupe, December 12th, and 
San Geronimo (St. Jerome) day, September 30th. They occupy a fertile 
tract of 17,000 acres, a grant from the Spanish government. It was orig- 
inally much larger, but for protection against the Comanches, Kuowas, 
Cheyennes and Utes, who formerly caused them great annoyance, they gave 
the east part of their grant to Mexican settlers, with the understanding 
that the latter would assist them in repelling invasions from Taos canyon. 

In September, 1896, the federal government organized a day school 
at the pueblo, which is now conducted ten months each year. Previous to 
that time the only schools there were those founded by the Franciscan 
missionaries and afterward maintained in an indifferent manner by the 

Ranchos de Taos is located about four miles south of Fernandez de 
Taos, is in the center of fertile agricultural and fruit lands, and has several 
flour mills, schools and Presbyterian missions. Arroyo Hondo, Arroyo 
Seco and Colorado are little towns north of Taos, engaged in mining, 
agriculture and stock raising, and Ojo Caliente (Hot Spring) is a health 
resort on a creek by that name and near the southwestern boundary line 
of the county. It is at an altitude of 6,292 feet, and the temperature of 
the waters is about no degrees Fahrenheit. 

The main centers of population, in Taos county, lie east of the main 
channel of the Rio Grande, away from the Rio Grande & Denver Rail- 
road, which passes through its southwestern corner, and follows its west- 
ern boundary, or runs a short distance from it in Rio Arriba county. 

Thomas Paul Martin, M. D., of Taos, is a man whose influence, both 
professional and social, has been felt in New Mexico, where he has re- 
sided for the past seventeen years. Dr. Martin was born in Shippens- 
burg, Pennsylvania. October 31, 1864. He received a high school educa- 
tion, to which he added a course in the State Normal School of Pennsyl- 
vania, and he prepared himself for the practice of medicine in the College 


of Physicians and Surgeons at Baltimore, where he graduated in 1886. 
The following year he took a post-graduate course in the Medical Depart- 
ment of Johns Hopkins University. He spent two and a half years in 
Mercy Hospital, Pittsburg, and a year and four months in the Baltimore 
City Hospital. Thus equipped for his life work, he came to New Mexico 
in 1890 and located at Taos, where he soon gained recognition and a fol- 
lowing among the best people of the locality, and built up a practice that 
extends over a wide Territory. He is physician for the pueblos and 
United States examining surgeon, and for eight years was a member of 
the Territorial Board of Health. To him belongs the distinction of having 
helped to organize the first medical society in New Mexico. Also, he was 
instrumental in securing for the Territory its first medical legislation. 

Deeply interested in the people, the conditions and the history of New 
Mexico, Dr. Martin has found here material which he has woven into 
numerous articles, Indian love stories, etc., which have appeared in various 

He is a charter member of Santa Fe Lodge, No. 460, B. P. O. E., 
and in Masonry he has advanced to the thirty-second degree. His Ma- 
sonic membership includes the following: Cumberland Valley Lodge, No. 
315, Pennsylvania; Santa Fe Lodge of Perfection, No. 1; Mackey Chapter 
of Rose Croix, No. 1 ; Denver Council of Kadosh, No. 1 ; Colorado Con- 
sistory, No. 1 ; Ballut Abyad Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S. And at this 
writing he is deputy for all Masonic bodies in the northern counties of 
New Mexico 1 . Politically he is a Republican. 

Dr. Martin has a wife and one son, Jack. Mrs. Martin, formerly 
Miss Janet Wilson, is a native of Edinburgh, Scotland, and a daughter 
of the Rev. Edward Nelson Wilson, a Presbyterian minister of British 

Don Juan Santistevan, a retired merchant of Taos, was born at 
Truchas, in Rio Arriba county, New Mexico, son of Manuel Santistevan 
and Rosalia Medina Santistevan, both natives of Santa Fe county. Manuel 
Santistevan was a farmer. He moved with his family from Rio Arriba 
county to Taos county in 1841, and the house they then occupied on the 
La Loma is still standing. He died in 1851, and his wife died May 22, 
1879, at the age of eighty-two years. 

Don Juan Santistevan, in 1848, at the age of fifteen years, began 
work for Air. Smith Towne of Taos, sweeping out the store and clerking, 
and a few months later entered the employ of Woolton & Williams, gen- 
eral merchants, with whom he remained until the spring of 1852. The 
rest of that year and a part of the year following he worked for Solomon 
Beuthner, after which he was in the employ of Peter Joseph, in the same 
house in which Mr. Santistevan now lives, and remained with him until 
Mr. Joseph's death, in 1863. By the terms of Mr. JosepUs will Mr. 
Santistevan and Kit Carson were made administrators, and, Carson being 
in the armv at the time, Mr. Santistevan settled the estate. Then, for 
about a year, he was with Goodman & Friedman, as a partner in their 
general merchandise business, and in 1865 left them to become associated 
with Messrs. St. Vrain and Hurst, under the firm name of Santistevan, 
St. Vrain & Co. Colonel St. Vrain moved to Mora county in 1867, and 
Mr. Santistevan and Mr. Hurst continued here together until 1869, when 


the partnership was dissolved, Mr. Hurst retiring and Mr. Santistevan 
conducting the business alone until 1902, when he retired. 

For years Mr. Santistevan was also extensively interested in sheep 
raising, at one time having as many as 35,000 head of sheep on his range. 
And in connection with this business he bought and sold large quantities 
of wool, sometimes buying wool on the sheep, at so much per fleece, and 
having the shearing done. Ten to twelve and a half cents a fleece was 
the usual price. And he shipped his wool by wagon train to Kansas 
City and other points. 

In this connection it is worthy of note that Mr. Santistevan's career 
as a merchant covers a longer period than that of any other man in Taos, 
and there are few men, if any, in the Territory who have been in business 
longer than he. 

He has always been a Republican. He was one of the first commis- 
sioners of Taos county and also in the earlv history of the county served 
as probate judge. For fourteen years he was postmaster of Taos, having 
received his first appointment from President Grant ; took the first census 
of Taos county in 1870. was a member of the lower house of the terri- 
torial legislature in 1880-81, and of the council in 1889; has frequently 
been a delegate to territorial conventions, and was a delegate to the Phila- 
delphia convention that nominated McKinley and Roosevelt in 1900. He 
is a member of the Catholic church. 

Mr. Santistevan married Justa Sandoval, a native of Taos, daughter 
of Benito Sandoval. She died in 1894, leaving seven children, all daugh- 
ters, namely : Rafaelita, wife of Manuel Pacheco ; Jacintita, wife of Maxi- 
miano Romero; Virginia, wife of Agapito Martinez; Perfectita, wife of 
Dr. William A. Kittredge; Cirila, widow of Romulo Martinez; Margarita, 
wife of Donaciano Cordova ; Victoriana, wife of Bernabe Gonzales. 

New Mexico has been the home of few artists. Of those who have 
made the territory their temporary home and have painted its scenery and 
its Indian inhabitants, none have achieved success comparative to that which 
has accompanied the work of Bert Phillips, who, since September, 1898, 
has been studying Indian life at Taos. Air. Phillips was born at Hudson, 
New York. July" 15, 1868, the son of William J. and Elizabeth (Jessup) 
Phillips. At the age of sixteen he began the study of art in the Academy 
of Design, later going to Paris for further study. Upon his return to 
America he opened a studio in New York. In Columbia county, New 
York, he afterward spent some time, painting among the Shaker settle- 
ment there. Since coming to New Mexico he has done his best and most 
noteworthv work. Those of his Indian paintings which have attracted the 
mose widespread attention include. "A Prince of the Royal Blood," a full 
length portrait of one of the Taos Pueblo Indians, now the property of 
William H. Bartlett, of Chicago: "The Drummer," a figure picture now 
owned by T. A. Schomberg. of Trinidad, Colorado; "Medicine Water," a 
painting of one of the principales of Taos Pueblo, owned by Henry Koeh- 
ler, of" St. Louis; and "The Apache Chief," a portrait of an old Apache 
scout who served under Kit Carson, owned by C. K. Beekman, of New 
York. Besides these, two of his paintings were purchased by Joseph G. 
Butler. Jr., of Youngstown, Ohio, one by Paul Morton, one by Frederick- 
Remington, and five" bv Stanley McCormick. of Chicago. The greatest 
encouragement Mr. Phillips has received in his work has come from other 


artists who have seen his pictures on exhibition at the Academy of Design 
in New York. Many of these complimentary letters have come from men 
whom Mr. Phillips has never met. He has received letters of praise from 
such artists as E. A. Burbank, Lorado Taft, Frederick Remington and 
other artists of note, all of which he cherishes highly. 

Mr. Phillips was married at Shippensburg. Pennsylvania, October 15, 
1899, to Rose H. Martin. They have two children, Ralph Jessup and Mar- 
garet Elizabeth. 

Patrick Lyons, one of the prosperous and prominent ranchers of Taos 
county, New Mexico, was born in Kilriney, county Kildare, Ireland, in 
February, 1831, and was educated in the national schools of his native 
land. In 1854 he was drafted into the English army for the war between 
England and Russia, and to avoid military service there he came to Amer- 
ica, landing in New York, where, strange to say, he immediately enlisted 
in the First Regiment of Mounted Rifles. This command came west, had 
headquarters for a time at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas ; came to Fort Union, 
New Mexico, and took part in the Navajo war. Mr. Lyons remained in 
the army five years — years of almost constant Indian fighting — and during 
that time had the good fortune never to be ill or in the hospital. He was 
present at the "cleaning up" of the southern army under General Sibley. 
In the battle of Pigeon's Ranch he was in the detail that attacked the rear 
of the Texan army under Colonel Chavez. In 1862 he left the army and 
entered the service of the United States commissary department, herding 
cattle for the government, which he continued for a year and a half. After 
this he went to Virginia City, Montana, on a prospecting tour, and spent 
two years in mining at Summit City Gulch, at first working for wages, 
at fourteen dollars per day. Later he made a trip north, almost to the 
Canadian line, and was prevented from going further on account of the 
hostility of the Indians. From Virginia City, in 1865, he went down on 
the Laramie river, trapping and hunting near Fort Laramie. While there 
that winter he had charge of a herd of cattle for a man by the name of 
Ward. Next we find him at Leavenworth. Kansas, and for two years he 
worked in the quartermaster's department at old Fort Riley. From Kansas 
he came to Elizabethtown, New Mexico, and was among the first to begin 
mining operations in Grouse Gulch. Also, he opened Michigan Gulch, at 
first working by the day for a company. Afterward he bought out the 
company, with the exception of one man, John Moore, and continued 
mining successfully for three or four years. Then he went into the cattle 
business. First he bought about 200 head of milch cows, to this herd added 
some fine Kentucky bulls, and took his stock into the Moreno valley and 
Comanche gulch. He had four ranches in Van Bimmer canyon, with twenty- 
two miles of grazing land These claims he subsequently sold to the Max- 
well Land Grant Company. Previously he bought a place in Taos county, 
and in the '80s came and located here permanently, afterward buying an 
adjoining place, and here he has since continued to make his home and 
devote his time to farming. Mr. and Mrs. Lyons, formerly Miss Lucy 
Pew, are the parents of two daughters, Mary and Lulu, the former the 
wife of Frank Staplin. Lulu is the wife of Alphonso Hoy. Politically Mr. 
Lyons is a Republican. 



Rio Arriba was one of the original nine counties into which the Ter- 
ritory was divided by the act of January 9, 1852, and its boundaries are 
therein described as below : On the south from the Puertacito of Pojuaque, 
drawing a direct line toward the west in the direction of the mesilla of 
San Ildefonso; from the mesilla, crossing the Rio del Norte toward the 
west, and continuing until it reaches the boundaries of the Territory ; draw- 
ing a direct line from the said Puertacito de Pojuaque toward the east 
until it reaches the last house of the town of Cundiyo toward the south, 
continuing the same line until it reaches the highest point of the mountain 
of Nambe; thence., following the summit of the mountain, toward the 
north, until it reaches the southern boundary of the county of Taos, this 
shall constitute the eastern boundary, and on the north the boundary of 
the county of Taos, and on the east the boundary line of the Territory. 

As thus described, the old county comprised virtually the northwest- 
ern portion of the Territory, and it was not until the formation of San 
Juan count)' to the west, in 1884, that it assumed its present bounds. As 
now constituted it has an area of 7,150 square miles, and a population of 
about 14,000 — nearly the same as Valencia. It is located in the first north- 
ern tier of counties and the second from the west. 

Physical Features and Resources. — The main channel of the Rio Grande 
cuts through the southeastern corner of the county, the Rio Chama, which 
is its main branch in Rio Arriba, rising in Colorado and flowing south 
and southeast, drains much of the central, eastern and southeastern sec- 
tions. Jt receives many affluents from the north and south, all of which 
are bordered by fertile valleys. The northeast corner of the countv is 
watered by the Rio San Antonio and Rio de los Pinos, running through 
a fine country eastward to the Rio Grande. 

The principal agriculture of Rio Arriba county is found in these val- 
leys. Wheat is raised in these sections in considerable quantities both for 
home consumption and export. The Gallinas valley is also a producer of 
that cereal. Some of the largest and finest orchards in the Territory are 
in the Rio Grande valley ; in fact, the first fine peaches that were intro- 
duced from the east were planted at Rinconada. All kinds of fruit do well 
in this section of the county, plums and prunes being perhaps the surest 
and most prolific crops. 

The soil of the valleys is composed of a rich silt, of inexhaustible 
fertility, and, with proper irrigation, the possibilities are great. Besides 
the river valleys there is a valley called Laguna de los Caballos, about 
eighteen miles southwest of Tierra A'marilla, the county seat. The lake 
itself has an area of about 20.000 acres and it will store enough water to 
irrigate 10,000 acres of land. North and northwest, to the northern bound- 
ary of the county, are some twenty lakes, varying in area from 100 to 600 


acres, with water sufficient tc irrigate probably 25,000 acres. The quality 
of the surrounding land is generally excellent. This country is already 
a paradise for sportsmen, as almost all kinds of fish and game are plentiful. 

Altogether Rio Arriba county has a very diversified surface. In the 
middle and east it is marked by great ranges of mountains, the Atlantic 
and Pacific Divide coining down through its central districts. On the west 
the water flows through the San Juan system toward the Gulf of California, 
and on the east through the Rio Grande system toward the Gulf of Mexico. 
The great lumber-producing region of the county, and one of the most im- 
portant in New Mexico is east of the Divide and the lake country. Pifion 
and cedar are annually cut in great quantities from the Tierra Amarilla 
grant, in the vicinity of Chama, and from the Petaca grant, further east. 
Tres Piedras, on the eastern border of the county, a station on the Denver 
& Rio Grande, is an important shipping point. 

The mineral resources of Rio Arriba are principally gold and copper, 
together with mica and some other industrial minerals. Along the Chama 
river for a distance of twenty miles, commencing about five miles above 
Abiquiu, are extensive placer gravel beds. There are other deposits, both 
in leads and placers, about twenty miles west of Tres Piedras, and at a 
place called Bromide, nearer that town, are rich silver deposits. Copper 
is found in the main range of mountains in the east, in the vicinity of 
Abiquiu. on the Arroyo Cobre. The largest beds of mica are near the town 
of Petaca. The largest coal fields are near Amargo and Monero, the latter 
a station on the branch of the Denver & Rio Grande which penetrates 
the northern part of the county. 

Towns. — Tierra Amarilla, the county seat of Rio Arriba, is the center 
of a finely cultivated country, well irrigated and attractive. It is one of 
the oldest towns in this section of New Mexico, having been settled under 
a grant from the Mexican government in the 'thirties. Its trade, especially 
in live stock, wool and grain, is quite large. Los Ojos, Park View, La 
Puenta and a number of small towns surround and depend upon it. 

Chamita, near the southeastern boundary, on the line of the Denver 
& Rio Grande, is in the midst of a splendid fruit country, and Abiquiu, 
twenty miles to the northwest, on the Chama river, is surrounded by wheat 
fields, ranches and deposits of gold and copper. The old Indian pueblo 
of Abiquiu has been deserted for some time, but the modem town covers 
much of the same ground. Chama, near the northern boundary of the 
county, is surrounded by fine pine forests into which the saw mills are 
rapidly eating, by sandstone quarries and big sheep and cattle ranches, 
it being quite a brisk shipping center for building material and live- 



As described by the Territorial act of January 9, 1852, dividing New 
Mexico into nine counties, Valencia had the following bounds : On the 
south, drawing a line from a point between the town of Jose Pino and the 
house of Jose Antonio Chavez toward the east in the direction of the Bocas 
de Abo, and continuing said line along the Gabilan mountain until it ter- 
minates with the boundaries of the Territorv ; drawing a direct line from 
the starting point of the eastern line, crossing the Rio del Norte, touching 
the dividing line between Belen and Sabinal ; continuing the line in the 
direction of the Puerto de la Bolita de Oro until it terminates with the 
boundary of the Territorv ; on the north to be bounded by the county of 

Valencia is in the first tier of western counties, and has as its northern 
neighbor the old county of Bernalillo and the new county of McKinley, 
and, as its southern, Socorro, also one of the original nine counties, but now 
sadly reduced in territory. The county of Valencia has a population of 
14,000 and an area of 9,400 square miles. 

Resources of the County. — Even after the cutting off of the county 
of Torrance in 1904, Valencia remained one of the larsrest counties in New 
Mexico, being a little larger than New Hampshire and smaller than Ver- 
mont. The valley of the Rio Grande in its southeastern portion is its 
garden spot, producing good crops of wheat, barley, oats, corn, beans, chile 
peppers, alfalfa and fruits. The greatest spread of orchards is in the neigh- 
borhood of Los Lunas, the county seat, and Belen, the largest town and 
commercial center. In the valleys of the San Jose, peaches and grapes are 
the staple fruit crops, and there are single farms that yield tens of thou- 
sands of pounds of the Mission grape. 

Among connoisseurs the wine and brandy of Valencia county have a 
high reputation. Only the finest fruit is used to distill brandy, and the 
wine is made of pure juice without artificial sweetening. To satisfy those 
who prefer a very sweet wine, the vintners take the residue of the grapes 
after the wine is made, press it and boil the juice down to a thick syrup. 
This is added to the wine as a sweetener. The Mission grape is almost as 
sugarv as a raisin, and its wine really needs no added sugar. 

In addition to the Rio Grande valley, the valleys of the San Jose and 
the Rio Puerco are very fertile, and in the different settlements all along 
them small grains and fruits are raised in abundance. 

The highlands, valleys and hillsides are covered with rich grass, and 
the numerous springs and creeks make it possible to produce wool, mutton 
and beef at low cost. The wool industry has proven to be the most profit- 
able, and some of the wealthiest men in New Mexico have derived their 
revenues from the prosecution of this industry in Valencia countv. The 
Rio Grande valley of the county has always been the home of many of the 


wealthiest and most influential families among the Spanish population, and 
from here nearly all the governors who were residents of New Mexico were 

The mineral resources of Valencia county are extremely varied. A few 
miles west of the Rio Grande the coal measures begin, and extend almost 
in a continuous body to the western boundary, including an area nearly a 
hundred miles long by fifty wide. Coal crops out on all the higher mesas. 
Salt is found in large quantities in the Zuni mountains, the lakes of brine in 
that region being well known. There are gold and copper mines in this 
district. Gypsum is found near El Rito, adjoining the Atlantic & Pacific 
Railroad, and is considered very valuable as a fertilizer. In the western 
part of the county along the line of the same road are extensive deposits 
of sandstone and granite and other building stone. 

Towns. — Los Lunas, the county seat, is beautifully situated in the Rio 
Grande valley, on die main line of the A., T. & S. F. At this point for 
miles the valley presents a continuous succession of prosperous looking 
farms and orchards, with an occasional postoffice and surrounding settle- 
ment. But the greatest commercial development is further south, with 
Belen as its center. 

With the construction of that portion of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa 
Fe Railway system, known as the Belen Cut-Off, in 1904-0, the section of 
the Territory immediately affected began to develop very rapidly. The 
town of Belen, at first little more than a railroad construction camp, de- 
veloped into a place of 1,200 people in 1906. The site is now owned by the 
Belen Town and Improvement Company, of which John Becker is presi- 
dent and William M. Becker, secretary. In 1905-6 a public schoolhouse 
was erected at a cost of $16,000; a commercial club was organized; a roller 
flour mill was built, with a capacity of 150 barrels per day; a large winery 
was established, and a weekly newspaper — the Belen Tribune — began 
publication, under the management of William M. Berger. The Commer- 
cial Club was incorporated January 8, 1906, by Charles Reinken (president ) : 
William M. Berger (vice-president), H. Emory Davis (secretary), and John 
Becker, Jr. (treasurer), and erected a two-story brick building costing 
$8,000. The railroad works at Belen include a large roundhouse, a forty- 
eight pocket coal chute, a handsome Harvey eating house, somewhat after 
the design of the Castenada at Las Vegas, a Harvey curio shop, a com- 
modious depot, offices, etc. The railroad yards are a mile and a half long, 
six hundred feet wide, and will contain upward of sixty miles of track. 
Large quantities of wood, hay, beans, flour, fruit and wine are shipped 
annually. The railroad has allowed the impression to go forth that all 
fast limited, mail and freight trains, will pass over this part of the line, 
making a great saving in distance and time between Chicago and the 
Pacific coast. 

In the northwestern part of the county, in what is called the San Mateo 
country, near Mount Taylor, are San Mateo, San Rafael and Cubero, Mex- 
ican towns of importance, and in the far west, in the Zuni district, is the 
Mormon town of Kamah. 

Some Early Settlers. — Demas Provencher, or Provencer, a native of 
France, was one of the early inhabitants of Valencia ( now a part of Mc- 
Kinley) county. He established a general merchandising business, and 
erected a mill at El Gallo, three miles southwest of Grant's station, adjoin- 


ing the present San Rafael, and upon the site of old Fort Wingate. He 
became widely known throughout that section of the Territory, and by 
reason of his generous disposition, his public spirit and inclination to be of 
practical use to the community at large, was highly respected. He married 
a sister of Father Bran, a French Catholic priest stationed at El Gallo. In 
1892. while engaged in canvassing the votes cast in his precinct at an 
election, in company with another official, he was killed by a shot fired 
through the window near which he sat. As he had no known enemies, it 
was generally believed that the shot was intended for his companion, and 
that it was fired by Jose el Coyote, a Mexican desperado who had been the 
author of numerous criminal disturbances. 

Ramon A. Baca, who lived at San Mateo in the davs immediately fol- 
lowing the Civil war, was another widely known man. It is said that when 
he first located there he was so utterlv destitute that he killed a prairie 
dog with his gun in order to provide food for his wife and children. He 
engaged in the stock business, raising cattle, horses and sheep, and amassed 
a fortune. For years he lived like a feudal lord, spending his money like 
Croesus, entertaining lavishly, and making his journey through the country 
with a coach and four horses. During the Apache wars he commanded a 
company of native militia, great pomp and dignity characterizing all his 
military movements, though the records do not mention any especially active 
service performed by him. Like many of his contemporaries, he suffered 
the loss of his entire fortune during the panic of 1893-4. and died about 
two years later in comparative poverty. 

Judge J. M. Latta. of Boston, Mass., who organized the Zurii Mountain 
Cattle Company about 1883 and for some time thereafter was occupied in 
the industry with headquarters at Bluewater. was one of the widely known 
operators in that section. W. IT. TIulvcv. his nephew, now a banker of 
Chicago, was his ranch foreman and superintendent for several years. 
Judge Latta came into the Territory as a tie contractor with the Atlantic & 
Pacific Railroad. 

Ridener & Baker, a wholesale grocery firm of Kansas City, with Jose 
Joseph E. Saint, entered the cattle business in 1883. organized a corpora- 
tion known as the Acoma Land & Cattle Companv, with headquarters at 
Acoma station. Their operations were quite extensive for many vears, but 
they suffered severe financial reverses about 18Q4. 

Paul B. Dalies, vice-president of the Tohn Becker Company at Belen, 
Valencia countv, located at this place in 1889 and entered the employ of the 
John Becker Company, with which he has since been connected, his ability 
and fidelitv winning him successive promotions until in 1902, upon the in- 
corporation of the company, he was elected to the office of vice-president. 
He is also a member of the board of regents of the Orphan Children's Home 
at Belen, under appointment from Governor Otero. 

William M. Berger. attornev and counselor at law, and secretary and 
general manager of the Town and Improvement Companv of Belen, Xew 
Mexico, is a native of New York city, and in early manhood enlisted for 
service in the Civil war as first sergeant in Company G, of the Eighth 
Regiment of Xew York Volunteers. He served in. the campaigns of the 
Armv of the Potomac, and is a member of the Grand Armv of the Re- 
public, and held important staff appointments under the commander-in- 
chief of that organization. Following his return from the war he studied 


law with the Hon. Solomon Noble, corporation attorney, and ex- 
Judge Stemmler of New York, and was admitted to the bar in the Em- 
pire state in 1868, after which he practiced continuously in New York 
city until 1880, being attorney for Steinway & Sons, piano forte manufac- 
turers, until 1880. That year' witnessed his arrival in Santa Fe, New Mex- 
ico, where he opened a law office and also operated largely in real estate 
speculations. He conducted large real estate operations in Las Vegas, New 
Mexico, where his labors were a decided impetus in establishing and con- 
ducting the new town of Las Vegas: He also established the new town of 
Santa Fe, assisted in organizing the Board of Trade, the Board of Under- 
writers and the first fire department of the Territory. In Santa Fe he as- 
sisted in the organization of the Territorial Historical Society, and has 
been re-elected its secretary for the twenty-sixth time. He is the pioneer 
insurance agent of the Territory, and has sold real estate and has conducted 
real estate operations also in Silver City, Deming and Socorro. He is now 
building up the new town of Belen and is secretary and general manager 
of the Belen Town and Improvement Company, also secretary and general 
manager of the Willard Town and Improvement Company. He is like- 
wise general counsel for the John Becker Company, who have mercantile 
establishments in Belen and other towns of New Mexico. He left Santa 
Fe in 1903 and removed to Belen, where he opened an office and is now 
conducting the extensive real estate operations above mentioned, having 
negotiated many important property transfers. For five years he was 
owner and editor of the weekly Capitol at Santa Fe, from 1897 until 1902, 
and now owner and proprietor of the Belen Tribune, located at Belen, a 
Republican paper of considerable influence in New Mexico. Thus his inter- 
ests have been closely associated with many movements which have had 
direct and important bearing upon the Territory, its substantial growth and 

Mr. Berger is a charter member of the New Mexico Bar Association, 
and during the peripd of his residence in the Territory has continued in 
the practice of law as well as in real estate operations, and in many fields 
of activity into which he has directed his energies. He was United States 
receiver of public money of New Mexico at Santa Fe from 1889 until 1893, 
serving with high honor, but refused a reappointment under the Cleveland 
administration. He made the first call and was the first president of the 
Territorial Fire Association of New Mexico. He was the organizer and 
first president of the Territorial Press Association, of which he is now the 
secretary. He is vice-president of the Good Roads Association and founder 
of the Educational Association of New Mexico. Prominent in Masonry, he 
has filled all of the chairs in the lodge and Royal Arch Chapter, and is a 
member of Montezuma Lodge No. 1, of Santa Fe. He is also a leading and 
active member of Santa Fe Lodge No. 1. K. of P.: past grand chancellor of 
the Territorv and supreme representative. Few citizens have taken a more 
active part in advancing the material, intellectual and political progress of 
the Territory than Mr. Berger. His mind seems to have compassed the 
entire measure of possibilities, looking beyond the exigencies of the present 
to the opportunities of the future, and while working toward the ideal, he 
has used the means at hand in practical methods that have produced valued 
and beneficial results. 

He is a married man, having married Miss Mary E. Combes, of New 



York city. They have two daughters, Miss Ella May and Miss Edna E., 
both of whom have filled and are now filling positions of trust and honor in 
the Territory. 

Simon Neustadt, a merchant and postmaster at Los Lunas, took up his 
abode in that city in 1879 and entered mercantile circles as a successor to 
his brother, Samuel Neustadt, who removed to Albuquerque, where with 
another brother, Louis Neustadt. be opened a general mercantile store in 
what was then the Armijo Hotel. This was continued for five years, when 
the firm sold out, Samuel remaining in New Mexico, while Louis went to 
New York. 

Simon Neustadt continued merchandising for about seven years at Los 
Lunas, and then removed to El Paso, but in 1887 returned and again en- 
tered mercantile circles by purchasing the store of Louis and Henry Huning, 
continuing in that business for three years. He then bought out L F. Levy, 
which store he has occupied continuously since, being one of the enterprising 
merchants of the town. In 1896 he was appointed postmaster. 

George H. Pradt, a civil engineer living in Laguna, was born in Penn- 
sylvania, reared in Wisconsin, and came to New Mexico in 1869 to make 
a survey of the Navajo Indian reservation. After completing this work 
he returned to the east, but in the meantime had become greatly interested 
in and attached to this part of the countrv, and resolved to locate perma- 
nently in the Territory'. Accordinglv he arrived in 1872 at Santa Fe, and 
was employed in the surveyor general's office. He made his headquarters 
at Santa Fe while engaged on government surveys until 1876, when he 
came to Laguna,. where he has since lived. He acted as public land sur- 
veyor until 1903, and also did private surveying and general engineering 
work, while for several years he was county surveyor of Valencia county. 
He has devoted about five years to the cattle business, and whatever he 
undertakes he carries forward to successful completion. 

Mr. Pradt has not only become well known in connection with the 
practice of his chosen profession, but also has a wide and favorable acquaint- 
ance by reason of what he has done in behalf of public welfare. For one 
term he was governor of the Laguna Pueblo Indians. He served in the 
New Mexico militia with the rank of first lieutenant of Company I, Second 
Regiment of Infantry, in 1882, while in 7883 he became captain and in the 
same year was made major of the First Regiment of Cavalry. He acted as 
lieutenant-colonel from 1885 until 1887 in the Second Regiment of Cavalry, 
and in 1890 was commissioned captain of Company C of the First Regiment 
of Infantry, while in 1892 and 189^ he was major and inspector of rifle 
practice on the governor's staff. He also served in Company K of the 
Fortieth Regiment of Wisconsin Volunteers as corporal in the Civil war, 
and in Company A. Forty-ninth Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, and partici- 
pated in manv engagements along the Mississippi and in various military 
movements in northern Mississippi and Tennessee, mostly against the bush- 
whackers. He is a member of G. K. Warren Post, G. A. R., Albuquerque, 
and thus maintains pleasant relations with his old army comrades. He has 
acted as deputy United States marshal and justice of the peace, and the 
duties of those positions were performed in a most capable manner. He dis- 
plays the same fidelity of which he gave proof when on southern battlefields 
in the Civil war and which has always characterized his public service, 
whether in office or out of it. 


Simon Bibo, engaged in merchandising at Laguna, New Mexico, ar- 
rived in die Territory in 1866, traveling to Santa Fe with a bull train, 
bringing merchandise over the Santa Fe trail for Spiegelberg Brothers, of 
that city. He was in the employ of Spiegelberg Brothers until 1869, when 
he established a mercantile store at Seboyeta. In 1870 he took government 
contracts for Fort Apache and freighted from Seboyeta by bull trains. 
In 1873 he established a store at Bernalillo in partnership with his brother, 
Nathan Bibo. this relation being maintained until he sold out in 1892 to 
Joe Bibo. 

Mr. Bibo opened the first road from Zufii to Fort Apache. In 1880, 
when the railroad was built, he opened a store at Grants, which he con- 
tinues to the present time, and in 1893 he established a branch store at 
Laguna. He now has large stores at Laguna, Grants and Seboyeta, and is 
thus closely associated with the mercantile interests of this section of the 
Territory. His brother. Solomon Bibo, established a store at Cubero in 
1885. and in 1898 Simon Bibo purchased that store, but in 1904 sold it to 
Emil and Leopold Bibo. In connection with his extensive mercantile in- 
terests he is likewise interested in buying and selling sheep, lambs and wool. 
His political allegiance is given to the Republican party. 

John M. Gunn, a cattleman, miller and merchant living at Laguna, is 
a native of Hardin county, Ohio. He came to Laguna in 1881, and here 
became connected with the cattle industry and with surveying. Four years 
later he formed a partnership with his brother, K. C. C. Gunn, in the cattle 
business, with which they have since been identified. In 1904 they estab- 
lished a mercantile store at I-aguna under the firm name of Gunn Brothers. 
In 1893 Mr. Gunn built a flour mill at Laguna. which he enlarged in 1903 
until it has a capacity of forty barrels a day. Here he has a steam plant 
and the grain used is principally raised in this vicinity. The chief brand of 
flour is the "Pansy," and he supplies a large local demand and does custom 
work. He also has a cattle ranch about twenty-five miles south of Laguna. 
He located large beds of lithographic limestone, which are now being 
operated by the New Mexico Pumice Stone Company, and the officers of this 
enterprise are : E. E. Lemke, president : John Davern, vice-president ; 
M. YV. Flournoy. treasurer, and E. B. Christy, secretary. Mr. Gunn is 
interested 'largely in this undertaking. 

He has had some military experience, having served as first lieutenant 
of the Laguna troop of mounted militia in the Apache war. He also served 
for several years in the Territorial militia, reaching the rank of captain. 



As defined by the territorial act of January g, 1852, Socorro county 
stretched across New Mexico, with the following bounds: On the south, 
drawing a direct line to the eastward from the Muerto Spring in the Jornada 
in the direction of La Laguna, and continuing until it terminates with the 
boundary of the Territory ; drawing a direct line toward the west from said 
Muerto Spring, crossing the Rio del Norte and continuing in the same 
direction until it terminates with the boundary of the Territory, shall be the 
southern boundary, and the northern boundary is the southern extremity of 
the county of Valencia. 

As now constituted, Socorro is by far the largest county in New Mexico, 
having an area of 15,386 square miles, or about the size of Maryland, Dela- 
ware and Rhode Island combined. It is in the first tier of counties to the 
west, and is still bounded by Valencia, with a portion of Torrance county 
on the north, and Grant, Sierra and Dona Ana on the south, Lincoln lying 
to the east. It has a population of over 12,000. 


The records of the county are quite incomplete, but from those in exist- 
ence the following are ascertained to have held the offices named : 

Probate Judges. — 1851-4, Pedro Baca ; 1855-6, Juan Jose Baca ; 1857-60, Manuel 
Vigil : 1861-3. Pedro Baca; 1S64. L. M. Baca; 1865-6, Jose Antonio Baca v Pino; 
1867, J. M. Shaw; 1868-9. Vivian Baca; 1870-2. Dionicio Jaramillo ; 1873," L. M. 
Baca; 1874-5, Matias Contreras ; 1876, Numa Raymond: 1877-8, Estanislao Mon- 
toya; 1870-80. Desiderio Montoyri : 1881-2, Pedro Baca; 1885-7, George W. Hollen- 
beck; 1888. Esquipula Pino: 1890-00. Francis Buchanan; 1891-2. Esquipula' Pino; 
1895-4. Camilo Baca; 1895-6, Candelaria Garcia; 1897-1902, Jose E. Torras ; 1003-4, 
Mauricio Miera ; 1905-6. Henry Dreyfus. 

Probate Clerks. — 1857-8, Vicente St. Vrain ; 1859-60, Andres Romero; 1863-5, 
L. M. Vaca (also spelled Baca); 1866-7. Julian J. Truiillo; Pedro A. Baca: 1872-3, 
Sevara A. Baca; 1875, Desiderio Montoya; 1876-84. J. M. Chaves; 1885-6. E. V. 
Chaves; 1887-8, Jesus M Luna y S. ; 1889-92. E. V. Chavez; 1893-4. Estanislao Pino; 
1895-6, Elfego Baca: 1897-8. Edward L. Fortune; 1899-1902. Hermene G. Baca; 
1903-6, Boleslo A. Pino. 

Sheriffs. — 1857-60, Luis Tafoya ; 1862, Miguel de Luna; 1865-8. Jesus Ribera ; 
1S74-6. Luis Tafoya; 1877-80, Juan Maria Garcia; 1881-2. Andre Montoya; 1883-4. 
Pedro A. Simpson : 1885-8. Charles T. Russell ; 1889-92. Charles A. Robinson ; 1893-4, 
Leopoldo Contreras; 1895-8, H. O. Bursum ; 1899-1902. C. F. Blackington ; 1903-6, 
Leandro Baca. 

Treasurers. — 1866, Atanacio Abeyta : 1882. Antonio Jose Luna ; 1885. J. W. 
Terry: 1887-8. Millard W. Browne; 18S0-90. W. D. Burlingame; 1S91-2. Millard W. 
Browne: 1893-6, E. L. Browne; 1807-1902. Abram Abeyta: 1903-4, Hermene G. Baca; 
1905-6, Jose E. Torres. 

Assessors. — 1887-90, Leandro Baca; 1S01-2, Justiniano Baca; 1893-6, Nestor P. 
Eaton; 1807-8, Cipriano Baca: 1890-1900, Constancio Miera: 1901-4. Benjamin San- 
chez : 1905-6. John F. Fullerton (resigned, and A. B. Baca appointed to fill the 
unexpired term"). 


County Commissioners. — 1876, Antonio Abeytia y Armijo (chairman), Julian 
Montoya. Tomas Gonzales: 1877-8, Deonicio Jaramillo (chairman), Geronimo Cha- 
vez, Rafael Tofoya ; 1879-80, Jose M. Apodaca (chairman), Felipe Peralta, Lucas 
Pino; 1881-2, Tomas Cordova (chairman), Julian Montoya, Richard Stackpole (J. 
M. Shaw was appointed to fill the unexpired term of Richard Stackpole ) : 1883-4, 
Matias Contreras (chairman), F. M. Speare. Vivian Baca; 1885-6, Matins Contreras 
(chairman), Vivian Baca, J. W. Virgin; 1887, Dinnicio Jaramillo (chairman), Lu- 
ciana Chavez, Alexander Laird: 188S. C. N. Blackwell (chairman), Luciano Chavez, 
S. C. Vaughn; 1889-90, John M. Tyler (chairman), W. W. Jones. Nestor Gonzales 
(J. W. McMullen appointed to succeed J. M. Tyler); 1891-2, Eutimio Montoya 
(chairman), Arcadio Sais, W. W. Jones; 1S93-4, C. T. Brown (chairman). Anas- 
tacio Trupillo, W. W. Jones; 1895-96, C. T. Brown (chairman), Anastacio Trujillo, 
Clement Hightower: 1897-8. \V. W. Jones (chairman). Ramon C. Montoya, Manuel 
A. Pino; 1899-1900. A. Schley (chairman). F. G. Bartlett, Gregorio Baca; 1901-2, 
John Greenwald (chairman). M. Contreras, A. E. Rouiller; 1903-4. John Greenwald 
(chairman), Abram Contreras. Carnio Padilla ; 1905-6, F.douardo Jaramillo (chair- 
man), Abram Contreras, Alfredo Armijo. 

Physical Geography. — When it is remembered that Socorro county ex- 
tends from central New Mexico to the Arizona boundary, a distance of nearly 
170 miles, and that its north and south expansion is about two-thirds as 
great, one is prepared for the statement that its physical features are varied. 
It contains the most magnificent area of valley land of any county in the 
Territory, and the greatest variety of natural resources. Roughly esti- 
mated, of its area of 9,600,000 acres 2,700,000 are mountainous and the 
balance fit for agriculture or pasture. 

Socorro county has three distinct classes of lands : The agricultural, 
which, as a rule, are found on the Rio Grande and other streams which 
traverse the Territory : the uplands, or mesas, especially adapted to grazing, 
and which abound with nutritious grasses, and the mountain ranges, several 
of which are covered with a luxuriant growth of timber. In the western 
part of the county, near the Arizona line, are found the Tularosa and San 
Francisco with their multitude of affluents, and along their valleys are other 
large bodies of good land. 

The Rio Grande valley in this county is bounded on the west by the 
Socorro, Magdalena and San Mateo mountains, whose average elevation is 
about ,9,000 feet, with some peaks reaching a height of over 10.000 feet. 
On the east the Sierra Oscura, part of the frontal range of the Rockies, walls 
in the valley. The first named ranges are very precipitous on their eastward 
faces, and their rocks are granitic or eruptive in character. Between the 
Black Range and the Mogollons is a great timber belt, whose forests con- 
tinue to the summits of the bounding mountains, and within this area runs 
the continental divide. 

Resources. — On account of its great extent and physical diversity, the 
resources of Socorro county are of wonderful variety, embracing agricul- 
tural and horticultural crops of both the temperate and warmer zones, live- 
stock of all kinds, and minerals of a bewildering range. The farms of the 
count)- are principally found in the Rio Grande valley, beginning at Sabinal, 
about thirty miles north of Socorro, and then stretching down to the beau- 
tiful fields of San Marcial, near the southern boundary. Most of this 
section is easily irrigated, and much more land than is now cultivated might 
easily be reclaimed. On the ninety miles of the course of the Rio Grande in 
this county there are over 150,000 acres of land easy to reclaim in the first 
bottoms. On the mesas and bench lands there are 100,000 acres more. 


Wheat is the largest product of the valley, and is of a very superior 
quality. Every year sees a greater acreage of alfalfa, which is a very profit- 
able crop. Corn with proper care will yield seventy bushels to the acre. 
Oats, barley and rye furnish unfailing crops far in excess of those produced 
in the Atlantic states on the same acreage. All the products of the eastern, 
and with few exceptions those of the Gulf states, thrive in this valley and 
vield unfailing crops. 

The cattle interests of Socorro county are very large, both the abundant 
forage and the climate being especially favorable to the growth of this 
branch of live stock. The mild, open winters permit the animals to use 
their food for the making of flesh and not for the creation of heat. The im- 
mense flocks of sheep range principally over the western sections of the 
countv. and here are also the largest cattle ranches. It is the region from 
which flow the headwaters of the San Francisco and Gila rivers, each with 
its numerous feeders. It is also a fortunate peculiarity of this portion of 
Socorro county, not only that there are numerous small streams which come 
from the mountains and run some distance into the plains, but that many 
springs are scattered over the country. 

As a mineral county Socorro is remarkably rich, and the deposits are 
well distributed in the mountainous regions, which are not confined to 
special sections. In the celebrated Magdalena district, with Kelly as its 
center, are argentiferous galena, gray copper, copper pyrites, iron and zinc. 
The Water canyon district to the east produces placer gold, galena, copper, 
zinc and manganese. In the Socorro mountain district are found chloride 
of silver, blue carbonate of copper, green carbonates of copper, galena, while 
far to the west, in the ranges of the Mogollon and Datil districts, are rich 
deposits of gold, silver, variegated copper, silver-bearing gray copper and 
galena. Of all the mineral districts in Socorro county the greatest output 
has come from the silver-lead mines at Kelly, which for years supplied the 
Rio Grande smelter at Socorro with the great bulk of the ore treated there. 

The City of Socorro. — Socorro, the county seat, is a city of about 1,500 
people. It is the first important point in the Rio Grande valley south of 
Albuquerque, and before the advent of railroads into the Territory, in 1879- 
80, it promised to rival Santa Fe. Many of the early settlers, who were 
driven from the provincial capital either by Indians or Mexican revolu- 
tionists, located at this point, which therefore came to be called Socorro — 
translated, meaning "succor," or "stop here." 

Socorro was incorporated as a city through the efforts of William T. 
De Baun, who was elected its first mayor in 1882. But the sturdy growth 
of Albuquerque and Las Vegas to the north cut off much of its trade. This 
general cause for its retarded progress was intensified by local obstacle 1 -. 
which are explained hereafter. 

The city of Socorro reached the climax of its prosperitv in 1883-4. 
In that vear the new town of Lake Vallev received a great impetus, and 
many who had interests in Socorro joined the rush to the new place. In 
1884-5 August Billings erected a smelter about two miles west of Socorro, 
chieflv for the smelting of lead ores, which carried an average of $5 to $6 in 
silver per ton. After a few years of operation under private control, the 
smelter was sold to the trust and soon afterward was shut down. 

About this time the United States Land Court decided that the Socorro 
land grant of about 880.000 acres was fraudulent and set it aside. This de- 


cision was the climax to the woes of the community, from which it never 
has recovered. In passing upon this grant the court set aside four square 
leagues of land as a community grant for Socorro city, thus quieting titles ' 
which otherwise would have been rendered void. 

Like most Xew Mexican towns in the early days, Socorro suffered 
greatly from the presence of a strong rough element. Following the murder 
of Conkling, editor of a local newspaper, who was attempting to maintain 
order while conducting Christmas Eve festivities in the Methodist Episcopal 
church (in 1880), a committee of safety was organized in January, 1881. 
There has been a great difference of opinion as to the character of the work 
of this committee and its effect upon the growth of the community. Though 
some condemned the measures which it adopted to end the reign of terror 
following the Conkling tragedy, there is no doubt that it accomplished some 
beneficial results. 

Several instances are recited where the Mexican inhabitants were sum- 
marily dealt with, being given no opportunity to defend themselves. On the 
other hand, many men were punished for crimes committed, who, without 
the presence of the committee, might have continued their lawless depreda- 
tions. In 1884, after a killing by the committee, a public meeting was called 
in the old court house. The result was a compromise between the friends 
and enemies of the committee by which the organization was dissolved. 
But not long afterward the body was reorganized for the purpose of hang- 
ing, without process of law, a notorious character named Joseph Fowler, 
who was a ranchman residing near Socorro. 

After selling his ranch for $50,000, Fowler came to town, drank heavily, 
and during his spree stabbed a man named Kahl, a prospector of Engle. 
He was tried and convicted of the crime, but appealed. While in jail, pend- 
ing the appeal and under a heavy guard, a mob composed largely of the 
original members of the committee of safety overpowered the guard, took 
the prisoner from the jail and hanged him. Fowler was accused of several 
murders, and the simple accusation seems to have been equivalent to convic- 
tion. The news of this lynching brought Socorro into such notoriety that 
the majority of law-abiding people of the Territory shunned the town there- 
after, and its decline from that day forth was steady. 

San Marcial. — Although not an incorporated town, San Marcial is a 
place of about 1,000 inhabitants, located in the Rio Grande valley, south of 
Socorro. In the early days it was a stage station on the road to Fort Craig, 
and prior to the eighties quite a settlement had been established. Just after 
the railroad had reached this point, in the winter of 1880-1, San Marcial 
was destroyed by fire, but its rebuilding soon began. 

By the fall of 1881 Fred M. Spear had erected a general store. At its 
completion there were three shacks in town, but his building was of rather a 
more durable character, and is considered the commencement of the new- 

The chief drawback to the rebuilding of San Marcial was the difficulty 
of obtaining good titles to property. It was a typical "squatter town," and 
previous to the latter portion of 1882 the titles rested solely on quit-claim 
deeds, which were little better than none at all. After the test ejectment suit 
against Simon Levser had been decided in the courts against the property 
holder, the San Marcial Land and Improvement Company was organized 
to protect buyers of real estate. They filed a town-site plat in October, 


1882, and, through Hugh H. Smith and Thomas Biggs, the original heirs, 
gave a clear title to settlers of 4,000 acres of land. The tract was formerly 
a portion of the Armenderez grant. Martin Zimmerman was president oi 
the company, and a man named Sedgwick was its attorney. 

At this time, which is the real commencement of the founding of the 
new town, Simon Leyser was also re-establishing himself as a general mer- 
chant, being, after Mr. Spear, the pioneer in that line. Isaac and Abram 
Schey were also engaged in general merchandising, and W. H. Featherson 
was the first grocer. E. C. Rockwell was proprietor of a grocery and 
bakery, and J. V. Allen, who later started a dry goods and hardware store, 
kept a saloon. G. P. Edwards was both druggist and postmaster, and Dr. 
C. G. Cruikshank practiced medicine. Dr. C. F. Davis (deceased) was also 
in that professional" field. H. H. Howard, the editor, is now dead, while his 
wife is postmistress of San Marcial. J. E. Nichols, who is still living, in 
1882 was running a real estate and an insurance office and a barber shop. 
L. C. Broyles, J. M. Broyles and James G. Fitch (now of Socorro) were 
also in business, and an attorney named Clark had but recently hung his sign. 

Other Towns. — The other growing towns in the county are mostly lo- 
cated in the mining districts. Magdalena, in the district by that name, is 
twenty-three miles northwest of Socorro, and is the center of a carbonate 
ore camp; with Kelly, the center of numerous silver-lead camps, it is con- 
nected with the county seat by a spur of the A., T. & S. F. road. Carthage, 
a little further to the south, and the shipping point for the surrounding coal 
fields, has similar railroad facilities. Limitar, Polvadera and La Joya. north 
of Socorro, rely for their growth upon agriculture, horticulture, viniculture, 
wine and stock-raising. In the western part of the count)' are Cooney, 
located on the creek by that name, in the Moeollon mountains, and known 
as a gold, silver and lead camp ; Alma, at the mouth of Cooney creek and 
canyon, the center of an extensive stock country and a trading point for the 
mining district; and Joseph, on Tularosa creek, near the Arizona line, lo- 
cated in a region of ancient ruins, in which the most beautiful Aztec pottery 
has been found. 

Leandro Baca, sheriff of Socorro county, was born in Lajoya, New 
Mexico, March 8, 1851, a son of Tomas and Consicion (Chaves) Baca, both 
natives of Valencia count v. New Mexico. The father was a farmer, 
freighter and stock raiser, and freighted on the Santa Fe trail to Kansas 
City, Leavenworth and to California, making these trips in 1848 to sell 
sheep, in company with Governor Otero's father. The round trip required 
fourteen months. They drove overland across the country, with the usual 
experiences and hardships of such a journey in pioneer times. In later 
years Tomas Baca was proprietor of a store at Lajoya, and also owned a 
sheep ranch, which he conducted until his death, which occurred in 1897, 
when he was seventy-two years of age. His wife passed away in 1891. 

Leandro Baca spent his entire life on his father's ranch at Lajoya, and 
entered in freighting before the days of railroad transportation, making trips 
as far east as Kit Carson. He also went to Tucson, San Francisco, Fort 
Wing-ate and the White mountains, and was a well known factor in those 
early freighting days. In 1874 he turned his attention to the sheep industry 
at Lajoya, where he made his home until coming to Socorro. In the mean- 
time he also conducted a mercantile enterprise at Lajoya. Called to public 
office in 1887, he removed to Socorro, and for four years served as assessor 


of the county. In 1891 he was appointed chief deputy sheriff under Leo- 
poldo Contreras, thus serving for two years. On retiring from that office 
he concentrated his energies upon his sheep and cattle business, continuing 
actively as a rancher until 1902, when he was elected sheriff, to which 
position he was re-elected in 1904, having given such capable service in his 
first term that he was once more the people's choice for the office. He dis- 
charges his duties without fear or favor, and is a safeguard to all interests 
of the county that come within law and order. His political allegiance is 
given to the Democracy. In addition to discharging his official duties, he 
also gives supervision to his ranching interests. He was always a Democrat 
until December, 1905, when he changed to the Republican party. 

Mr. Baca has been married twice. On the 16th of January, 1871, he 
wedded Genoveba Jaramillo, who died January 16, 1890, leaving four chil- 
dren: Josefa, the wife of Justiniano Baca; Esteban J.; Jesusa, the wife of 
Francisco Esquibel, and Tomas A. On the 4th of May, 1891, Mr. Baca 
wedded Mariana Padilla, and they have one child, Domitilia. 

John W. Terry, engaged in the real estate business in Socorro, is a 
native of Illinois, born in Jersey county, on the 12th of October, 1836, his 
parents being Jasper M. and Mary Ann (Waggoner) Terry. He supple- 
mented his early educational privileges by study in Shurtleff College at 
Alton, Illinois, from which he graduated in 1861 with the degree of bach- 
elor of arts. Later he became a student in Colgate University at Hamilton, 
New York, from which he won the Master of Arts degree in 1865, but in 
the meantime he had rendered active service to his country as a soldier in 
the Civil war, enlisting in August, 1862. He was largely instrumental in 
raising Company C of the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth Illinois In- 
fantry, of which he became first lieutenant. He was with Grant in Ten- 
nessee, Louisiana and Mississippi until after the capitulation of Vicksburg, 
having participated in the entire siege of the citv, his brigade being in the 
center of the line which took formal possession. 

Following his graduation from Shurtleff College, Mr. Terry was or- 
dained to the Baptist ministry, and subsequent to the close of the war he 
continued his studies in the theological department of Colgate University. 
He engaged in preaching at Madison, Indiana, and at Centralia, Illinois, 
and for six months was associated in church work with Professor William 
I. Knapp in Madrid, Spain. This was in 1871. In the meantime he had 
spent one year, 1869-70, in travel in Europe. In 1873 he went to Trinidad, 
Colorado, and having retired from the active work of the ministry he formed 
a partnership in the banking business with Colonel George R. Swallow. 
In the fall of 1879 ne went to Kansas City, Missouri, where he conducted a 
real estate office, and in December, 1881, he came to Socorro. In the spring 
of 1882 he established a bank here, which he conducted for three and a half 
years, and has since given his attention to the real estate business and to 
dealing in live stock and alfalfa farms. He organized a large stock ranch 
in connection with the firm of Liggitt & Meyers, of St. Louis, Missouri, 
under the name of the Magdalena Land & Cattle Company, but after about 
a year disposed of his interests, in 1887. His attention is now given to real 
estate operations. 

In 1874 Mr. Terry was married to Mary A. Bascom, a native of Rock 
Island, Illinois. Their children are : Paul J., agent for Wells-Fargo Ex- 
press Company at Ciudad Juarez; John Bascom, a graduate of the Uni- 


yersity of California of the class of 1905. and now chemist for the Standard 
Oil Company at Point Richmond, and Helen, who is attending school in 
Painesville, Ohio. 

Mr. Terry has been prominent in community and territorial interests in 
New Mexico. He has served as county treasurer of Socorro county and a 
member of the city council of the city of Socorro. He was a Lincoln Re- 
publican in earlier days, stanchly upholding- the administration during the 
period of the Civil war, and he now entertains liberal political views, but 
has never been an active partisan. He has, however, served as chairman of 
the Republican county central committee and of the county executive com- 
mittee. For one year he served as justice of the peace and has been presi- 
dent of the board of regents of the School of Mines of New Mexico. He 
was made a Mason in Trinidad, Colorado, _but is not affiliated with the 
craft at the present time. 

Joseph Price, member of the Price Brothers Mercantile Company at 
Socorro, is a native of Germany and came to the United States in 1864. 
Throughout his entire life he has been connected with commercial pursuits, 
carrying on business in that line in Oneonta, New York, until he came to 
New Mexico. The Price Brothers Mercantile Company was established in 
1881 and the members of the firm were Joseph Price and M. Loewenstein. 
Since that time a wholesale and retail general mercantile business has been 
conducted. The company has also carried on a banking business for about 
eight years and has a state bank, which is known as the Socorro State Bank. 
Joseph Price went to Socorro in 1887 to take charge of the business, which 
had been established by his brother, Morris Price, now of Roswell, and 
has acted as manager of the enterprise for the past nineteen years, develop- 
ing the business along modern lines of progress until the trade of the 
house has now reached large and profitable proportions. In community 
affairs he has also beeen interested, supporting those measures which are 
a matter of civic pride. He has been school director and for several years 
was president of the board of education, but has never been an office seeker. 
For thirty-seven years he has been identified with the Masonic fraternity, 
being raised in Oneonta Lodge No. 466. A. F. & A. M., at Oneonta, New 
York. In 1873 he married Miss Carrie Stern, and their children are Jennie, 
the wife of L. B. Stern, of Albuquerque ; Essie L., the wife! of Simon Bitter- 
man ; Lena E., and Edward L. Price. 

Jasper Newton Broyles. a merchant and banker of San Marcial, to 
whom the city is indebted for active and effective co-operation in move- 
ments for the general good, was born July 24, 1859,' an d came to San 
Marcial as ticket agent on the Santa Fe railroad in 1882. Nine months 
later he established a freight depot, which he conducted for three years, and 
in the fall of 1886 he established a small grocery business, and has since 
been identified with commercial interests. For several years he and his 
brother Lee occupied the same store, but were not partners. Jasper N. 
Broyles carried a stock of groceries and furniture, and in 1898 enlarged the 
scope of his business by adding dry goods and hardware, so that he now 
has a well equipped general store. In 1904 he purchased a drug store, 
which he has since owned and conducted. In 1892 he established a private 
bank, which institution has been a source of benefit to the community as 
well as of individual profit. 

In community affairs Mr. Broyles has taken a very deep and helpful 


interest, giving active aid to many plans and movements that have resulted 
beneficially for the city. At one time he was a school director, and he is a 
zealous and active member of the Methodist Episcopal Church South. In 
1902 he established the Holiness and Missionary School, which has since 
been successfully conducted. He nrefers that the students shall be orphans 
or poor children who would otherwise be denied educational advantage, 
and yet admission to the school is not limited to any people, class or com- 
munity. The school is governed by a local board and supported by gratui- 
ties. Mrs. Brovles is at the head of the institution, and her co-workers are 
Mrs. S. Rose, Mrs. J. W. McCoach, C. L. Harley, J. N. Broyles and M. T. 
Dye. The last named was the first superintendent. Regular instruction in 
secular branches is given, but prominence is given also to instruction in the 
Bible. There is an average attendance of between eighty and one hundred 
and twenty pupils of all ages. There are three buildings devoted to school 
purposes and from three to five teachers are constantly employed. This 
school was founded to take the place of the poor schools in San Marcial. 
It has had a steady growth and is a most noteworthy and commendable in- 
stitution, doing a great and good work. . 

Mr. Broyles was married in 1883 to Miss Zena Haney, of Lacygne, 
Kansas, and their children are Lawrence W., Rose, Ruth and Philip, all at 
home. Mr. Broyles is fraternally connected with the Odd Fellows Lodge 
.No. 14. Aside from his business, his attention is chiefly directed to the 
Holiness Mission and Bible School, which he organized and in the work 
of which he receives the active assistance of his wife. Prospering in his 
business undertakings he has manifested the true spirit of philanthropy in 
the assistance which he has given to his fellowmen, and his broad humani- 
tarian principles find exemplification in his practical aid to children who 
would otherwise be denied educational facilities. Mr. Broyles put in an 
electric light plant this year, which is well patronized by citizens and the 

Jose E. Torres, county treasurer and collector of Socorro county, was 
born in the city of Socorro, where he yet makes his home, his natal day 
being May 28, 1859, a son of Balentin and Josefa (Ortiz) Torres. His en- 
tire life has been passed in the city of his nativity, and in early manhood he 
became connected with the cattle business, while since 1901 he has given his 
attention to merchandising. He still, however, has farming and ranching 
property and is running cattle on the range. His fellow townsmen, recog- 
nizing his worth and ability, have called him to various public offices. He 
was first elected city marshal on the Republican ticket in April, 1889, serv- 
ing for a two years' term, and subsequently was elected city counsel, con- 
tinuing in that office for four terms. As mayor of the city he gave a public- 
spirited, practical and progressive administration. He was for three terms 
probate judge of the county, and in 1904 was elected county treasurer and 

On the 25th of April, 1889, Mr. Torres was married to Miss Guadalupe 
Padilla, and to them have been born the following children : Josefa, Del- 
fino, Valentia, Esteban, Moriana, Jose Felipe, Juana Maria, and Guadalupe. 

Frank Johnson, a cattle rancher and market man residing at San 
Marcial, was born in Stockton, California, October 1, 1853. The years of 
his minority passed, he made his way to Texas and the Indian Territory in 
the spring of 1873 and traveled quite extensively. In 1874 he established a 



milling business at Henrietta. Clay county, Texas, where he remained until 
1881, when he went to old Mexico, where during the construction of the 
Mexico Central railroad the firm of Brandt & Johnson, grading contractors, 
laid a considerable stretch of the road. He was thus engaged for two and 
a half years, and on the igth of August, 1885, he located thirty-five miles 
west of San Marcial. since which time he has made his home in New 
.Mexico. He has been engaged in the stock business, handling as high as 
two thousand head in a year, and he has a home both on the ranch and in 
town. The ranch is situated fifteen miles northwest of San Marcial. Both 
branches of his business are proving profitable, for he is conducting a good 
meat market in San Marcial, attended with a liberal patronage, and he is 
widely recognized as a business man of marked enterprise and keen dis- 

( )n the 20th of January, 1870, Mr. Johnson was married to Miss Jessie 
Johnson, and they have a son, Kelder, who is associated with his father in 
the management and conduct of the ranch. Mr. Johnson has always been a 
Democrat, but is not an active politician. He has been a Mason since 1893 
and has served for the third time as master of Hiram Lodge No. 13, A. F. 
& A. M. He also belongs to Santa Fe Lodge of Perfection and the 
Wichita Consistory, in which he has attained the thirty-second degree of the 
Scottish Rite, and he is now senior deacon in the grand lodge of New 

Patrick Higgins, owning and operating a ranch at Reserve, New 
Mexico, has been a resident of the Territory since 1862. He came to this 
section of the country as a member of Company B, First California In- 
fantry, having enlisted for service in the Union army from Los Angeles, 
California, on the 9th of October, 1861. He was a native of Minister, in 
County Limerick, Ireland, born March 17, 1835, and his education was ac- 
quired in the national schools of that country. For four years he was a 
sailor on board the Jessie, visiting all ports of Europe, after which he went 
to Quebec, Canada, to visit his uncle. While there he secured his release 
from the ship, and soon afterward, leaving his uncle's home, he began raft- 
ing on Canadian waters, being thus engaged until 1852, when he went to 
California, attracted by the discovery of gold on the Pacific coast. He was 
engaged in mining in that state until 1861, when he enlisted in Los Angeles 
on the 9th of October for service in the Union armv during the Civil war. 
He re-enlisted at Fort Cummings as a member of Company B, First Vet- 
eran Infantry of Colorado, becoming first sergeant. The regiment was 
constantly in active service in suppressing the Indian uprisings in the south- 
west. Mr. Higgins was wounded by an arrow in the right leg and by a 
bullet in the left leg, and he afterward lost the use of his left hand and 
arm when engaged in trouble with horse thieves in 1877. He was at that 
time serving as deputy sheriff of Socorro county, a position which he filled 
for fourteen years. Both the thief and Mr. Higgins shot at the same time, 
and the former was killed, while the latter was shot in the arm. 

On being discharged from the LJnited States service at Santa Fe on 
account of his wounds, having been in the hospital for some time, Mr. Hig- 
gins located in Socorro, where he established a blacksmith and carpenter 
shop, continuing in the business from 1872 until 1874. He then removed to 
Water Canyon, where for eight months he was engaged in the cattle busi- 
ness. He removed to Tularosa, where he secured a ranch of one hundred 


and sixty acres on the old Apache reservation, from which the Indians had 
been recently removed. He then engaged in the cattle business, which he 
conducted for a number of years, and in 1897 he bought a ranch on the 
Frisco river. He has sold his cattle and is now giving his attention to 
farming. He resides in Socorro. 

Mr. Higgins was married in 1863 to Miss Perfeta Sanchez, and they 
have twelve living children and three who are deceased. Mr. Higgins is a 
member of Slough Post No. 7, G. A. R. Thoroughly familiar with the 
experiences of military service and pioneer life in the southwest, he has 
contributed to the work of subduing the red race and reclaiming this region 
for the purposes of civilization, and has now settled down to the quiet life 
of a farmer, his labors adding to the agricultural development and pros- 
perity of his county. 

Richard C. Patterson, a mining prospector and rancher of Carlsbad, 
New Mexico, is one of the prominent and well known pioneer settlers of the 
Territory. He located in this section of the country when it was a wild and 
unsettled district, when marauding bands of Indians committed many depre- 
dations and atrocities, and when only here and there could be found a 
settlement to show that the white man had started upon the attempt to 
reclaim this district for the uses of civilization. He is familiar with the 
history of those wild but picturesque days, and can relate from experience 
many interesting incidents concerning pioneer existence in New Mexico. 

Mr. Patterson was born in Veazie, Maine, about four miles above 
Bangor, on the 7th of March, 18^7. He was educated in the public schools. 
and for eight years was on a whale ship, during which time he visited all 
parts of the world. In 1858 he made his way to California and was engaged 
in placer mining in that state. There he enlisted for service as a soldier in 
the Civil war, and in 1862 he came to New Mexico in the volunteer service, 
landing on the Rio Grande river. He was attached to Company G, First 
Regiment of California Infantry, and later he re-enlisted, becoming first 
sergeant of Company B of the First Regiment of Veteran Infantry. The 
command was engaged in constant service in suppressing the Indians and 
preventing outbreaks against the white men, and in this way Mr. Patterson 
saw arduous frontier service until mustered out after the close of the war, 
on the 15th of September, 1866. In that year he settled at Monticello, New 
Mexico, where he began farming. He was thus engaged for three years, 
when he turned his attention to mining in the Magdalena mountains. He 
built a small smelter in the Patterson canyon, which he operated until 1875, 
in which vear he removed to the Patterson ranch and began farming and 
stock raising. He was the first to take up land in the western part of 
Socorro county, and during those early days had many brushes with the 
Indians. At that time the nearest postofnce was at Socorro, one hundred 
miles awav, and the nearest neighbor was fortv miles distant. Mr. Patter- 
son was a leader in movements against the Indians and horse thieves. The 
red men were very numerous in those early days, and while engaged in 
defending the frontier settlers against their depredations he has killed 
seventeen Indians and has been himself wounded twice. He continued 
ranching on the Patterson ranch until the spring of 1903. when he sold that 
property and removed to a ranch at Polvadera, New Mexico, comprising 
two hundred acres of land. A postoffice was established at Patterson about 


1885. His attention is now given to the management and conduct of his 
ranch property and to prospecting in mining districts. 

Mr. Patterson was married, in June, 1867, to Miss Francisquita Chaves, 
and to them have been born three children, James, Mary and Julia, the last 
named being the wife of Ceorge Sickles. The family home is near Carls- 
bad. Mr. Patterson is a member of the Masonic fraternity, belonging to 
Socorro Lodge No. 9, A. F. & A. M. His mind bears the impress of the 
earlv historic annals of the Territory, and he has broad information con- 
cerning its history from the period of the Civil war to the present time, 
watching with interest the changes that have occurred and the wonderful 
transformation that has been wrought as hardy, resolute frontier settlers 
have reclaimed the district for the uses of the white race. 

Charles M. Grossman is proprietor of a ranch twenty-five miles west 
of San Marcial, on which he is raising cattle, horses and mules. He was 
born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, August ti, 1874, and comes of German 
ancestry. He arrived in New Mexico in 1896 when a young man of twenty- 
two years, and was employed for two years on a ranch. At the expiration 
of that period he purchased cattle and has since been engaged in business 
on his own account. He now has about one thousand acres of patented 
land and about one thousand head of cattle, and has become recognized as 
a leading and prosperous ranchman, whose practical efforts are factors in 
his success. 

On the 29th of October, 1889, Mr. Crossman was married to Miss Lula 
M. Darrow. a native of Abilene, Kansas, and they have a daughter, Maude 
Louise. His political allegiance is given to the Republican party, but he is 
without aspiration for public office. Fraternallv he is connected with San 
Marcial Lodge, I. O. O. F. 

Edward W. Brown, owner of a cattle ranch forty miles southeast of 
San Marcial, in Socorro county, was born in Kerrville, Texas, in April, 
1858, and was reared to ranch life, so that practical experience equipped 
him for the duties which he assumed on embarking in business on his own 
account. He came to New Mexico in 1884, spending the first year in 
Lincoln county, and since 1886 he has been engaged in the cattle business 
in Socorro county. He has a large ranch and has run as high as thirty-five 
hundred head of cattle. At different times he has engaged in the butchering 
business at San Marcial and Alamogordo, but at all times has continued his 
ranching interests, which are extensive and profitable. 

Mr. Brown is an earnest Democrat, but has no desire for the honors 
and emoluments of office. Fraternally he is connected with the Knights of 
Pythias at Alamogordo. He was married in 1883 to Miss Nettie Johnson, 
who died in 1892, leaving two sons, James PI and Stephen I. Brown. His 
present wife bore the maiden name of Mary Latham. 

Boleslo A. Pino, probate clerk at Socorro, was born there May 13, 
1869, a son of Juan Pino y Baca and Erinea (Baca) Pino. The father, 
born in Socorro, is still living in the town, and has devoted the years of his 
manhood largely to the cattle business, although in early life he was a 
freighter over the Santa Fe trail to the St. Louis & Kansas City Railroad. 
At one time he was sheriff of Socorro county, and he is still engaged in the 
cattle business. 

Boleslo A. Pino was educated in the public schools of Socorro and in 
St. Michael's College at Santa Fe, where he studied for three years. He 


entered business life as a clerk in a mercantile establishment, where he 
remained five years, and for two years was manager for the Park City 
Mercantile Company, while for nine years he served as bookkeeper for 
Henry Chambon. In the meantime he served as city clerk for one term, 
elected in 1900, and in 1902 and again in 1904 was elected probate clerk on 
the Democratic ticket. He is a public-spirited citizen and has made a clean 
record as an official. In addition to discharging the duties of the office, he 
gives supervision to a cattle ranch which he owns in Socorro county. 

On the 21st of June, 1890, Mr. Pino married Teresa Pino, and their 
children are Soila, Ines, Lucela, Erinea and Isabel. The parents are com- 
municants of the Catholic church, and Mi. Pino has always given his 
political allegiance to the Democracy. 

John F. Cook, who died in Socorro February 17, 1906, had located 
there in 1881, coming to New Mexico from Pueblo, Colorado. He was born 
and reared in Washington county, Virginia, his natal day being June 29, 
1842. In the place of his nativity he was educated and he learned the 
carpenter's trade in the old Dominion. At the outbreak of the Civil war, in 
1861, he enlisted in the Confederate service as a private of Company D, 
First Virginia Cavalry, with which he was connected until December, 1861. 
He then re-enlisted for the remainder of the war in Stewart's Artillery, and 
missed only two important battles in the operations of the armies in the 
east. With his command he surrendered at Appomattox, being at that time 
with the army under Lee. 

When the war was over Mr. Cook went to Missouri and followed 
farming in that state and in Kansas. He then went to Colorado and was 
engaged in carpentering at Pueblo. In the meantime he had been married, 
near Parsons, Kansas, in 1875, to Miss Annetta Fisher, and to them was 
born a son, George E. Cook. 

On leaving Colorado in 1881, Mr. Cook located in Socorro, where he 
began business as a contractor and carpenter. He assisted in the construc- 
tion of the smelter, and after it was opened he continued as boss carpenter 
for two years. He was then chosen deputy sheriff of Socorro county, filling 
the office until 1892, in which year he took charge of the smelter as guard 
of the property and agent for the St. Louis Smelting & Refining Company 
in the Territory, which position he held until his death. He was also 
connected with the cattle business, having clone operations in this line in 
1894, and in the eighties he prospected to some extent, but his attention in 
later years was confined to his duties in connection with the smelting com- 
pany and to his cattle interests. 

Mr. Cook was a thirty-second degree Mason. He belonged to Rio 
Grande Lodge No. 9, A. F. & A. M., at Albuquerque ; the Santa Fe Lodge 
of Perfection No. 1, and the Consistory, and was also a member of the 
Mystic Shrine at Albuquerque. He had membership relations with 
the Elks Lodge No. 461 at Albuquerque, and in politics was a stalwart 

W. J. Hanna, librarian of the Santa Fe Railroad at San Marcial, has 
been a resident of the Territory since 1881. He is a native son of Penn- 
sylvania, where his childhood and youth were passed. He came to New 
Mexico in 1881 and entered the water service of the Santa Fe Railroad 
Company, having charge as foreman of the water service south of Albu- 
querque until June, 1905, when he was transferred to his present position, 



John F. Cook 


that of librarian of the Santa Fe reading room at San Marcial. His per- 
sonal popularity and other qualities well qualify him for this position. Fra- 
ternally he is connected with San Marcial Lodge No. 14, I. O. O. F. 

Edward S. Stapleton, deputy sheriff of Socorro county, was born in, 
that county October 8, 1859, a son of Robert H. and Pabla (Baca) Staple- 
ton, the latter a daughter of Pedro A. Baca, who was a lieutenant in the 
Civil war and also a member of the militia. The father came to New 
Mexico with the United States troops in 1848, and was afterward made 
colonel in the militia. He had the contract to build Fort Craig, and he 
became largely interested in business enterprises in this part of the Terri- 
tory. He purchased two thousand acres of land south of San Marcial, well 
known as the Stapleton ranch, and he had sawmills and threshing machines, 
and he used thirty-two teams in his various business enterprises. As a 
merchant he was carrying a stock of goods valued at one hundred and 
sixteen thousand dollars, which was destroyed by the Texas and other 
southern troops during the Civil war, and for which he never received any 
remuneration. He was in the fight at Glorieta and fled to the hills to save 
his life. He afterward retired to Socorro, where he died July 8, 1891. 

Edward S. Stapleton has spent his life in Socorro county and was 
educated in St, Michael's College at Santa Fe, from which he was gradu- 
ated in 1874. When at home he assisted in operating the sawmill until 
1881, when he was married and turned his attention to farming and mer- 
chandising, continuing in business three miles north of Socorro. He was 
thus engaged until he became chief deputy sheriff in December, 1904, and 
he still retains his farming interests. His political support is given to the 
Democracy. Mr. Stapleton was married August 2, 1881, to Emitira Baca, 
and their children are : Robert, Vivian, Lesandro, Edonardo, Jacob, Pablita, 
Isabel and Ernest Stapleton. 

Conrada A. Baca, deputy county treasurer, living at Socorro, was born 
about three miles north of this city, in Socorro county, November 26, 1865, 
and his parents, Jose and Asencion (Baca) Baca, were also natives of that 
county, and the father followed merchandising throughout his entire life in 
Socorro and Frisco. In 1878 he represented his district in the general as- 
sembly as a member of the house, and has also been county treasurer, and 
was county judge of El Paso county, Texas, from 1880 until 1882, thus 
becoming an active factor in public life. 

Conrada A. Baca was educated in Socorro, and in 1877 went to El 
Paso county, Texas, locating at Ysleta, where he remained for six years. 
He, too, was prominent and influential in local public affairs, serving as a 
member of the city council for one term, as deputy assessor in 1886 and 
deputy sheriff from 1900 until 1902. In the latter year he was storekeeper 
in the penitentiary for six months, and in January, 1903, he was appointed 
deputy treasurer and collector in Socorro county, serving under H. E. Baca 
for two vears, and since that time under Mr. Terres. He has also been 
clerk of the board of education since 1903, and he is identified with com- 
mercial interests as a member of the mercantile firm of Jose Baca & Com- 
pany, the partnership having continued five years. In 1903 he began rais- 
ing Angora goats on a ranch in Socorro county, below San Marcial, and 
this business also claims a part of his time and attention. 

On the 10th of March, 1883, Mr. Baca married Juanita Shaw, and their 


children are: Jose S., Lillie R.. Tuan, David and Piedad, all yet living. 
The parents are members of the Methodist Episcopal church. 

J. J. Leeson, a prominent merchant of Socorro, was horn in New 
Orleans, Louisiana, September 2, 1845, receiving his education in the 
schools of that city and also attended the State Military School. He en- 
tered the Confederate service as a member of Company C. Eleventh Regi- 
ment of Louisiana Volunteers, and after the close of trie Civil war he went 
to Mexico, there spending two years, on the expiration of which period 
he went to Colorado on a prospecting tour. In 1879 Mr. Leeson arrived 
in Socorro, New Mexico, but shortly afterward returned to Colorado, hut 
in 1880 came again to this city, induced by its bright prospects. Since his 
arrival here he has been engaged more or less in mining pursuits, and in 
1 88 1 he established his general mercantile business in Socorro. During the 
Indian outbreak of 1882 Mr. Leeson served as First Lieutenant of Socorro 
Rangers under Colonel E. W. Eaton. In his political affiliations he is a 
Democrat, and has served as president of the Immigration Bureau, under 
Governor Thornton, and as commissioner and manager of the exhibits of 
the Territory at the Nashville and Omaha Expositions. Fraternally he is a 
member of the Knights of Pythias order, and instituted the Rio ( irande 
Lodge, No. 3, at Socorro in 1881, and later instituted nine lodges in the 
Territory. He is past supreme representative to the Supreme Lodge, and 
filled all' the chairs in the subordinate and Grand Lodge of the Territory. 

Mr. Leeson was married at Hot Springs, Arkansas, in 1869, to Miss 
Rosa E. Neal, of Kemper county, Mississippi. Their only child is Lulu, 
the wife of William O'Gara, and they also have one daughter, Lavina. 

Samuel C. Meek, of Socorro, came to New Mexico in the United 
States service, at that time serving as bugler of Company G, First In- 
fantry of California Volunteers. He enlisted for the Civil war from Grass 
Valley, Nevada county, California, and re-enlisted in Company B, First 
Veteran Infantry of that state, fighting against the Navajos until their 
surrender. He was mustered out of service on the 15th of September, 
1866, at Los Pinos. From that time until December, 1866, he was em- 
ployed as post saddler at Los Pinos, and on the 6th of January, 1867, he 
located at Socorro and engaged in agricultural pursuits, thus continuing 
until 1869, when he sold his farm. In the following year, 1870. Mr. Meek 
was elected justice of the peace of Socorro. In 1875 he entered the mer- 
cantile business on his own account, in which he remained for one year, 
when he returned to Socorro, and in 187=; was re-elected justice of the 
peace. He was afterward made deputy clerk of Socorro county, serving 
in that official position until 1882, and in 1886 was appointed deputy as- 
sessor for two vears. when he was again given the deputy clerkship. Dur- 
ing 1893 and 1894 he served as deputy sheriff and collector, from 1895 to 
1896 was deputy assessor, and from that time until the present has been a 
notary public, translator and abstractor. 

John Greemvald, a prominent miller of Socorro, has been a resident of 
the Territory since 1880. He was born in Odessa. Russia, in 1842. but 
left his native country to avoid becoming a serf, and his educational train- 
ing was received in Ohio. When the Civil war was inaugurated he enlisted 
for service in the First New York Mounted Rifles, Company F, with which 
command he remained throughout the period of hostilities, and among the 
engagements in which he participated was that of Cold Harbor. 


When his adopted country no longer needed his services Mr. Green- 
wald left the army and made his way to Chicago, Illinois, and took up 
the trade of milling, and for seven years he conducted a mill in southern 
Illinois, when he was taken ill with malaria and pneumonia, and this caused 
his removal to New Mexico in 1880. On his arrival in this city he em- 
barked in the real estate business and also engaged in mining in the vi- 
cinity of Magdalena. after which he again resumed milling, conducting a 
mill for Louis Heming in Valencia county. In 1893 he erected a flour 
mill in Odessa, being supplied with grain from the surrounding valley. 
This was known as the Golden Crown Flouring Mill, but in 1901 was sold 
to the Crown Milling Company. Prior to the sale, however, the mill had 
been destroyed by fire and was rebuilt by the present company. 

In St. Louis, Missouri, in 1872, Mr. Green wald was united in mar- 
riage to Miss M. A. Racine, and to them have been born three children : 
Viola, the wife of Dr. Harrington ; Emma, the wife of H. M. Dougherty, 
and John, secretary of the Crown Milling Company, of Socorro. 

A. D. Coon, an orchardist and mine operator at Socorro, was born in 
Owego, New York, October 27, 1845, ar, d was there educated. He was 
reared to the occupation of farming and gained a knowledge of mining 
in the lead mines of Joplin, Missouri, where he remained for about six 
years, after which he came to Socorro. He arrived in New Mexico in 1879 
attracted by mining inducements. He began working in the silver mines, 
holding claims in Socorro mountains, where he operated the Dewey mine. 
Large quantities of silver have been taken out from this mine, which is 
soon to be put in active operation again and there is much ore in sight. 
Mr. Coon has been continuously connected with the mining operations of 
the Territory since his arrival and is thus contributing largely to the de- 
velopment of the natural resources of the state. In 1886 he also turned 
his attention to horticultural pursuits, setting out fifty acres to all kinds 
of fruit trees, having between six and seven thousand trees. He did this 
as an investment in order to wait for a raise in silver and has found it a 
very profitable source of income, the only detriment being the lack of water 
and the storms which occasionally visit the district and have proved 
hazardous to the orchards. However, success has usually attended him and 
he has harvested some fine fruit crops. He has also done some farming 
and has made manv experiments in horticultural and agricultural interests. 

Mr. Coon was married in Socorro in 1886 to Miss Mary H. Rose, and 
they have a daughter, Gladys. In politics he is a Democrat, and is serving 
as a member of the city council of Socorro. Since coming to the Territory 
he has prospered in his business undertakings, owing to his careful di- 
rection and enterprise, and is now in possession of a handsome competence 
which has come as the reward of his labors. 

Richard Stackpole, a farmer of Socorro, was born in Ireland, July 10, 
1846, and was educated in the national schools of that country. He came 
to America in 1863 and for two years was employed in the Corliss Machine 
shops before enlisting for service in the regular army. He became a recruit, 
joining the army at Providence. Rhode Island, and for three years did 
active service in the south during the reconstruction period. In 1869 he 
came to New Mexico as a member of Company B, Fifteenth Regiment of 
Infantry, having re-enlisted at Clarksville, Texas, in 1868. He served for 
two vears at Fort McCrea and was promoted to the rank of first sergeant. 


He was then engaged for three years in the Indian service, collecting the 
Apache Indians and moving them to Tularosa, where an agency was estab- 
lished, and afterward moving them back to the Hot Springs reservation. 
He acted for some time as foreman of the Southern Apache Indian reser- 

When his service among the Indians was ended Mr. Stackpole retired 
from the Indian service and turned his attention to merchandising in Ala- 
macita, where he remained for a year. He afterward engaged in freighting 
for four or rive years in New Mexico and has continued in freighting and 
farming to the present time. He had trouble with the Apache Indians dur- 
ing the Apache war in the San Mateo mountains, during which he lost his 
horses and cattle. 

In community affairs Mr. Stackpole has been deeply and helpfully in- 
terested, recognizing public needs and doing everything in his power to 
meet them. For the past eight years he has been a member of the school 
board, and he assisted largely in instituting the public school system in 
Socorro county. In 1880 he was county commissioner, and for four years 
was a member of the citv council. In politics he has always been an advo- 
cate of Republican principles, but at local elections casts an independent 
ballot, supporting the men whom he thinks best qualified for office. Mr. 
Stackpole was married in 1877, in San Marcial, to Miss Elicia Torres, and 
to them were born twelve children, three of whom are deceased. 

P. N. Yunker, who is conducting a blacksmithing and carriage shop in 
Socorro, was born in Denmark, March 6, 1854. and a public school educa- 
tion fitted him for life's practical and responsible duties. In early life he 
learned the blacksmith's trade and saw military service in the army of Den- 
mark. In 1875, when twenty-two years of ase, he came to the United States 
and was employed in New Jersey and in New York until 1877, when he 
went to Texas and entered the cattle business, which he successfully fol- 
lowed. For sixteen years he devoted his time and energies to the raising of 
cattle and afterward removed to California, where he engaged in dealing 
in real estate for six years. He first came to the Territory of New Mexico 
in 1880 for the purpose of mining and prospecting. He afterward located 
on a ranch at Lemitar, and in 1893 resided in Socorro. There he estab- 
lished a hotel, which he conducted until the building was destroyed by fire 
in 1905. He was also engaged in the livery business, dealt in feed and car- 
ried on an implement and commission business in Socorro. He likewise 
established a blacksmith shop, but has disposed of all of his business inter- 
ests in Socorro with the exception of the blacksmith and carriage shop, 
concentrating his energies upon these lines of business since October, 1905. 
While engaged in farming he planted a twenty-acre orchard of prunes, 
peaches, English walnuts, plums and apricots. He did much experimenting 
and found that English walnuts and apricots could not be profitably raised 
here, but that other trees produced good crops. He has sixty-five acres 
planted to alfalfa and one hundred acres of his land is under irrigation. He 
also has a small bunch of cattle on his place and raises hogs on an extensive 
scale. Mr. Yunker was married in 1881 to Miss Margaret M. Dickman. 

William Gardiner, a cattleman of Magdalena, New Mexico, came to 
the Territory and located at Socorro in 1894, and has since been a factor 
in the commercial and agricultural interests here. He was born in Somer- 
set, England, April 25, 1850, and acquired a public school education. In 


1873 he came to the United States, and in Greene county, Illinois, followed 
the trade of a machinist, which he had previously learned in his native land. 
He afterward entered mercantile circles in Wrightsville, Illinois, where he 
conducted a hardware store and dealt in other kinds of goods. Removing 
from Illinois to the southwest, he was engaged in merchandising in Socorro 
until 1899, when he turned his attention to the cattle business at Bear 
Springs, nine miles north of Magdalena, known as the headquarters or the 
old Fowler place, a range ten miles square. Here he has since engaged in 
the cattle business, having large herds upon his ranch. 

Mr. Gardiner was married in 1877 to Miss Susanna Pickard, and they 
have five living children : Henry, George. Charlie, Margaret and Otis. 
The daughter is the wife of W. P. Sanders. Mr. Gardiner is a member of 
Magdalena Lodge, No. 18. K. P. He was one of the organizers of the 
Cattle and Horse Protective Association of Central New Mexico, and is 
now serving as a member of the executive committee, and as the treasurer. 
He has become thoroughly identified with stock raising in the southwest, 
and the extent and importance of his business make him one of the leading 
representatives of this department of industrial activity. 

H. W. Russell, a mine operator at Magdalena, whose residence in the 
Territory dates from January, 1881. was born in Monroe county, Michigan, 
April 3, 1853. His preliminary education was supplemented by study in 
the University of Michigan for two vears in the department of the School of 
Mines. On leaving home he had gone to Utah, where he was quite success- 
ful in his mining ventures, and it was subsequent to his return that he be- 
came a university student. He afterward went to Leadville, Colorado, 
where he worked in the mines from 1879 until coming to New Mexico. 
arriving in Socorro in January, 1881. Here he began silver mining, open- 
ing and superintending the Merritt mine. In 1882 he came to Magdalena, 
where he took up mining claims and employed a number of workmen on 
the Young America, south of Kelly, which is now producing lead, zinc, 
copper and gold in paying quantities, having produced to date ore to the 
value of about one hundred thousand dollars. The work of development 
has been carried on thus far to only a slight degree, so that there is a bright 
future before the mine. Mr. Russell was also- superintendent at Silver 
Monument mine in the Black Range for five years, from 1888 until 1893, 
and in 1887 was superintendent of a mine in old Mexico. In 1886 he was 
superintendent of the Graphic, opening it when it was owned by Governor 
Thornton and Messrs. Shelby and Mandesfield. 

On the 1 6th of September, 1885, Mr. Russell was married in Magda- 
lena to Miss Ada M. McClellan, and their children are Ora, Rolla and 
Aileen. Rolla was born September 18, 1800, a day after the last two white 
men were killed by Apaches at the mine of which Mr. Russell was superin- 
tendent. He served as a private with the Socorro Rangers in the Apache 
war and aided in driving the Indians from the country, so that no more 
horrors occurred as the result of their cruelty and depredations. Fraternally 
he is connected with San Marcial Lodge, No. 1, A. O. U. W., and in poli- 
tics is a Democrat. He has intimate knowledge of the history of mining 
operations in his section of New Mexico, and in the work of development 
has contributed to the substantial progress and prosperity of the Territorv. 

Joseph Brown, superintendent of the Graphic mine at Kelly, Xew 
Mexico, came to this place in 1887, and has since been identified with the 


development of the rich mineral resources of the Territory. He was born 
in Newport, Ontario, Canada, May 10, 1861, and acquired' his education in 
the public schools there. He afterward mastered the machinist's trade and 
was employed as machinist and engineer in different places until coming 
to Kelly, in 1887. Here he was employed in the Kelly mine for about three 
years, on the expiration of which period he accepted the position of engineer 
in the Graphic mine, in which capacity he served for about eleven years, or 
until 1 901, when he was made superintendent, which is his present connec- 
tion with the company. Practical experience in all departments of mining 
has made him thoroughly familiar with the business and qualified him for 
the important positions which devolve upon him in his present connection. 

Mr. Brown is a member of Socorro Lodge, No. 8, A. F. & A. M. 
He was married in Kelly to Miss Kate Klemmer and to them have been 
born three sons and a daughter, Lovell, Carl, Ruth and Joseph Brown. 

Michael Wolf, proprietor of a ranch and also of a meat market at 
Kelly, was born in Allen county, Ohio, July 24, 1865, and after acquiring 
a public school education he learned the tailor's trade in his native state, 
but was obliged to abandon it on account of his eyesight. He then came to 
New Mexico in 1885 and entered the cattle business, in which he continued 
until 1890, spending that period upon a ranch on the Tularosa river. From 
1890 until 1895 he was engaged in raising horses on the same ranch and 
found it a profitable source of income. In later vears he began raising An- 
gora goats upon the same ranch. This has proved a profitable industry, 
and he has since carried on his ranching interests, while in 1905 he opened 
a butcher shop and hotel in Kelly, which he is also conducting. Mr. Wolf 
was married in Frisco, New Mexico, to Miss Ada A. Wilson. Since coming 
to the Territory he has worked his way steadily upward in business life, and 
although he came without capital, is now in possession of a comfortable 
property and good business interests. 

C. C. Clark, a mine promoter of Kellv, in which connection he has 
been closely associated with the development of the rich mineral resources 
of the Territory, came to this place in 1883, and has since been a factor in 
its mining interests. He was born in Orneville, Maine, in 1839, and after 
acquiring his preliminary education in the public schools of Ohio attended 
Matimee Academy in that state. He was afterward graduated from Behm's 
Commercial College at Evansville, Indiana, and in his teens engaged in 
teaching school, continuing in that occupation for several years. He after- 
ward followed merchandising in Evansville until his health failed, when he 
went upon the road as a traveling salesman. He was connected with whole- 
sale and retail interests, selling all kinds of fancy goods, millinery, sewing 
machines, musical instruments and other commodities. In 1880 he went to 
Colorado Springs, Colorado, where he continued until his mining interests 
called him to New Mexico, in 1883. Previous to this time his attention 
was largely given to mercantile interests. In 1866 Mr. Clark was married 
in Indiana to Miss India Eva Jones, and their children are : Vivian V., a 
mining engineer and metallurgist; Matie Pearl, and William W., a me- 
chanical and electrical engineer. 

As stated, Mr. Clark arrived in New Mexico in 1883, and has con- 
ducted a hotel at Kelly since that time. He has engaged in operating mines 
on his own account since 1885, and also in prospecting. He has operated 
in Arizona and other districts of the southwest and is now a promoter of 


mining interests, securing the co-operation and capital for development of 
the rich mineral resources of New Mexico and thus contributing in sub- 
stantial measure to its upbuilding and progress. He is a prominent mem- 
ber of Magdalena Lodge No. 18, K. of P., and also became a member of 
the Masonic fraternity while in Goshen, Indiana, in 1872. His interest in 
community affairs has been proved by his active co-operation in many 
movements for the public good. He built the first public schoolhouse in 
Socorro county, and was justice of the peace of Kelly for several years. He 
is quite active in politics as a supporter of Democratic principles, doing all 
in his power to promote the growth and insure the success of the party. A 
close study of the possibilities of the Territory has well qualified him for 
his work as a promoter and he is accomplishing much in this direction. 

Tames Cowell, of Kelly, a representative of mining interests, was born 
on the Isle of Man, May 3, 1847, and in his youth was employed in the 
mines in the north of England, largely in Northumberland county. He 
came to the United States in 1877 at the age of thirty years, and made his 
way to Colorado, working in the mines of Central City and elsewhere in 
that state until coming to New Mexico in 1880. He went first to George- 
town, where he followed mining until 1881, when he removed to Socorro 
and worked in the Torrance mine until 188^. He then came to Kelly, where 
he located some claims and bought others. He has produced zinc and lead 
ore from his Black Hawk group of claims in paving quantities, and is still 
working these profitably. He is also sinking a shaft in what is known as 
the Kelly mine, and has good prospects for profitable operations in this. 

In 1882 Mr. Cowell was married to Miss Ellen Counihan and their 
children are: Mamie, Lillie, Florence, Jay, Morris and Clarence. The 
eldest daughter is the wife of Milton Craig. Mr. Cowell was for nine- 
teen years an Odd Fellow in good standing, but is not in active connection 
with the organization at present, as there is no lodge at Kelly. 

I. I. Sheridan, who figures prominently in Republican circles in New 
Mexico and is a resident of San Antonio, was born at Sutter Creek, Amador 
county, California, July 29, 1866. He located in Silver City, New Mexico, 
in 1892, acting as a messenger between that place and El Paso, Texas, for 
the Wells-Fargo Express Companv. In 1894 he was appointed under sheriff 
of Grant county under A. B. Laird, and filled that position for two years, 
after which he received appointment as chief deputy in the office of tax 
collector of Grant county. In 1898 he was appointed chief deputy to United 
States Marshal Foraker, and in iqoi was appointed chief deputy in the 
county treasurer's office of Bernalillo county, serving for two years under 
Charles K. Newhall and three years under Hon. JFrank A. Hubbell. During 
the years 1903 and 1904 he was secretary of the Republican territorial cen- 
tral committee, and his influence has been a notent factor in Republican 
circles. Fraternally Mr. Sheridan is connected with Albuquerque Lodge, 
No. 461, B. P. O. E., and with all of the Masonic bodies of Albuquerque. 



While the most interesting historically, Santa Fe county is the smallest 
in the Territory, and for the past quarter of a century its population has 
been almost stationary — that of the city of Santa Fe has decreased about 
1,000. It is one of the very few sections of the country into which the 
extension of the railroad has had a deteriorating effect, as thereafter it no 
longer received the great influx of overland trade flowing through the 
great Southwest, of which for thirty years it had enjoyed a virtual mo- 

The present area of Santa Fe county is 2,212 square miles, and its 
population about 13,000. It is located north of the central part of the Terri- 
tory, in the second irregular tier of counties from the northern boundary, 
and has a beautiful situation in the broad valley of the Rio Grande. 

Original Boundaries. — As described by the Territorial Act of January 
9, 1852, the boundaries of Santa Fe county (one of the nine counties into 
which New Mexico was first divided) were as follows : On the east, from 
the point of Torreones, drawing a direct line across the summit of the 
mountain until it reaches the angle formed by the eastern and southern 
boundaries of the county of Rio Arriba; from the above mentioned point 
of Torreones drawing a direct line toward the south, touching the point 
called Salinas in the mountain of Galisteo, and continuing said line until 
it reaches the Cibolo Spring; from this point to the westward, and turning 
the point of San Ysidro toward the north in the direction of Juana Lopez, 
touching the mouth of Bocas Canyon, and thence drawing a direct line 
toward the north until it reaches the boundaries of the county of Rio 

Physical Features and Resources. — Though one of the smallest coun- 
ties in New Mexico. Santa Fe is one of the most diversified. The moun- 
tains in the eastern portion are full of picturesque scenery, the northern 
and central sections are finely adapted to horticulture and the central and 
southern sections present a variety of mineral wealth seldom surpassed. 
On the eastern boundary the main range of the Rockies protects the plains 
from violent winds, while on the west the Temez and Valle mountains per- 
form the same office. Most of the streams in the county emanate from the 
western side of the Santa Fe range of the Rocky mountains and flow west- 
erly into the Rio Grande, which itself cuts off a northwestern corner in its 
course from the northeast to the southwest. The chief affluents of the parent 
stream are the Santa Cruz river, flowing down from the canyons near 
Chimayo ; Nambe creek and its numerous heads, rising at Baldy and Lake 
peaks, and Galisteo creek, originating with its branches, near the summit 
of the southern end of the Santa Fe range. Their waters are derived from 
snow, rain and springs in the mountains, in Archaean rocks, flowing thence 
through carboniferous beds to the limestone beds which fill the vallev be- 

Old Capitol Building. Santa Fe — Destroyed by Fr 

Ancient Spanish Church, Santa Fe 

The Ancient Governors "Palace. Santa Fe 


tween the mountain range and the Rio Grande, overlaid nearer the latter 
river in places by sheets of lava, which, on the east side of the stream, were 
thrown out from the Tetilla, an extinct volcano, and on its west side from 
craters further west. 

The soil is excellent, and produced large crops of the best quality, with 
the needed supply of water. Cereals are raised to perfection in the valleys 
of the Rio Grande and its tributaries, and the fruits of the Santa Fe 
orchards are famous, including apricots, peaches, pears, raspberries, straw- 
berries, plums and nectarines. Of the vegetables, perhaps asparagus and 
celery are the richest and finest. The choicest orchards and gardens are 
in the city itself and vicinity. The tirst really fine orchard in the Southwest 
was in the "Bishop's Garden," planted by Archbishop Lamy, at Santa Fe. 
There is something in the location which seems to add to the flavor as well 
as the beauty of the fruit. At Tesuque, six miles north, was the Miller 
apple orchard, which for years was a wonderfully productive enterprise. 
At Pojuaqua and Fspanyola — in fact, throughout the Rio Grande and Santa 
Cruz valleys — are excellent orchards, and the horticultural interests are 
spreading over the county, as they are in other parts of the Territory. 

'While mineral wealth of some kind is to be found in nearly all parts 
of Santa Fe county, yet it is the southern section that is famous in this re- 
spect. The knowledge of these mines is nothing new. Even Cabeza de 
Vaca speaks of seeing a turquoise from these mines, and in Coronado's time 
this stone was regarded as the most precious possessions of the Indians as 
far west as Arizona. The silver mines of Cerrillos were worked to an 
enormous extent during the early Spanish occupation. Over forty ancient 
mines have been discovered, and there are probably as many more so 
thoroughly filled as to defy detection. In the midst of this silver district 
rises the dome of Mount Chalchuitl (whose name the Mexicans gave to 
the turquoise, its much valued mineral), the summit of which is about 
7,000 feet above tide, and is therefore almost exactly on a level with the 
plaza of Santa Fe. 

The observer is deeply impressed on inspecting this localitv with the 
enormous amount of labor which in ancient times has been expended here. 
The waste of debris excavated in the former workings cover an area of at 
least twenty acres. On the slopes and sides of the great piles of rubbish 
are growing large cedars and pines, the age of which, — judging from 
their size and slowness of growth in this very dry region, — must be reckoned 
by centuries. It is well known that in 1680 a large section of the mountain 
suddenly fell in from the undermining of the mass by the Indian miners, 
killing a considerable number, and that this accident was the immediate 
cause of the uprising of the Pueblos and the expulsion of the Spaniards 
in that year, just two centuries since. 

The irregular openings in the mountains, called "wonder caves," and 
the "mystery," are the work of the old miners. It was this sharp slope 
of the mountain which fell. In these chambers, which have some extent 
of ramification, were found abundantly the fragments of their ancient pot- 
tery, with a few entire vessels, some of them of curious workmanship, 
ornamented in the style of color so familiar in the Mexican pottery. As- 
sociated with these were numerous stone hammers, some to be held in the 
hand and others swung as sledges, fashioned with wedge-shaped edges 
and a groove for a handle. A hammer weighing over twenty pounds was 


found to which the wyth was still attached, with its oak handle, — the 
same scrub oak which is found growing abundantly on the hillsides, — now 
quite well preserved after at least two centuries of entombment in this 
perfectly dry rock. 

The stone used for these hammers is the hard and tough hornblende 
andesite, or propylite, which forms the Cerro d'Oro and other Cerrillos 
hills. With these rude tools and without iron or steel, using fire in place 
of explosives, these patient old workers managed to break down and re- 
move the incredible masses of the tufaceous rocks which form the mounds 
already described. 

That considerable quantities of the turquoise were obtained can hardly 
be questioned. We know that the ancient Mexicans attached great value 
to this ornamental stone, as the Indians do to this day. The familiar tale 
of the gift of the large and costly turquoise by Montezuma to Cortez for 
the Spanish crown, as narrated by Clavigero in his history of Mexico, is 
evidence of its high estimation. 

The Indians used stone tools almost entirely. Their hammers, which 
are found in the debris of the old mines and scattered about the country, 
are of various forms, some being quite large and pointed to take the place 
of picks. The ore and debris were removed from the mine in leather 
baskets on the backs of the enslaved pueblo or peoned Mexicans. Their 
ladder ways were round poles, about eight inches in diameter, having 
notches cut in them twelve inches apart for steps. These ladders were 
from twelve to fourteen feet long, reaching from one landing to another. 
The ore was smelted in small furnaces constructed of stones cemented 
together with mud. Vast quantities of gold and silver were obtained in 
this manner in other mines. 

For over a century and a half, after the Revolution of 1680, there 
was no mining done in this vicinity, when suddenly the old placers were 
discovered at the place now called Dolores, and soon hundreds of men were 
at work washing out the precious yellow metal. A few years later history 
repeated itself at the new placers, now Golden. This was before the Amer- 
ican occupation, and Mexicans by the thousand passed the winter here in 
order to utilize the snow which fell at that season, — for the difficulty in 
these placers was the lack of water. The gravel had to be carried in bags 
on the back for miles to some spring, or else the water had, equally labori- 
ously, to be brought to the placers. In the winter they took the snows in 
the canyons and of the blizzards and melted it by means of heated rocks, 
and with the scanty supplies of water thus obtained washed out the precious 
metal. Modern science has, however, improved upon this operation. 

Countv Officials. — Commencing with 18=52, when Santa Fe county was 
formally organized by enactment of the Territorial legislature, the pro- 
bate judge takes the place of the prefect, who held sway during Mexican 
times, and for a few years after New Mexico became American soil. The 
records of the county are fairly complete, but where any omissions appear 
it has been impossible to supply them from any data in the office of the 
probate clerk. Following is the list: 

1848 :— Prefect, Francisco Ortiz; probate clerk, J. M. Giddings : sheriff, E. J. 

1849:— Prefect, Francisco Ortiz; clerk, J. M. Giddings; sheriff, C. H. Merritt. 


1851 :— Prefect, Lewis D. Shutz and Horace L. Dickinson; clerk, J. M. Gid- 
dings; sheriff, J. G. Jones. 

1852:— Probate judge, Thomas Ortiz; clerk, J. M. Giddings ; sheriff, R. M. 

1853 :— Probate judges, Jose E. Ortiz and Facunda Pino; clerk, J. H. Mink; 
sheriff, Lorenzo Labadi. 

1S54: — Probate judge, Facunda Pino; clerk, J. H. Mink; sheriffs, Lorenzo 
Labadi and Jesus Maria Baca. 

1855: — Probate judge, Facunda Pino; clerk, Jesus Maria Sena y Baca; sheriff, 
Jesus Maria Baca. 

1858: — Probate judge, Anastacio Sandoval; clerk, David J. Miller. 

1859: — (Same as above.) 

i860; — Probate judge, Anastacio Sandoval; clerk, Facemdo Pirio. 

1860-3: — Probate judge, Anastacio Sandoval; clerk, Facemdo Pirio. 

1865: — Probate judge, Miguel E. Pino; clerk. Antonio Ortiz y Salazar; sheriff, 
Jose D. Sena ; coroner, Juan Marquez. Elected in September of this year : Probate 
judge, Antonio y Salazar; clerk, Miguel E. Pino; sheriff, Jose D. Sena. 

1866: — (Same as above.) 

1867: — Probate judge, Antonio Oritz y Salazar; clerk, Trinidad Alarid; sheriff, 
Jose D. Sena ; coroner, Jose Ortiz. Elected in September of this year : Probate 
judge, Antonio Ortiz y Salazar; clerk, Trinidad Alarid; sheriff, Jose D. Sena; 
coroner, Jose Ortiz. 

1868: — (Same as above.) Elected in September of this year: Probate judge, 
Antonio Ortiz y Salazar: clerk, Trinidad Alarid; sheriff, Jose D 1 . Sena; coroner, 
Jose Trujillo; treasurer, Ambrosio Ortiz. 

1S69-70:— (Same as above.) 

1871 : — Elected in September of this year: Probate judge, Felipe Delgado; 
clerk, Samuel Ellison ; sheriff, Carlos Conklin ; treasurer, J. Antonio Rodrequez ; 
coroner, Francisco Montoya. 

1872: — (Same as above.) 

1873: — Probate judge, Gaspar Ortiz y Alarid; clerk, Ambrosio Ortiz; sheriff, 
Carlos M. Conklin 

1874: — Probate judge, Gaspar Ortiz y Alarid; clerk, Ambrosio Ortiz; sheriff, 
Carlos M. Conklin ; treasurer, Juan Miguel Ortega. 

1875: — Elected in September of this year: Probate judge, Nicholas Pino; 
clerk, Ambrosio Ortiz; sheriff. Carlos M. Conklin; treasurer, Eugenio Griego; cor- 
oner. Santiago Cabeza de Baca. 

1S76 : — The first board cf county commissioners was organized on March I, 
1876, in conformity with the law of January 13th preceding, with Antonio Ortiz y 
Salazar as president, and W. W. Griffin and Aniceto Abeytia as commissioners. 
Ambrosio Ortiz was probate clerk. 

At the second meeting of the board, March nth. S. Seligman was appointed to 
succeed Abeytia. At the annual election, held in November following, these officers 
were elected for the term beginning January 1. 1877: 

1877 : — Commissioners, Lehman Spiegelberg, Trindad Alarid, Julian Provencio ; 
probate judge, Jose A. Ortiz; commissioner of schools. J. A. Truchard : probate 
clerk, Jose B. Ortiz ; sheriff, Martin Quintana ; treasurer, Jose Maria Martin ; cor- 
oner, Ramnn Padia. At the first meeting of the elected board of county commis- 
sioners Trinidad Alarid was elected president. At succeeding elections the records 
show that the following principal officials were elected : 

1878: — Probate judge, Jose A. Ortiz: probate clerk, Luciano Baca; sheriff, Jose 
D. Sena; treasurer, Juan Garcia: county commissioners, Antonio Ortiz y Salazar 
(chairman), William H. Manderfield. Solomon Spiegelberg. (Abraham Staab ap- 
pointed to succeed Mr. Spiegelberg. ) 

1S79: — Probate judge, Jose A. Ortiz: clerk. Luciano Baca. 

18S0: — Probate judge. Gaspar Ortiz y Alarid: sheriff, Romulo Martinez: probate 
clerk, Charles M. Conklin treasurer. Albion Bustamante ; county commissioners, 
Solomon Spiee"lberg (chairman), Nazario Gonzales. James A. Donavant. 

1881 :— Probate judge. Gaspar Ortiz v Alarid: clerk, Carlos M. Conklin. 

1882 :— Probate judge. Luciano Baca: probate clerk. Francisco Chavez; sheriff, 
Romulo Martinez: treasurer. Antonio Jose Rael ; commissioners. Solomon Spiegel- 
berg (chairman). Nazario Gonzales. Romaido Sena. (William H. Nesbitt and 
Jesus Maria Alarid were afterward appointed to succeed Messrs. Gonzales and 
Sena as commissioners, and Atanasio to succeed Chavez as clerk. 


1S84: — Probate judge, Willi Spiegelberg ; clerk, John Gray; assessor, Francisco 
Chavez; sheriff, Romulo Martinez; treasurer, Sabiniano Sena; commissioners, B. 
Seligman (chairman), Jose .Maria Martinez y Sandoval, Nazario Gonzales. 

1886: — Probate judge, Francisco Delgado; clerk, Marcelino Garcia; sheriff, 
Francisco Chavez; treasurer, Nicolas Garcia; assessor, Vicente Mares; commis- 
sioners, B. Seligman (chairman), F. Martinez, P. A. Peirsol. 

18S8: — Probate judge, Luciano Baca; clerk, Marcelino Garcia; sheriff, Francisco 
•Chavez; treasurer, Gavino Ortiz; assessor, Eugenio Yrisarri ; commissioners. Dr. 
John H. Sloan (chairman), Teodoro Martinez, Richard Green (George T. Wyllys 
appointed to succeed Green). 

1890: — Probate judge, Luciano Baca; clerk, Pedro Delgado; sheriff, Francisco 
Chavez ; assessor, Manuel Valdes ; treasurer, Gavino Ortiz ; commissioners, Charles 
M. Creamer (chairman), George T. Wyllys, Higenio Martinez. Charles M. Conklin, 
Juan Garcia and J. B. Mayo were afterward appointed member of the board, those 
originally declared elected having been unseated on account of gross irregularities 
in the election. Marcelino Garcia was also appointed clerk in place of Delgado. 
Still later, George W. North, Dr. J. H. Sloan and Frederick Grace were appointed 
county commissioners in place of the second board. By order of Judge Leeds, of 
the First District Court, they recanvassed the original vote and declared the following 
as the legally elected officials: Probate judge, Antonio J. Ortiz; assessor, Manuel 
Valdez ; clerk, Pedro Delgado; sheriff, Francisco Chavez; treasurer. Gavino Ortiz; 
commissioners, William H. Nesbitt, Juan Garcia. Charles M. Creamer and Abraham 
Staab, candidates for county commissioner, having each received an equal number of 
votes, Ints were drawn and Staab was declared elected. 

The contest over this election was long and bitter, Marcelino Garcia, the clerk, 
having refused to attest the certificates of election and declining to attend the 
meetings of the board of commissioners, Harrv S. Clancy was chosen to the office. 

1891 : — At the meeting of the board held January 2d of this year the clerk re- 
fused to recognize the new commissioners, on the ground that his records showed 
that other persons had been elected. J. B. Mayo was made chairman of the board 
in May following, and Charles H. Spiess was chosen clerk. Delgado was committed 
for contempt in refusing to obey the order of the United States Supreme Court 
commanding him to recognize the last named board, but was finally released and 
acted as clerk. Max Frost was afterward appointed to the board to fill a vacancy, 
and Ignacio Lopez was appointed to succeed Spiess. 

1892: — Probate judge. Aniceto Abeytia ; clerk, Atanacio Romero; sheriff. Charles 
M. Conklin; treasurer, H. B. Cartwright ; commissioners, Austin L. Kendall (chair- 
man), Charles W. Dudrow, Victor Ortega. 

1894 :— Probate judge. Apolonio Chavez; clerk, A. P. Hill; sheriff, Charles M. 
Conklin ; treasurer, H. B. Cartwright. W. P. Cunningham ; collector, Solomon 
Spiegelberg; assessor. Francisco Gonzales y Baca; treasurer. H. B. Cartwright; com- 
missioners. Charles W. Dudrow (chairman), William C. Rogers, Pedro A. Lujan. 

1896: — Probate judge. Telesfaro Rivera; clerk, Atanasio Romero: sheriff, Harry 
C. Kinsell ; collector, Frederick Mueller; assessor, J. R Hudson; treasurer. H. B. 
Cartwright; commissioners, Charles W. Dudrow (chairman). J. T. McLaughlin, Jose 

1898: — Probate judge, Jose Amada Lucero ; clerk, Atanasio Romero: sheriff, 
Charles W. Dudrow; treasurer, Frederick Mueller; assessor. Telesfaro Rivera; com- 
missioners, James D. Hughes. J. T. McLaughlin. Augustin Maestas. ' Mr. Dudrow re- 
signed as sheriff before the end of the year, and Harry Kinsell was appointed in his 
place, Mr. Dudrow being appointed county commissioner to succeed Mr. Hughes, 
and elected chairman of the board. 

1900:— Probate judge, Antonio C. de Baca: clerk, Manuel Delgado: sheriff, 
Marcelino Garcia; assessor. Anastacio Gonzales; treasurer, Frederick Mueller; com- 
missioners, W. H. Kennedy (chairman). Arthur Seligman. Jose A. Lujan. 

1902: — Probate judge, Marcos Castillo; clerk. Celso Lopez: sheriff, Harry C. 
Kinsell ; assessor, M. A. Ortiz ; treasurer. George W. Knaebel : commissioners, 
Austin L. Kendall (chairman), Nicolas Quintana, Arthur Seligman (held over, 
under the new law). 

1904: — Probate judge, Candelario Martinez: clerk, Marcos Castillo: treasurer, 
Celso Lopez; sheriff. Antonio J. Ortiz; assessor. Anastacio Gonzales; commissioners. 
Arthur Seligman (chairman), Jose Inez Roybal, Austin L. Kendall (held over). 


Repudiated its Railroad Bonds.— Santa Fe is one of the few coun- 
ties of the United States, at least within late years, which has repudiated 
any portion of its bonded indebtedness, thereby admitting its inability 
to meet the payment of bonds which were issued under its own authority. 
In 1882 the county issued bonds amounting to about $1,000,000 to en- 
courage the construction of railroads. They were bought principally by 
two large firms in New York, who within the past few years have 
been taking vigorous steps to enforce the payment of the matured bonds, 
both principal and interest. As the assessed valuation of the taxable 
property in the county is less than $2,000,000, the situation for the tax 
payers has certainly been a serious one from the commencement of legal 
proceedings. In the fall of 1900 Las Vegas attorneys, representing the 
New York bondholders, obtained judgments against the county for over 
$130,000. In the winter of 1901 the county commissioners made a levy 
of 82 mills on the dollar to provide for their payment, but the tax 
payers refused to meet it. After dragging along for five years, an- 
other attempt was made in 1906 to force a payment, the United States 
Court finally issuing a mandamus ordering the county board to make 
another levy. Other strenuous legal measures have been taken, and it 
is said that efforts are being made to effect a compromise on all cases, 
and the entire issue of railroad bonds, on the basis of 60 cents on the 
dollar. As Congress has pronounced the bonds valid, although they 
were at one time said to be illegal, it is intimated that the national body 
may be appealed to in order to prevent the county from going into 
actual bankruptcy. Somewhat similar cases are St. Clair County, Mo., 
which repudiated its bonded indebtedness, and Wilkes county. N. C, 
which was placed in the hands of a receiver, upon having defaulted in 
the payment of their bonds. 


Santa Fe (Holy Faith) is a contraction from La Villa Real de 
Santa Fe de San Francisco, and for three hundred years has not only 
been an important center of the Catholic faith, but the seat of temporal 
power under Spanish, Pueblo, Mexican or American rule. The Old 
Palace, now chiefly occupied by the museums of the Territorial Historical 
Society, has been the official home of fifty Spanish, fifteen Mexican and 
fifteen American Governors. 

Santa Fe was not chartered as a city until 1891, its older portions 
being cut irregularly by narrow and crooked streets and having an at- 
mosphere of the middle ages ; in the modern city the thoroughfares are 
broad and straight, but even there one notices an absence of much of the 
bustle which is characteristic of Albuquerque and Las Vegas, and which 
may be partly due to the fact that it has no street cars. 

Santa Fe was incorporated as a city by vote of its inhabitants, on 
the 2d of June, 1891. Its first officers were: Mayor, William T. Thorn- 
ton; clerk, James D. Hughes; treasurer, Marcus Eldodt ; aldermen, Fran- 
cisco Delgado, Ricardo Gorman, Martin Quintana, Marcelino Garcia, Will- 
iam S. Harroun, Gerard D. Koch, Narciso Mondragon, George W. Knaebel. 

The great fascination attaching to Santa Fe lies in the magic of the 
ancient days which still clings to its structural remains. Its European 


occupation is second only to St. Augustine, among the historic cities of 
the United States, while' the commencement of the native occupation is 
lost in the dimness of the past. San Miguel church, a plain little adobe 
structure, stands on the site of the original church erected by the Spanish 
explorers; but the first building was destroyed by the Indians in 1680, 
restored in 1710, and modified within recent years. Its old walls are 
supported by stone buttresses. Within are seen quaint specimens of carv- 
ings on the roof timbers and gallery, with burned designs for variety. 
Across the street is the adobe house, which was long pronounced to be the 
oldest dwelling in the United States, and in which it is said Coronado_ lodged 
when he visited the pueblo, Tequayo, then standing on the site of Santa 
Fe ; but while this is the only remnant of the ancient Indian pueblo, its 
claim to being the earliest pioneer of American dwellings has been exploded. 

The Plaza occupies a square in the middle of the city, in which are 
two monuments and a memorial fountain. Facing it on the north is the 
Palace, already mentioned, a massive, one story building, a block in length, 
erected early in the seventeenth century and marking the founding of 
Santa Fe by Juan de Onate about 1605. Originally it was a square, with 
a large court in which the Spanish garrison was quartered; but with hos- 
tile tribes around, even with the erection of this imposing evidence of 
Spanish power the settlement did not rapidly increase, and by 1617 there 
were only 48 colonists and soldiers in the province. 

The 'little band of Spanish settlers at Santa Fe, with the Palace as 
the nucleus of the place, appealed to His Royal Highness, at various times, 
for protection from the Pueblo Indians, and by 1630 the garrison and 
the colonists numbered about 250. In August, 1680, the rebellious In- 
dians, led by a native named Pope, killed 400 of the 2,500 colonists, 
soldiers and priests scattered through the province and then laid siege to 
the capital. For ten days the savages stormed the Palace, where Gov- 
ernor Otermin, with 1,000 of the survivors, had taken refuge. On the 
20th the Spaniards made a sortie, killed 300 of the Indians, captured 50 
(whom they afterward hanged), and on the following day evacuated the 
Palace and Santa Fe, starting on their long overland journey for El Paso. 

Santa Fe remained in possession of the Pueblo Indians for twelve 
years, and during that period the Palace was occupied by native chiefs, 
or rulers. In September, 1692, it was easily recaptured by Governor Vargas, 
who resettled the town with 800 new colonists and a garrison adequate 
for the defense of the place. During the following winter the Indians 
made another attempt at mastery, but were beaten off and seventy prisoners 
hanged in the Plaza. Notwithstanding, they continued their hostilities 
and attacks, and during the eighteenth century several attempts were made 
to move the provincial capital further south, and nearer the seat of the 
Spanish power in Mexico. 

By the middle of the century the French Canadian trappers com- 
menced to trade with Santa Fe from the north, while a brisk traffic sprang 
up with Chihuahua from the south. Earlv in the nineteenth century the 
greater and more enduring trade originated between the Mexican province 
of New Mexico and the American frontier. With the discovery of gold 
on the Pacific coast, and the tremendous overland emigration thither, in 
the middle of the nineteenth century, Santa Fe became the great supply 
station for the interminable caravans of gold-seekers who followed the 


southern route to the promised land, and the Santa Fe trail became 
famous the world over. From that time on for thirty years the interest 
of the country centered not in the .governor's palace, as the headquarters 
of the .American government, but in its general merchandise and other 
supply houses. 

Don Manuel Armijo was still in the gubernatorial palace in 1846, 
and hearing of the approach of the American army under General Kearny, 
issued a proclamation stating what he would do to them, and started north 
with his troops; but when about thirty miles away from Santa Fe changed 
his mind, marched south, abandoned the capital and the palace, and headed 
for the City of Mexico. 

General Kearny modestly took possession of Santa Fe on the 19th 
of August, 1846, and first made a speech in behalf of his government, 
declaring the good intentions of the American army of occupation. It was 
responded to by Donaciano Vigil, who, although a full-blooded Spaniard, 
pledged his allegiance to the government of the United States, and in 
doing so spoke for the remaining citizens of Santa Fe. That Kearny and 
the United States government had full confidence in him is evident, since 
a short time afterward he was appointed governor of the Territorv, under 
most tragic and momentous circumstances. 

Upon taking possession of the palace. General Kearny issued a busi- 
ness-like proclamation, to this effect : 


"Being duly authorized by the President of the United States of America. I here- 
by make the following appointments for the government of New Mexico, a territory 
of the said United States: 

"The officers thus appointed will be obeyed and respected accordingly. 

"Charles Bent to be governor. 

"Doniciano Vigil to be secretary of Territory. 

"Richard Dallam to be marshal. 

"Francis P. Blair to be United States district attorney. 

"Charles Blummer to be treasurer. 

"Eugene Leitensdorfer to be auditor of public accounts. 

"Joel Houghton, Antonio Jose Otero and Charles Beaubien to be judges of the 
superior court. 

"Given at Santa Fe. the capital of the Territory of New Mexico, this 22nd day of 
September, 1846, and in the seventy-first year of the independence of the United 

"S. W. Kearny. 
"Brigadier General United States Army." 

In this connection it is well to note that General Kearny's daughter, 
Mrs. Barstow, of St. Louis, has recently presented a portrait of her brave, 
manly father to the Historical Society, and that Mrs. Prince, regent of 
the Daughters of the Revolution, has erected in the plaza a tablet to mark 
the exact spot where he took possession of the Territory in the name of 
the United States. 

Charles Bent, named as governor in the Kearny proclamation, was 
proprietor of Bent's Fort, a trading post on the Arkansas river, and one 
of the most popular stopping places on the Santa Fe trail. But a few days 
after his appointment he was assassinated at the pueblo of Taos (which 
seemed to be the hotbed of Indian revolutionists and murderers), and 
Mr. Vigil was appointed his successor. Frank P. Blair, who was ap- 


pointed district attorney, afterward became a prominent Republican sen- 
ator from Missouri. 

During the winter following the occupation of Santa Fe by the Ameri- 
can troops an adobe fort and blockhouse was erected on the northern 
heights of the town, and named in honor of Secretary of War Marcy. 
The earthworks are still standing, under which were buried 200 Missouri 
volunteers of the Mexican war. On the road to Fort Marcy is what is 
known as the Garita, an old Mexican fort, near the west wall of which 
the leaders of the revolution of 1837 were executed — those concerned in 
the assassination of Perez and other provincial officials. 

The palace, on the plaza, witnessed the assembling of the first terri- 
torial legislature, and in 1848 the treaty of peace with Mexico was pro- 
claimed within its walls. Santa Fe was established as the territorial seat 
of government, July 14, 1851, and became the official residence of the 
governors. For about a month — in March and April, 1862 — it was in 
possession of the Confederate troops, the Union forces reoccupying it 
April nth. 

Tbe old palace was abandoned by Governor Otero as an executive 
residence upon the completion of the first territorial capitol. It was not 
until 1884 that practical plans were entered upon for the construction of 
a modern capitol building. By act of March 14, 1884, provision was made 
for the erection of a territorial penitentiary at Santa Fe, at a cost not 
exceeding $150,000, the governor, the attorney general and the treasurer 
being constituted a board of managers for the institution, which was com- 
pleted in the following year. On the day following the appropriation for 
the penitentiary an attempt was made to pass a measure appropriating 
$300,000 for a new capitol. This action excited great indignation through- 
out the Territory. People outside of Santa Fe were almost unanimously 
against the measure, which was condemned as an attempt on the part of 
the "Santa Fe ring" to bleed the taxpayers for their personal benefit. 
Charges were made that the legislature was organized and managed in 
furtherance of a deliberate scheme to raid the public treasury for the 
benefit of the few. A memorial was sent to Congress asking for an in- 
vestigation and mass meetings of citizens were held in many places. The 
opposition to the bill in the legislature was led by Major William H. 
Whiteman. representing Bernalillo county in the house. The opposition, 
while it did not prevent the passage of the measure, succeeded in reducing 
the original amount of the appropriation. The bill, which was passed 
March 28, 1884, created a bonded indebtedness of $200,000 against the 
Territory, and appointed as capitol building committee the governor of 
the Territory and his successor in office, together with the folio-wing named : 
Mariano S. Otero, Narciso Valdez. William L. Rynerson, Jose Montano, 
Antonio Abeytia y Armijo, Ramon A. Baca, Vicente Mares, John C. Joseph. 
Cristobal Mares, Lorenzo Lopez, Rafael Romero and A. S. Potter. 

The cost of the capitol in round numbers was $250,000. It was built 
of yellow sandstone. In 1886 the legislature met for the first time in the 
new capitol, and six years later, May 12, i8q2, the building was burned, 
presumablv at the hands of an incendiary. There was no insurance, but 
most of the records were saved. 

February 5, 1895, a capitol rebuilding board was established by act 
of the legislature, and after much delay the new capitol was completed 



and dedicated June 4, 1900. The present capitol, of similar design to the 
first, is built of cream colored brick upon a granite foundation, crowned 
with a tasteful dome, and was completed at a cost of $200,000. 

When It First Became the Capital. — The appearance of Santa Fe is 
thus described in "Mayer's History of New Mexico," which was pub- 
lished in the year of the territorial' organization and shortly before Santa 
Fe was formally established as the capital: "Santa Fe is an irregular, 
scattered town, built of adobes, or sun-dried bricks, while most of its 
streets are common highways traversing settlements interspersed with ex- 
tensive cornfields. The only attempt at anything like architectural com- 
pactness and precision consists of four tiers of buildings, whose fronts are 
shaded with a fringe of rude partales or corridors. They stand around 
the public square, and comprise the palacio, or governor's house, the custom 
house, barracks, calabozo. casa consistarial, the military chapel, besides 
several private residences, as well as most of the shops of the American 

In the early clays following the American occupation there was a 
very bitter feeling of prejudice against the Americans, and they were in 
constant danger of assault from Mexicans, who would frequently pitch 
stones from the roofs of the adobe houses onto the heads of the hated 
"( iringoes." All Americans carried "six-shooters" and bowie knives, ac- 
cording to Charles L. Thayer. In 1850 there was three times as much 
land under cultivation by the Mexicans as now. The American military 
force of occupation was large, and everything was bought in the open 
market at enormous prices — corn at $25 per fanega (about two and a half 
bushels'), wheat at about the same price, and hay at $60 per ton. Money 
was extremely plentiful and times were prosperous. 

In 1849 the military chapel, built during the Mexican regime, was 
located on the west side of the plaza, the Mexican postoffice also standing 
in this locality. There were no American schools until late in the fifties, 
when a small private establishment was opened. 

Among the residents of Santa Fe who located in 1849 ar >d remained 
there for some time mav be mentioned Colonel Ceran St. Vrain, the well 
known merchant and public character; Joseph Hersch, who operated a 
flour mill and kept a store on the site of the Hotel Normandie ; Charles 
Lawrence Thayer, Jacob Spiegelberg and Major John R. Wells; Sigmund 
Seligman, merchant, and joab Houghton, who operated a general store 
and was the first chief justice of the Territory. In 1852 Rumney, Ardinger 
& Green opened the historic "Exchange Hotel." Mr. Rumney had been 
chief clerk in the United States commissary department, and Mr. Green 
was a private citizen from Missouri. 

Religious Establishments. — Santa Fe is the seat of a Roman Catholic 
archbishopric, and the establishment of the church is contemporary with 
the founding of the place. After San Miguel, the first Catholic edifice 
erected was by the custodian of missions, who, in 1623. commenced to 
build a church — probably on the site of the present cathedral. After five 
years it was completed, but was destroyed in the revolt of 1680. The 
cathedral is a modern sandstone structure built around an older parish 
church known as the Parroquia. and stands on the south side of the plaza, 
opposite the palace. The handsome stone reredos of the cathedral were 
erected by Governor Marin del Valle and his wife in 1761, and the Rosario 


Chapel is said to mark the spot where Vargas made his vow before he 
recaptured the city from the pueblos in 1692. The cathedral also con- 
tains a museum of old Spanish paintings and other curios. 

Besides the cathedral there are two other Roman Catholic churches, 
a Protestant Episcopal church, an English and Spanish Presbyterian 
church, the Allison Presbyterian mission, and the English and Spanish 
M. E. church. Among the important charities are the St. Vincent's Hos- 
pital, Sanitarium and Orphanage and the Industrial School for Deaf 
and Dumb. 

Other Points of Interest. — 1'he territorial library is of interest to 
historical students, for although it contains but 5,000 books, it embraces 
valuable Spanish and Mexican archives covering the period 1621-1846. 
The three public school libraries number about the same volumes. The 
press of the city is represented by one English daily and two Spanish 

Aside from the four city schools, the educational institutions consist 
of St. Michael College, established by the Christian Brothers in 1859 and 
the first college in New Mexico; Academy of Our Lady of Light, under 
the control of the Sisters of Loretto and' the oldest girls' school in the 
southwest (founded in 1852), and the government school for Indians 
(Dawes Institute), attended by 300 natives, and St. Catherine's Indian 

Santa Fe has, of course, the territorial penitentiary, representing a 
financial outlay of $150,000. and claims one of the finest systems of water- 
works in the southwest. The supply is drawn from reservoirs above the 
city, on Santa Fe creek. The canyon dam is 350 feet at its base and 120 
feet at its deepest part. The works supply not only water for domestic 
use and irrigation, but electric power. 

The present population of Santa Fe is about 5,600, and it has been 
gradually decreasing for the past quarter of a century; in 1890 the figures 
were 6,165, ar, d in 1880, 6,635. 

Cerrillos, at one time one of the busiest mining towns in the Terri- 
tory, in recent years has suffered through the abandonment of the quartz 
mines in the surrounding country, the closing of two of her principal coal 
mines and the burning of the third. For many years the town was 
famous for the coal which bore its name. The earliest mining operations 
by white men began late in the seventies. In 1879 the Cash Entry mine, 
which was discovered by Charles Dimmick, was opened and the mining 
of lead and silver ores was begun. The property was soon afterward 
bought by George Holman, of Fitchburg, Massachusetts, who sunk a hun- 
dred-foot shaft and removed practically all of the paying ore ever taken 
from the mine. Some of it was valued as high as fifteen hundred dollars 
per ton. Below the hundred-foot level zinc and lead were found, but 
water in large quantities made the operation of the mine difficult. In 1883 
the property was purchased by Chicago capitalists, who erected a patent 
process concentrator and continued operations until 1886, when Wilson 
Waddingham purchased it and disposed of a half interest therein to 
English investors. On three hundred and twenty acres of patented ground 
they sunk a shaft seven hundred feet, but found little but zinc. Thev then 
opened the Central mine, a lead producer, working to a depth of nearly 
five hundred feet, and Joplin, Missouri, capitalists erected a concentrator. 


This mine was closed in 1892. It is now owned by Captain W. E. Dame. 
These were the two principal mines of the district', excepting the valuable 
coal properties. 

Coal was first found on the Ortiz mine grant, the title to which was 
confirmed by Congress about 1871. The grant conflicted, however, with 
that known as the Juana Tcpez grant, the older of the two, which pre- 
vailed. Before the Civil war a number of federal officials purchased the 
Ortiz grant, which they sold to the New Mexico Mining and Milling 
Company, and a part of the owners of the Juana Topez grant sold their 
claims to the Xew Mexico Fuel and Iron Company. Both grants stood 
the test of the courts, and litigation looking to partition is still pending. 

As early as 1871 anthracite coal was mined commercially near Cer- 
rillos. The production of bituminous coal begun in 1882. W..C. Rogers, 
an. early merchant at Carbonateville, or Turquesa, worked the coal banks 
at an early day. Other earlv developers were O'Mara, Uptegrove, Will- 
iam Kesse and Richard Green. Between 1887 and 1892 the coal mining 
industry was on the boom, at least nine companies teaming and shipping. 
In 1892 most of the coal land was secured by the Santa Fe Railway Com- 
pany, which continued to operate the field until December, 1905, when 
the mine caught fire. Since that time Cerrillos has become well nigh 

Among the early settlers of the town properly called Los Cerrillos 
were O'Mara, who erected the first hotel ; D. D. Harkins, who built the 
second hotel ; William Nesbit, who conducted a saloon and served as 
county commissioner for many years ; Uptegrove. builder of the Central 
Hotel ; W. C. Hurt, merchant and miner ; Dr. Richards, who conducted a 
drug store and spent a small fortune in the quartz mine known as the 
"Marshall Bonanza": Judge N. B. Laughlin, a pioneer quartz miner at 
Carbonateville and owner of Laughlin's addition to Cerrillos; Arthur 
Boyle, who leased the Waldo mine about 1882; Michael O'Neil, E. F. 
Bennett and Austin L. Kendall. 

Mr. Kendall, who is now postmaster of the town and a member of 
the board of county commissioners of Santa Fe county, has resided in the 
Territory since 1880. The first six years of his residence here he devoted 
to the livery business in Santa Fe. From 1886 to 1889 he conducted a 
general store at Dolores, or the Ortiz mine crant, but since the latter 
year has resided in Cerrillos. After a short time devoted to mercantile 
business he operated the waterworks from the time they were constructed, 
in 1892, until 1804. For about ten years be has served as justice of the 
peace, has been postmaster since March 12, 1900, and has twice been 
county commissioner — from 1802 to 1894, and from 1902 to the present 
time. Judge Kendall was born in Danville. Vermont, October 2, 1837. 
In 1855 he went to Mobile. In October of the latter year he sailed from 
New Orleans to join the expedition of General William Walker, the noted 
filibuster, but left this historic expedition at the first opportunity and re- 
turned to his home in the east. During the Civil war he was connected 
with the quartermaster's department, and was an eye-witness of the cele- 
brated fight between the Monitor and the Merrimac in Hampton Roads. 
From 1873 to 1880 he resided in Kansas, and during 1875 served the 
government as scout on Indian duty. Judge Kendall is a Republican. 
He is prominent in Masonic circles, a past master of Cerrillos Lodge 


No. 19, A. F. & A. M., of the lodge and chapter of Perfection in Santa Fe, 
and the Scottish Rite in Denver. He took the Scottish Rite degree in 
Boston, Massachusetts, in 1863, a short time after being made a Mason 
in Chelsea, Massachusetts. In Kinsley, Kansas, he was master of the 
local lodge for one term. 

Charles Lawrence Thayer, of Santa Fe. is one of the survivors of the 
pioneers who came to New Mexico in 1849. Born at Milton, Massa- 
chusetts, August 8, 1823, in January, 1849, ne left New Orleans with the 
intention of seeking the gold fields of California. Between St. Louis and 
Fort Leavenworth twenty-three of his party died of the cholera, and he 
himself was ill of that disease. On recovering, he drove an ox team for 
the government from Fort Leavenworth to Santa Fe, 125 citizens' wagons 
being escorted by the government train, which arrived in August. 

Mr. Thayer went to El Paso in two weeks, but while preparing to 
continue his journey to the coast was robbed of all he had by a man 
whom he had befriended. Being stranded financially, he returned to 
Santa Fe in June. 1850. On this trip he had as traveling companion the 
noted gambler. Major John R. Wells, of Mississippi, who was carrying 
$15,000 in gold packed on horseback. At the government post at Dona 
Ana an officer informed them of the intention of four soldiers to steal 
this rich luggage, their murder and the robbery being planned to take 
place as they passed Point of Rocks on the Jornada del Muerto. They 
succeeded in foiling the thieves by burying the gold under a cottonwood 
tree and returning to the barracks until the danger was over. 

Since coming to Santa Fe the second time Mr. Thayer has been a 
continuous resident of the capital city, and has become one of the most 
widely known pioneer inhabitants of New Mexico. 

Bernard Seligman came to Santa Fe in 1856 from Germany, and 
engaged in business under the firm name of Seligman & Clever, which 
partnership was maintained until the election of Mr. Clever as delegate 
to Congress. Mr. Seligman was several times a member of the legisla- 
ture, serving in both houses, and was chairman of the board of county 
commissioners for three terms. He was also territorial treasurer, was 
commissioner to the exposition in Vienna in 1872 and to the exposition in 
Paris about 1881. He was mainly instrumental in building the court 
house, and to his efforts in the legislature is due the passing of the me- 
chanic's lien law, one of the most important acts of the territorial legisla- 
ture. He served in the army with commission from Governor Connelly as 
captain and quartermaster, and was a member of the grand lodge of the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows. He died in Philadelphia. February 3, 

Arthur Seligman. son of Bernard Seligman. was born in Santa Fe 
in 1871. On completing- his education he engaged as bookkeeper for 
Seligman Brothers. The present firm was organized in 1903, and Arthur 
Seligman became secretary and treasurer. He has been secretary of the 
commission of irrigation, and is still a member of said commission. He 
was a member of the Buffalo Pan-American Exposition Commission, and 
was also a member of the St. Louis World's Fair Commission and its 
treasurer. For six vears he has been a member and for two years chair- 
man of the board of countv commissioners, and has likewise been and is 
at present chairman of the Democratic county central committee. He was 

Most Rev. J. B. Lamy 



made a Mason in Montezuma Lodge, is secretary of the chapter, and has 
attained the Scottish Rite degrees. He is also an Elk. 

Alexander L. Morrison, of Santa Fe, is one of the few American 
survivors of the Mexican war now residing in New Mexico. His life has 
been an active one. He was born in County Antrim, Ireland, in October, 
1832, and came to the United States in 1847. I n New York cit - v lle en ~ 
listed in the Second New York Volunteers, was assigned to Colonel Bur- 
nett's regiment, and in January, 1848, left for Vera Cruz. The fighting 
in New "Mexico was practically at an end when his command arrived in 
that country, but he filled up his term of six months, being discharged in 
New Orleans in July, 1848. In 1851 he was married in Troy, New York, 
to Jane Clark, and a few davs later removed to Chicago. He served in 
the Illinois legislature, voting for General John A. Logan for the United 
State senate. "During President Arthur's administration he was appointed 
United States marshal for New Mexico, and performed the duties of 
that office from 1882 until 1885. For two years he was engaged in the 
cattle business in Arizona. Soon after Harrison became president he ap- 
pointed Mr. Morrison register of the United States land office in Santa 
Fe, which position he filled four years. At the beginning of McKinley's 
administration he was appointed United States collector of internal revenue, 
and filled that office in Santa Fe until he resigned in May, 1905. It is 
worthy of note that his office was one of four that stood first in the matter 
of conduct during his incumbency of the office, according to official reports. 
In November, 1905, Mr. Morrison became one of the founders of the 
Western Catholic Review, a monthly publication, issued from Prescott, 

Upon his return from a journey to France in 1867, among those who 
accompanied Archbishop Lamy to America were his two nephews, John 
B. Lamy and his brother, Antonie Lamy, the latter of whom was then pre- 
paring for the priesthood. Antonie Lamy was graduated from the Theo- 
logical Seminary in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1871. and after coming to 
New Mexico had charge of the parishes at Taos. El Rito and Manzano. 
He died in 1876 and his body was buried in the church at Manzano. 

John B. Lamy came to America on account of ill health. He was 
born* in the native town of Archbishop Lamy in 1842. The first twenty 
years of his life were spent with his brother. Father Antonie. In October, 
1871, he married Mercedes, sister of Don Felipe Chaves, and soon after 
engaged in sheep raising, to which he devoted ten years. When he dis- 
posed of his sheep he invested the proceeds in real estate in Santa Fe, to 
the care and management of which he has since given his time. Mr. Lamy 
has been successful in his undertakings. He exhibits an active interest 
in public affairs, but has never sought political honors. 

Celso Lopez, county treasurer of Santa Fe, was born in the capital 
city in 1874. and was educated in St. Michael's College. In the years 1903 
and 1904 he served as probate clerk and the succeeding two years was col- 
lector and treasurer of the county. He is now serving as a member of 
the city council for the second term and is recognized as a leader in Repub- 
lican ranks. His father, Rafael Lopez, also a native of Santa Fe, repre- 
sented one of the old Spanish families and was for many years engaged 
in business here, but died in 1901. 

Jacob Weltmer, of Santa Fe, who was elected department commander 


of the Grand Army of the Republic of New Mexico in 1905, has been 
a resident of the Territory since 1874. He was born in Palmyra, Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1841, and in July. 1863, enlisted in the Thirty-sixth Pennsylvania 
Volunteer Infantry, serving during' the invasion of Pennsylvania. On the 
expiration of his term of service he re-enlisted in the Forty-fourth Wiscon- 
sin Volunteer Infantry, and participated in the battle of Nashville. 

Jacob Weltmer became a resident of Santa Fe in 1874. where he has 
since been engaged in business. From 1876 until 1880 he was employed 
as chief deputy and clerk in the office of the United States collector of 
internal revenue in Santa Fe, and from 1888 until 1892. during the Harri- 
son administration, he was postmaster of the city. Mr. Weltmer has ex- 
hibited a keen interest in educational matters and was largely instrumental 
in securing the erection of the present attractive high school building on 
the Fort Marcy reservation, in the north end of the city. The building 
formerly occupied by the Grand Army post was turned over to the schools, 
largely through Mr. Weltmer's efforts, as president of the school board, 
ami this act finally led up to the transfer of the reservation to the city, 
the agitation which followed resulting in the construction of the present 
handsome high school building on that portion of the reservation already 
occupied by the old school building. Mr. Weltmer's service on the school 
board was characterized by a rare manifestation of public spirit. Since 
1 88 1 he has conducted a stationery and book store in Santa Fe. 

The Castillo family came from Spain at the same time as the de Vaca 
family. Marcos Castillo was born in Bernalillo county, now Sandoval, in 
1859, a son °f J ose Antonio Castillo. In 1862 the senior Castillo was 
killed by the Navajo Indians, who also stole six or seven thousand head 
of sheep. The widow was left with her son. Marcos Castillo, who early 
learned and followed the painter's trade, while later he engaged in mer- 
chandising from 1888 until 1890. In the meantime he was called to office, 
serving as probate judge from 7883 until 1885. and in 1884 was elected 
probate clerk and recorder. In 1891 he was elected a member of the board 
of education of Santa Fe for two years and since T904 he has been probate 
clerk and ex-officio recorder, proving a capable official. His political 
allegiance is given to the Republican party. 

Charles W. Dudrow, engaged in the lumber, coal and transfer busi- 
ness at. Santa Fe. was born in Frederick. Maryland, in 184.1. and became 
a resident of Santa Fe in 1870. For several years he was employed by 
Barlow & Sanderson, the noted overland stage line men. as express mes- 
senger. In 1880 he engaged in his present business and for several years 
has conducted a lumber and coal vard at Cerrillos. His business interests 
are capablv conducted and guided by sound judgment, so that his efforts 
result successfully. He is widely known throughout the northern part of 
the Territory and is active in public affairs. He was twice elected sheriff 
but declined to serve, and for several terms he was a member of the board 
of county commissioners and chairman of that body. 

Leo Hersch, a wholesale grain dealer at Santa Fe, in which city 
he was bom in 1869, pursued his education in St. Michael's College, and 
has since been connected with the wholesale grain trade. Interested in 
municipal affairs, he served for three vears as a member of the town board. 
His father. Joseph Hersch. was born in Germany and in 1847 became 
a resident of Santa Fe as a government contractor. He put up the first 


steam mill west of the Missouri river at a time when flour was worth 
twenty-five dollars per hundred pounds. He died in 1901. 

Frank Owen, manager of the Santa Fe Water and Light Company, 
was born in Tennessee in 1869, and was educated in the University of Vir- 
ginia, winning his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1889, and his Master of Arts 
degree in 1893. In March. 1904, he came to Santa Fe as manager of the 
Water and Light Company. He is a Knight of Pythias and past chan- 
cellor of Greenville Lodge, Texas. He is also a past noble grand of the 
Odd Fellows lodge of the same place and holds membership relations with 
the Elks. 

Page B. Otero, of Santa Fe. has been identified with public affairs for 
several years. A son of Miguel A. Otero, deceased, he was born in Wash- 
ington, D. C, January 14, 1858, and concluded his classical studies in the 
University of St. Louis and Notre Dame (Indiana) College. He studied 
medicine for three years in Chicago, but did not work up to a degree, 
abandoning his studies to assist his father in his mercantile undertakings 
in Kansas, Colorado and New Mexico. In 1880 he helped to organize the 
New Mexico Telephone Company, with headquarters in Las Vegas, became 
superintendent of line construction, and established exchanges at Las Vegas, 
Santa Fe, Albuquerque and Socorro. He was afterward engaged in mining 
in New Mexico and Arizona. After serving for a while as deputy United 
States marshal he went to Roswell in 1890 and engaged in the sheep busi- 
ness with Pat F. Garrett for a year, while "later he superintended the con- 
struction of the Mining Exchange building in Denver. He then became 
chief deputy UJnited States marshal under Romulo Martinez, serving from 
1885 to 1889. From 1891 to 1892 he was deputy sheriff and tax collector 
of Bernalillo county. During most of the life of the UJnited States court 
of private land claims he acted as special agent for the government and 
arrested James Addison Reavis, the notorious swindler. Upon the outbreak 
of the Spanish-American war he entered the First New Mexico Volunteer 
Cavalrv as first lieutenant, was promoted to major, and remained with 
that command until it was mustered out. Upon his return he was again 
identified with the land court. He framed and caused to be introduced the 
bill creating the office of game warden for New Mexico, was appointed 
to that office by his brother, Governor Otero, and occupied it until the ap- 
pointment of his successor April 27. 1906. 

A. J. Fischer, a druggist of Santa Fe. was born in St. Louis in 1867, 
and came from that city to Santa Fe in 1883. In 1888 he was a student in 
the St. Louis College of Pharmacy, and graduated as Ph. G., and since his 
return has continuously resided in Santa Fe. He was chief clerk in the 
postoffice from 181)4 until 1896, and in the latter year purchased the store 
which he has conducted continuously since. For the past three years he 
has been secretary for the territorial board of pharmacy, and is secretary of 
the Elks Lodge No. 460. 

H. B. Cartwright was born at Kossuth, Des Moines county, Iowa, 
in 1852. He located in Santa Fe in 1880. He was first engaged in a book- 
selling and news business but in 1881 engaged in the retail grocery busi- 
ness. He was successful in building up a large and paving establishment, 
and in 1902 found that it was desirable to divide the business so as to have 
the wholesale and retail parts of the store conducted separately. This 
was done, and since that time the firm of H. B. Cartwright & Bro., with 


H. B. Cartwright as president and manager, has been doing an exclusively 
wholesale grocery trade. Mr. Cartwright is a man of great energy and 
force and is considered one of the best buyers in the grocery trade of 
New Mexico. He has filled a number of offices in his county, having been 
the treasurer and collector for a number of terms. He is a Mason, belong- 
ing to both the Scottish Rite and Knight Templars, and is a Noble of the 
Mystic Shrine. 

Samuel G. Cartwright, a brother of H. B. Cartwright, was born in 
1869. He was educated in the public schools and at the State University 
of Iowa, graduating in the class of 1892 with the degree of Ph. B. 

He joined his brother in the grocery business in 1892 and aided him 
in building up a prosperous trade. When the retail and wholesale depart- 
ments of the store were separated, in 1902, S. G. Cartwright was made 
manager of the retail store, which is conducted under the name of the 
Cartwright-Davis Co. He has also held a number of local and territorial 
offices, being at this time a trustee and secretary and treasurer of the Deaf 
and Dumb Asylum. 

He was married in 1904 to Miss Bertha Straub at Mount Pleasant, 
Iowa. They have three children, Miriam, Edward William and George 

Isaac Sparks, of Santa Fe, was born in Pimiento, Indiana, in 1866, 
and after residing for a time in Denver, Colorado, came to Santa Fe in 
1891 as manager of the electric light company. He is also owner of the 
telephone system, and is still manager of both the water and electric light 
works. In 1902-3 he served as mayor of the city, and has been an influen- 
tial factor in municipal affairs. 

H. S. Kaune has resided in Santa Fe since 1887, and has been en- 
gaged in merchandising in the city since 1896. He was born in Illinois in 
1856, and when a young man of twenty-one years came to the Territory, 
where for ten years he has conducted a prosperous commercial enterprise. 
Since 1904 he has been a member of the city council of Santa Fe, and is a 
public-spirited citizen who does all in his power for the advancement, 
progress and welfare of this portion of the country. 

William Bolander, a pioneer harness maker of Santa Fe, who came 
to this city in 1867, arrived in the Territory in 1866 as a saddler for the 
government at Fort Marcy. He made the journev with a train to Albu- 
querque and cast in his lot with the pioneer settlers of this portion of the 
country. He was born in Columbus, Ohio, and his first western experience 
was with the wagon train to Utah in 1 86 1. Returning to the middle west, 
he enlisted in the Nineteenth Indiana Battery, which was assigned to the 
Fourteenth Army Corps, and he participated in the campaigns in Tennessee, 
Kentucky, and the march to the sea, being mustered out at Indianapolis, 
Indiana. In 1866 he went to Albuquerque with an overland train, but 
later returned to the east and came with another train in 1867, when he be- 
came a saddler at F'ort Marcy, and was such until 1867, when he started 
a business of his own. He was with the army until 1865. He was a charter 
member of McRae Post, G. A. R.. which was the first post organized, 
but which later ceased to exist. Afterward he joined the present post, 
Carlton, at Santa Fe, and he has also been an Odd Fellow since 1861, in 
which order he filled every office. 

J. S. Candelario, a prominent curio dealer of Santa Fe, was born in 


Bernalillo county, New Mexico, in 1864. His father, J. A. Candelario, 
came from Spain and became connected with the curio business in 1869, 
since which time the enterprise has been conducted with constantly grow- 
ing success, the same being one of the representative establishments of this 
class in the southwest. J. S. Candelario has served as public officer several 
times on the Democratic ticket. He is also a past chancellor of the Knights 
of Pythias lodge and a past noble grand of the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows. 

'Mr. Candelario has taken an active interest in promoting the growth 
of the city and Territory, and is a successful merchant and proprietor of 
the original old curio store at Santa Fe. 

J. V. Conway, proprietor of the Normandie Hotel at Santa Fe, was 
born on the Cimarron, in Colfax county, New Mexico, in 1872. He 
was educated at St. Michael's College, at Santa Fe, and after pursuing a 
business course joined his father in the restaurant business, conducting the 
Bon Ton on San Francisco street in Santa Fe. The father died in 1898 
and J. V. Conway continued as proprietor of the restaurant until July, 1905, 
when he purchased the Normandie, which he has since conducted. He is 
an enterprising business man and has been a factor in progressive citizen- 
ship. For four years he served as county superintendent of schools. 

Norman L. King, chief draftsman in the surveyor general's office at 
Santa Fe, was born in Washington, D. C, in 1871, and acquired his educa- 
tion in the Maryland Agricultural College. He came to Santa Fe in 
February, 1895, and has since been connected with the surveyor general's 
office as a draftsman. He was made a Mason in Montezuma Lodge No. 1, 
A. F. & A. M., in which he is now junior warden, and he is also exalted 
ruler of the Elks. 



On February i, i860, the original Mora county was created from Taos, 
and constituted all the territory east of the Rocky Mountains, or the pres- 
ent limits of Taos county, to the territorial boundary. By act of January 
18, 1862, its boundaries, which were substantially the same, were defined 
as follows : On the north and east, the limits of the Territory of New- 
Mexico ; on the south, the northern limits of the countv of San Miguel; 
and on the west, the tops of the ridge of mountains which divide the valley 
of Taos from Mora and Rayado. In 1868 the boundary between Mora and 
Taos counties was relocated, in 1869 the northern part of Mora was set 
oflf to form Colfax county, and in 1893 Union county was organized ; thus 
the county was reduced to its present bounds. 

As now constituted Mora county has an area of 10,304 square miles, 
being slightly smaller than Taos. It lies in the northeastern portion of the 
Territory, in the second tier of counties both from the east and the north. 
It has a population of 2,500, half of which is included in Mora, the 
county seat. 

Physical Features and Resources. — The physical feature which gives 
Mora countv most of its beauty, and at the same time is of greatest 
practical value, is its series of magnificent valleys. As one enters the 
county from the southwest the first garden spot that attracts attention 
is the beautiful emerald green of Cherry Valley and Watrous. These 
beautiful valleys are watered by the Sapello and Mora, from which lead 
irrigation ditches in all directions. The streams are banked with cotton- 
wood, elder, wild plum and cherry trees, and the fields spread with or- 
chards, gardens and lovelv homes, while great fields of alfalfa wave green 
and purple. This was the first section in New Mexico to be settled by 
American farmers. The Mora Valley itself, surrounding the town by that 
name, extends for nearly fifteen miles along the river, with a width vary- 
ing from half a mile to a mile, and contains about 6,000 acres. It is 
divided into small farms, all highlv cultivated and especially celebrated 
for its wheat. Surrounding the valley on all sides are lofty mountains, 
clothed with gigantic pines. Another charming valley, larger in extent, is 
that of La Cueva. situated just outside of the Canyoncito of the Mora, and 
watered by the Cebolla and Coyote. It lies in a perfect amphitheater of 
hills, and these are overtopped with mountains. The floor of the valley 
is a smooth plain, over 50,000 acres in extent, and is the scene of the great 
operations of the La Cueva Ranch and Cattle Company, noticed at length 

The western half of the county is a beautiful farming country, being 
protected from high winds by the main range of the Rocky Mountains. 
Within the main valley flow the Mora, the Coyote. Cebolla, La Jara and 
Sapello. each of which runs through a fertile valley of its own. The 


prairies are covered with gama and blue-joint grass, and, as they are cut 
with ravines, furnish plenty of shelter for cattle and sheep, the raising of 
which still forms the main industry of the county. Wheat, oats and corn 
are all grown on irrigated lands, although the nights are too cool in the 
western portions of the county to raise some varieties of the latter grain 
with great success. 

As to fruits, it has been found by experience that the late blooming 
trees are the surest to bear. The German prune has produced fine crops 
of superior fruit. Of cherries, the early Richmond is the safest. Peaches 
and apricots will only bear in very sheltered locations. It is generally 
necessary to protect the orchards against the prevailing southwest winds 
by strips of quick-growing trees, such as the white willow. 

The banks of all the water courses bear cottonwood, elder, wild plums 
and cherries. In the central portions of the plains are found scattered 
pinyon and cedar, and the foothills in the western part of the county are 
covered with pine timber of large growth ami much value, considerable of 
which has already been cut. 

The mineral resources of Mora county, though little developed, are 
various. The gold region, which is well known a little further north, ex- 
tends along the eastern side of the Las Vegas range into this county. Mica 
is found in many localities, one of which (Talco) takes its name from 
this substance. There are also deposits of iron and coal, but the most 
generally diffused mineral is copper. This colors the rocks over many 
square miles, the most important mine being near Coyote. 

The County Officers. — From the records of the county, which are 
fairly complete, the following list of officers has been compiled : 

Probate Judges: — 1860, Vicente Romero; 1861-2, Dolores Romero; 1864-5, Jose 
Ledoux ; 1866-9, Vicente Romero; 1870, Jose Ledoux, Santiago Valdez ; 1871, Santi- 
ago Valdez; 1872-4, Dolores Romero; 1875-6, Vicente St. Vrain ; 1876. Henrv Robison; 
1877-80, Anastacio Trujillo; 1881-2, Pablo Valdez: 1883-4, Dolores Romero; 1885-6, 
Feliciano A. Gutierrez; 1887-8. Dolores Romero; 1889-90, S. E. Tipton; 1891-2, Fran- 
cisco Lujan; 1893-4, J- M. Gonzales; 1895-6. Juan A. de Luna: 1897-8. E. H. Biern- 
baum; 1899-1900, Ignacio Pacbeco ; 1901-2, R. Arellano; 1903-4, Gavino Ribera ; 1905-6, 
Andreas Medina. 

Probate Clerks: — 1860, Severino Martinez; 1861, Nicolas Valdez; 1864-9, Pablo 
Valdez; 1870-1, Severino Martinez; 1872-6, Anastacio Trujillo: 1877-8. Pablo Valdez; 
1879-84, Jobn Florence; 1885-90, Agapito Abeyta, Jr.; 1891-2. Charles U. Strong; 
1893-4, Teodocio Gonzales ; 1895-6. Palemon Ortiz ; 1897-8, Emelio Ortiz ; 1899-1900, 
Tito Melandez; 1001-2. Emilio Ortiz; 1903-6, E. H. Biernbaum. 

Sheriffs :— 1862, William Gandert ; 1864. Trinidad Lopez; 1875-6, Pablo Valdez; 
1878-84. Henry Robison : 1885-6. Luciano Gallegos ; 1887, John Doherty : 1888, Macorio 
Gallegos; 1889-90, Juan Navarro; 1891-2. Agapito Abeyta. Jr.; 1893-4, J"an Navarro; 
1895-6, J. R. Aguilar; 1897-8, Eusebio Chavez; 1899-1900. Rafael Romero y Lopez; 
1901-2, Teodoro Roybal : 1903-4, Tito Melendez ; 1905-6, J. D. Medina. 

Assessors: — 18S8, Francisco Miera : 1889-90, A. L. Branch: 1891-2, Macario Gal- 
legos; 1893-4, P- Garcia; 1895-6, B. A. Romero; 1807-8, Bias Gallegos: 1899-1900. Tito 
Maes; 1901-2, F. S. Ortega; 1903-4. Anastacio Medina : 1905-6. R. T. Maes. 

Treasurers and Collectors: — 1879-80, Juan Jose Gallegos: 1889-90, Morris Strouse ; 
1891-2. Pablo Mares: 1893-4. J. H. Daniel: 1895-6. P. D. St. Vrain; 1897-8. Simon 
Vorenberg; 1899-1900, Juan B. Martinez; 1901-2. Charles W. Holman ; 1903-4, Rumal- 
do Roybal ; 1905-6, Daniel Cassidy. 

County Commissioners: — 1S75-6, Vicente Romero (chairman), L. Frampton, No- 
berto Saabedra; 1877-8, Vicente Romero (chairman), Juan J. Gallegos, L. Frampton; 
1879-80, Anastacio Trujillo (chairman), Dolores Romero, Bernardo Salazar; 1881-2. 
Rumaldo Gonzales (chairman), Ramon Rivera, Jose Manuel Gonzales; 1883-4, S. E. 
Tipton (chairman), Rumaldo Gonzales, Lorenzo Romero; 1885-6, B. M. St. Vrain 


(chairman), Pablo Mares, Teodocia Maldonado; 1887-8, Teodocio Maldonado (chair- 
man), Elisio Borrego, Rafael Saabedra ; 1889-90, Alijandro Lucero (chairman), Frank 
Roy, Francisco A. Mestas ; 1891-2, William Gandert (chairman), Augustin Vigil, Ra- 
mon Rivera; 1893-4, B. Salazar (chairman), D. Pacheco, A. Vigil y Valdez; 1895-6, 
Sacramento Baca (chairman), Tito Malendez, Gavino Ribera; 1897-8, Juan P. Aragon 
(chairman), Tomas D. Romero, J. D. Medina; 1899-1900, Joseph B. Watrous (chair- 
man), Francisco Pacheco, Lucas Maestas (Watrous resigned in September, 1899, and 
E. H. Biernbaum was appointed to fill the unexpired term) : 1901-2, A. C. Martinez 
(chairman), Francisco A. Vigil, Juan de Matamares ; 1901-2, A. C. Martinez (chair- 
man), Matias Maetas, Antonio Montoya; 1903-4, Matias Maestas (chairman), 
Francisco A. Vigil, Manuel Lopez; 1905-6, Andreas Gendart (chairman), Francisco 
A. Vigil, Juan de Materes. 

Mora, the County Scat. — The first settlement at Mora, the present 
county seat, was made upon land granted by Governor Perez, in 1835. 
Upon the creation of the county from Taos, in i860, a little crude adobe 
building was erected for a court house, and the structure is still standing. 
The present court house, built in 1889, at a cost of $10,000, is composed 
of brownstone, taken from quarries in Mora county. The place is a typical 
New Mexican town, and has a population of 1,200 people. 

La Cueva Ranch Company, whose vast interests lie along the Mora 
river, owns one of the most valuable pieces of property in New Mexico. 
As a ranch, no other in the Territory, except Hagerman's, approaches it 
in the proportion under cultivation. It is beautifully located, is thirteen 
miles in length, has fifty-five miles under fences, and comprises nearly 
26,000 acres of land segregated, by court decree, from the Mora grant, 
and 40.000 acres leased from the Fort Union reservation. The company 
was incorporated in 1882, and averages between 4,000 and 5,000 cattle in 
winter quarters. 

More than 2,000 acres of the tract are under cultivation. A ditch eight 
feet wide carries a generous supply of running water from Mora river 
to a lake 700 acre<= in extent, and numerous smaller lakes, which serve as 
reservoirs of irrigation. This tract under cultivation and irrigation pro- 
duced, during the season of 1905, about 750,000 pounds of grain and 3,000 
tons of alfalfa and other feed, and comprises one of the finest fruit orchards 
in the southwest. The company deals quite extensively in farm products 
and operates a flour mill and a general merchandise store. But, of course, 
the main business of the concern is the raising of cattle for the market 
and the breeding of thoroughbred Short Horn. Hereford and Galloway 
cattle, milch cows and fine horses and mules. The present officers of the 
company are: Adin H. Whitmore, president; D. C. Deuel, treasurer and 
manager, and Hugh Loudon, secretary. Its postoffice is La Cueva, Mora 
county, and its telephone, telegraph and express station. Las Vegas. 

The basis of this magnificent property was the great tract of land 
originally bought by Vicente Romero from the earlier squatters. In this 
way he acquired possession of about 40,000 acres of land, and from him 
the company trace title to their broad estate. Vicente Romero was a 
prominent freighter and sheep man, and is said to have passed much of 
his time as a "nomad, sleeping in caverns while caring for his flocks and 
lands; hence the name which has descended to the present — La Cueva, 
"the cave." 

The founder of the ranch gave his son Rafael a good education, in 
anticipation of the time when intelligent and enterprising Americans 


should control the best interests of the country. The first La Cueva Com- 
pany was capitalized at $150,000, and $100,000 of stock issued. D. C. 
Deuel owned a third interest, and C. T. White and Rafael Romero the 
balance. Subsequently Messrs. Deuel and White purchased the interests 
of Mr. Romero and his mother. Still later Hugh Loudon and Major 
A. H. Whitmore bought the Romero stock, and the present company was 
organized. Mr. Deuel still owns a majority of the stock, in which there 
are few small holders. 

Other Towns. — Watrous is a flourishing town on the Santa Fe rail- 
road, in the southern part of the county, twenty miles north of Las Vegas. 
It is situated in the center of the beautiful valley by that name. Mr. 
Watrous, for whom it was named, settled there long before the American 
occupation, and for years his family was in control of most of the land in 
that vicinity. Watrous is in the center of a growing agricultural com- 
munity, the surrounding country being systematically irrigated and pro- 
ducing good crops of alfalfa, grain, fruits and vegetables. Near by, on 
the Val Mora ranch, is a growing sanitarium for consumptives, patronized 
by patients from the middle west and largely controlled by physicians of 
Chicago. Detroit and Milwaukee. 

Wagon Mound is a newer town, to the north of Watrous and close to 
the famous elevation known as the "Wagon Mound," which was the land- 
mark of those crossing the prairies long years ago. It is an important 
mercantile point for the shipment of wool and sheep. 

Colmor, a station on the boundary line between Colfax and Mora 
counties, is chiefly noticeable on account of its name — a composite made of 
the first three letters of these counties. 

Garret Eckerson. manager for the La Cueva Ranch Company in 
Mora county, New Mexico, is a fair type of the genial, hospitable 

Mr. Eckerson is a native of the Empire state. He was born in the 
Hudson valley, New York, September 14. i860, son of Albert Bogart and 
Anna (Henion) Eckerson. With a love for adventure and ambitious to 
see something of the world, Mr. Eckerson, when a young man yet in his 
teens, left his eastern home and went first to Illinois and afterward to 
Missouri, where he remained until he reached his majority. Then, in 1881, 
he again turned his face westward. New Mexico his objective point. 
Arrived here, he entered the employ of Clark & Sheppard, an eastern firm 
that had large cattle interests in New Mexico. For the past seven years 
he has had charge of cattle for the La Cueva Ranch Company, ten miles 
north of Watrous, Watrous being his postofnce. In addition to acting as 
manager for this company, Mr. Eckerson also has stock interests of his 
own, having a number of cattle which he keeps on the company's land. 
His residence is the old Shoemaker place, well known in this locality for 
many years, and especially popular since Mr. Eckerson has made it his 
home and extended its hospitality to both friend and stranger. Mr. Ecker- 
son is unmarried. 

Estaban H. Riernbaum, countv clerk of Mora county, Mora. New 
Mexico, was born here September 1, 1864, son of Henry and Junita 
(Leyva) Biernbaum, the former a native of Germany and the latter of 
New Mexico, and is the eldest of their four children. Henrv Biernbaum 
was one of the prominent early pioneers of New Mexico. For a number 
Vol. 11. 


of years he was engaged in business in New Mexico and Colorado, and 
is now living retired in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Estaban B. Biernbaum was reared in Mora, where he received his 
education in the Christian Brothers College. At the early age of sixteen 
he engaged in merchandising on his own account at Weber, Mora count}-, 
where he continued to reside until the great flood of 1904, in which he 
sustained heavy loss. In the meantime he had acquired large stock in- 
terests, cattle and sheep, and many hundreds of broad acres. He now has 
three hundred acres under cultivation and eight hundred acres which will 
be cultivated as soon, as irrigation is obtained here. 

For years Mr. Biernbaum has been a prominent figure in the Repub- 
lican ranks of Mora county, and has a number of times been honored with 
official preferment. He was elected probate judge in 1896, and served a 
term of two years ; was appointed by Governor Otero as a member of the 
board of county commissioners, of which he was made chairman in 1899; 
in 1902 was elected county clerk, received the nomination again and was 
re-elected to succeed himself. Previous to this he was chairman of the 
county central committee for eight years. 

Fraternally Mr. Biernbaum is identified with the Woodmen of the 
World, having membership in Montezuma Camp No. 2, of Las Vegas. 
While a resident of Weber, he was married there, in 1889, to Miss Emma 
Weber, daughter of Frank Weber, and they have one child, Frank. 

Henry Biernbaum, father of Estaban H. Biernbaum. the present 
county clerk of Mora county, was himself for a number of years promi- 
nently identified with the New Mexican interests. He was born in Hesse- 
Cassel, Germany, and when a young man emigrated to this country, land- 
ing in the United States in 1850 and the following year coming to New 
Mexico. His first employment here was as clerk in the mercantile estab- 
lishment of Spiegelberg Brothers at Santa Fe. Subsequently he was in 
business for himself in San Juan and Pueblo, for three or four years. 
Then he spent three or four years in San Miguel, and thence to Mora, 
where he made his home for ten years. While in Mora he served as treas- 
urer of Mora county one term, and was well known and highly respected 
throughout the county. His next move was to Trinidad, Colorado, where 
he opened a large mercantile establishment, which he conducted until 1888. 
Since then he has lived retired in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. While in 
the west he was interested in ranching and the cattle business also, and 
had at different times big government contracts. 

Mr. Biernbaum married, in Mora, in 1863, Miss Junita Leyva, and 
the fruits of this union are : Estaban H, Mary, Isabelle, wife of F. M. 
Sanchez, and Henry, deceased. 

Frank Weber, deceased, was born in Germany, and when a young 
man came, in 1847, t0 tne United States, beine led hither by a spirit of 
adventure. He remained in New Orleans, working at his trade, until 
1848, when he enlisted in the United States army. The following year he 
was sent to New Mexico and was stationed first at Santa Fe and later at 
Fort Union, as a sergeant. At the close of his army service, in 1851, he 
engaged in business at what was then called Golondrines, now Weber, 
where he conducted a general merchandise store and also was interested in 
ranching. He was one of the first men in his locality to plant fruit trees 
and he "gave considerable attention to fruit culture. In 1874 he sold his 


store and turned his attention to the brewery business, which he continued 
up to 1883, after which his whole time was devoted to farming. He died at 
his homestead April 15, 1892. 

Through Mr. Weber's influence a number of Germans came to this 
country, made homes and prospered in New Mexico. Each year, for 
several years, he met and conducted wagon trains to his locality. 

Here, in 185*'), Mr. Weber married Miss Gregoria Landoval, a native 
of Taos county, Xew Mexico. Of the six children of this union, three, 
Henry, John and Joseph, are deceased; Emma is the wife of E. H. Biern- 
baum, of Mora county, and Thomas and Fred reside at Weber. 

Daniel Cassidy. a merchant of Cleveland and treasurer of Mora 
county, has been identified with this county since October 21, 1881, when 
he came here from Ireland. Mr. Cassidy was born in County Donegal, 
Ireland. October 11, 1850. was educated in the national schools of his 
native land, and was married there a few years previous to his coming to 
America. Arrived in New Mexico, he accepted a position as clerk in the 
general merchandise store of James Dougherty at Cleveland ; worked for 
him ten years, at the end of which time he purchased the business and 
became proprietor of the store. Later, in May, 1904, in partnership with 
Harry Dougherty, he bought a general store at Mora. Also he is inter- 
ested in ranching, having acquired a farm of one hundred and fifty acres 
of valuable land near Cleveland and two thousand acres on Ocata Mesa, 
and owns considerable stock, both sheep and cattle. 

For the past ten years Mr. Cassidy has been a Republican, taking an 
active part in local politics, and in 1904 he was elected on the Republican 
ticket to the office he now holds, that of county treasurer. February 21, 
1875, he married, at Letterkenny, Ireland, Miss Susan A. Langan, a 
native of that place. Their children are: Daniel J., a resident of Mora; 
Anna Theresa, wife of Joe Dougherty, of Folsom, New Mexico, and 
Maggie A., James, Bessie S., Charles and Joseph, at home. 

Rafael Tobias Maes, county assessor of Mora county, and a resident 
of Wagon Mound, is, as his name indicates, of Spanish descent. He was 
born in Taos county. New Mexico, May 25, 1863, son of Jose Maria and 
Maria Antonia (Pacheo) Maes, natives of Embudo, Rio Arriba county, 
New Mexico. Jose Maria Maes was a cattle and sheep rancher of Taos 
county, a temperate, honest, industrious farmer, well known and highly 
respected. He lived to the ripe old age of ninety-six years and died in 
August, 1905; his wife died October 17, 1803, at the age of eighty years. 

The subject of this sketch lived on his father's ranch in Taos county 
until he was eighteen years of age. Then he came to Wagon Mound, 
where for five years and nine months he clerked in a store. Returning to 
Taos in 1889, he accepted a position as clerk and bookkeeper, and was 
thus occupied until 1890, when he was appointed chief deputy United 
States marshal for Taos and Rio Arriba counties, with headquarters at 
Taos. This office he filled two years. The next two years he clerked, and 
served as deputy county clerk of Taos county. 

In 1893 Mr. Maes returned to Wagon Mound and engaged in the 
hay and sheep business in partnership with J. R. Aguilar, under the firm 
name of Aguilar and Maes, which partnership continued three years. 
During 1896 Mr. Maes conducted the business under his own name. 
In April, 1897, he returned to Taos county, where he farmed till 1899. 


February i, 1900, he was appointed postmaster of Wagon Mound. In the 
meantime he had returned to Mora county and located on his ranch on 
the Mora grant, where he lived seven months. He still owns the ranch 
and a number of cattle and horses. Until March 31, 1905, he filled the posi- 
tion of postmaster, and in the spring of that year he was elected to his 
present office, that of county assessor. 

Mr. Maes, married, August 10, 1895, Miss Anna Maria Paltenghe, 
and they are the parents of four sons and one daughter, viz., Tobias Louis, 
Antonia, Julianita, Saul and Eloida. 

Hon. Ozro Amander Hadley, who has figured prominently in political 
circles in the southwest and is today a leading representative of ranching 
interests in New Mexico, was born in Cherry Creek, Chautauqua county, 
New York, June 30, 1826, a son of Alvah and Eunice (Bates) Hadley. 
He was reared to farm life, and after acquiring his elementary education 
in die public schools of New York continued his studies in Fredonia Acad- 
emy. In 1855 he removed from the east to Rochester, Minnesota, where 
he was engaged in the fire insurance business, and in i860 he was elected 
auditor of Olmstead county upon the Republican ticket. So capably did 
he discharge his duties he was retained in that position for six consecutive 
years. In the fall of 1865 he made his way to the southwest, coming to 
Little Rock, Arkansas, there to engage in the cotton business. For sixteen 
years he remained in that state, and was one of the most prominent political 
leaders of the commonwealth. In 1868 he was elected on the Republican 
ticket to the state senate, becoming its president, and upon the election of 
General Powell Gayton, then governor of Arkansas, to the United States 
senate, and the resignation of the lieutenant-governor in 1871, Senator Had- 
ley became governor and filled that office for two years. While serving as 
chief executive he was able to effect many compromises that proved of re- 
markable value to the state. In the incipient race war in Chicot county he ef- 
fected a compromise between the parties there, and the difficulty in Pope 
county arising between the Federal and Confederate soldiers, who were 
about equally divided, among whom bitter feeling ran high, he also man- 
aged at length to restore peace. He had to send troops there, but no blood 
was shed. Governor Hadley made his way to the scene of the depredations 
and delivered a specific speech that tended largely to subdue the bitter agita- 
tion. He received most courteous and respectful treatment from all par- 
ties and from the people of the state at large while governor. He is a warm 
personal friend of Opie Read, whom he knew as a boy. 

In 1873 Governor Hadley went to Europe, accompanied by his wife, 
and spent one vear there on a business and pleasure trip. The following 
year was passed upon a plantation, after which he was appointed register in 
the United States land office, acting in that capacitv for two years. By Presi- 
dent Grant he was appointed to the position of postmaster at Little Rock, fill- 
ing the office for five or six years, during which time he gave a public-spirited 
and efficient administration, but at length he resigned in order to remove 
to New Mexico. He has figured prominently, conspicuously and honorably 
in connection with national as well as state politics. In 1872 he was a dela- 
gate to the convention which nominated General Grant for his second term 
as president, and in 1876 he went as a delegate to the national Republican 
convention at Cincinnati, where Rutherford B. Hayes was nominated, but 
Mr. Hadley gave his support to Blaine. Again he was a delegate to the 


convention in 1880, when James A. Garfield was nominated. He has been 
a delegate to the New Mexico territorial convention, and has been chairman 
of the pension commission for six vears. 

Coming to the Territory, Mr. 'Hadley first located on Eagle Tail ranch, 
in Colfax county, which he purchased in 1879. He purchased a small herd 
of cattle at that time, after which he returned to his old home, but came 
again in 1880 on the first train which passed through the Raton tunnel. 
He has made his home permanently here since 1881, and has been identified 
with the interests of this part of the country since 1878, when he made his 
first trip to the district in company with Senator Dorsey. He remained a 
resident on the Eagle Tail ranch for four years, devoting his time and at- 
tention to the cattle industry, and in 1885 he removed to Dorsey ranch at 
Chico Springs, becoming its manager and at the same time retaining the 
ownership of the Eagle Tail ranch. He occupied that property until 1897, 
when he sold out. He continued as manager of the Chico Springs ranch 
until 1 89 1, but in the meantime, in 1889, came to Mora county, where he 
has since made his home upon the place formerly owned by William Tipton. 
He sold all of his cattle in the summer of 1905, and the ranch is now de- 
voted principally to alfalfa. It contains nine hundred acres, with a main 
ditch of thirty-five hundred rods. He also leases twenty-five thousand acres 
of land, and is today the owner of one of the finest ranches in New Mexico, 
being a model property in all respects. 

Mr. Hadley was married to Miss Mary Cordelia Kilbourne, a native 
of Chautauqua county, New York, in 1849, an ^ f° r more than a half cen- 
tury traveled life's journey together, but were separated by the death of 
the wife in June, 1903. There were two daughters : Altie E., the wife of 
W. H. Hallett, deceased, and Addie A., who married General Keyes Dan- 
forth, and after his death became the wife of Louis C. Tetard, but she has 
now passed away. 

Mr. Hadley holds an enviable position in public esteem. The life of no 
man is free from mistakes, but all accord to Mr. Hadley an honesty of pur- 
pose and devotion to the general good that is above question. Faultless in 
honor, fearless in conduct and stainless in reputation, he has been a firm 
supporter of the principles that he has believed to be right. Figuring 
prominently in political circles for many years, he is now devoting his at- 
tention to private interests, and that he maintains high ideals in this regard 
is indicated by the splendid apoearance of his ranch. 

Captain W. B. Brunton (Company A Second Regiment Iowa Cavalry), 
a rancher and cattleman of Shoemaker, New Mexico, has resided in the 
Territory since 1883. He was born in Pennsylvania, either at East Liberty or 
East Pittsburg, April 27. 1838. and in 1856 became a resident of Iowa, 
engaging in farming in Muscatine county until the Civil war, when, aroused 
bv a spirit of patriotic devotion to the Union, he enlisted as a member 
of Company A, Second Regiment of Iowa Cavalry. He became first ser- 
geant and was promoted through successive ranks to the captaincy, being 
mustered out as such at Selma. Alabama, September 19, 1865. He was 
with General Pope's Army of the Mississippi and participated in the battles 
of New Madrid and Island No. 10. He was ordered to Corinth under 
General Halleck. participated in the siege and battle there and was in the 
campaigns in Tennessee. Mississippi and Alabama. The last battle in 
which he participated was at Nashville under General Thomas. When the 


war was over and the volunteers were discharged Mr. Brunton entered 
the regular service June 18, 1867, continuing with the army until he re- 
signed May 17, 1873. He entered the service as second lieutenant, but 
when he resigned was first lieutenant with the brevet rank of captain, for 
gallant conduct at the battle of Nashville, Tennessee. 

He resigned while in Brazil on a leave of absence and there turned 
his attention to railroad construction, working as a sub-contractor and 
contractor in Brazil for nine years, and during two years of that period 
was in a commission house. His last work in South America, however, 
was doing railroad work. Returning to the United States in 1883, he came 
to New Mexico and purchased his present place near Shoemaker. He 
was induced to go into the cattle business and ranching and has since con- 
tinued in this line of business activity, owning eleven thousand acres and 
also leasing twenty thousand acres of cattle land. He operates extensively 
in the cattle industry and is meeting with gratifying success in his under- 

In 1870, at Bloomfield, Iowa, Captain Brunton was married to Miss 
Laura B. Eichelberger, who died in Iowa in 1878. Their children are: 
Mary D., the wife of Lewis J. Bauer, Jr. ; and John, a miner of Idaho. 
Captain Brunton is a commander of Sherman Post No. 1, G. A. R., Las 
Vegas. He was elected department commander, G. A. R., May 4, 1906, at 
Las Cruces. He has served as school director for two terms and is a stalwart 
Republican, who has frequently served as a delegate to the county and 
territorial conventions of his party. 

Anastacio Medina, of the firm of Ortega & Medina, Wagon Mound, 
Mora county, was born in Taos county, this Territory, April 15, 1872, 
son of Felipe and Doloritas (Martinez) Medina. He was reared at Coyote, 
in Mora county, to which place he was taken when three years old, and 
where his boyhood days were spent on a sheep ranch. Since 1894 he has 
lived in Wagon Mound, and since 1904 has been in partnership with F. S. 
Ortega. Previous to that he was associated with his brother and Patricio 

Politically Mr. Medina has always affiliated with the Republican party 
and has taken a commendable interest in public affairs. In the fall of 1892 
he was elected county assessor of Mora county, for a term of two years, 
and served acceptably in that capacity. Mr. Medina married, in 1892, 
Miss Sara Montaya, a native of Coyote. Three daughters and one son 
have blessed their union, namely : Doloritas, Maclobia, Felipe and Adela. 

Eugenio Romero, a merchant of Mora. New Mexico, is a native of 
the county in which he now lives and was born on his father's ranch May 
18. 1872. As the name indicates, Mr. Romero is of Spanish origin. His 
father, Jose de Jesus Romero, was born in Rio Arriba county. New Mexico, 
May 15, 1834, son of Juan Jose Romero, whose whole life was passed in 
Rio Arriba county. The mother was, before her marriage, Maria Rita 
Salagar. Her grandfather, Diego Dtiran, was a native of Spain, from 
which place he emigrated to New Mexico, where he passed the rest of 
his life. 

Eugenio Romero spent his boyhood days in caring for his father's 
stock. He attended school in Mora and here as clerk in the general store 
of Lowenstein, Strausse & Co. he received his business training. After 
clerking for them twelve years he was taken into the company as a partner 


and as such was associated with them for three and a half years, at the 
end of which time he sold his interest to the firm. Then he bought a lot 
and built his present store, which he opened August 5, 1901, and in which 
he has since successfully conducted a general mercandise business. 

Politically he is a Democrat and religiously a Catholic, and both in 
church and in public affairs he is a prominent and active factor. Septem- 
ber 21, 1896, Mr. Romero married Miss Amelia Regensberg, daughter of 
Jacob Regensberg, of Guadalupita, Mora county. Their marriage has been 
blessed in the birth of three daughters : Isavelita, Sofia and Leonor. Mr. 
Romero was a visitor to the St. Louis Fair and to him belongs the dis- 
tinction of being the first man from New Mexico to place his name on the 
register, the entry bearing date of May 17, 1904. 

Louis Kahn, who died at Mora in February, 1906, had a life of ad- - 
venture worthy of record on these pages. He was born in Bavaria, Ger- 
many, September 22, 1830, and spent his boyhood attending the common 
schools of his native land. In 1847, at the age of seventeen, he came to 
America, landing in New York, and a month later going to Philadelphia, 
and thence to Mississippi. In the latter state he bought a team and stock 
of goods, and peddled through the country, and while thus occupied he was 
a victim of the western fever, which overtook so many of the more enter- 
prising young men of that day. Accordingly, in March, 1849, ne started 
west with a wagon train, of which, a portion of the way, he was in charge. 
En route to Colorado, they met Col. Ceran St. Vrain, who was coming to 
Santa Fe, New Mexico, and they joined him and his party and arrived in 
Santa Fe August 15, 1849. From 1849 to 1867 Mr. Kahn was engaged 
in freighting, with wagon trains composed of eight to ten wagons, from 
Santa Fe and Las Vegas to Westport, Kansas City and Leavenworth, as 
well as other points. While on one of these trips, at Junction City, on 
the Lost Spring, he narrowly escaped death by cholera. At times the In- 
dians were troublesome and rendered frontier life wildly exciting. Mr. 
Kahn's most serious trouble with the red men was in 1864, about seventy- 
five miles from Las Vegas, when he fought the Indians from ten o'clock 
in the morning to sundown. All his men, eleven in number, were killed, 
himself alone escaping. He was wounded three times with the red man's 
arrows, in the arm, the scalp and the small of the back. August 8, i860, 
when the Navajo Indians made a raid on his property, Mr. Kahn lost 
forty-six yoke of oxen, ninety-four cattle and fifteen head of thoroughbred 
horses. And the last freighting trip he made, in 1867, was one on which 
he had considerable trouble with the Indians. 

In 1867 Mr. Kahn settled down to keeping store, meat market, etc., 
in Sapello, New Mexico, where he remained two years. From that time 
until 1874 he farmed and traveled, and in 1874 he located in Mora, where 
he since made his home. He was in the butcher business here for a few 
years and from that turned to hotel keeping, in which he was engaged 
at the time of his death. He owned a hundred acres of land under irriga- 
tion and had a fine fruit orchard, from which fresh supplies were obtained 
for his hotel. Mr. Kahn was also largely interested in the Taos grant. 

Mr. Kahn served five years as justice of the peace at Mora. 

In June, 1851, at San Miguel, Mr. Kahn married Miss Candelaria 
Salazar, who died November 6, 1903, leaving a family of five children: 


Antonia, Mary, Rayitas, Regina and Julia. The last named is the wife 
of Charles U. Strong of Mora. The daughters are in charge of the hotel. 

Don Epimenio Martinez, territorial sheep inspector, Wagon Mound, 
Mora county, New Mexico, figures as one of the prominent and influential 
men of his "locality. Mr. Martinez was bora in Taos county, New Mexico, 
July 17, 1859, son °f Don Pablo and Libranda (Romero) Martinez, both 
natives of Taos county and still living there, thirty-five miles east of Taos, 
the former at the age of seventy-three years and the latter at sixty. Don 
Pablo Martinez is a nephew of old Father Antonio Martinez, is a man 
of superior ability, and has served in various official capacities, having filled 
the offices of sheriff of Taos county, deputy United States marshal, justice 
•of the peace and probate judge. During the Civil war he served three 
years in the Union arm}-. 

Up to the age of twenty-one years Don E. spoke only the Spanish 
language, which alone was used in his father"s family. Then he began 
the study of English. Soon afterward he moved to Colfax county and 
took claim to a tract of government land, where has since sprung up the 
town of Martinez, named in honor of him, and there he remained for 
about twelve years, conducting a sheep and cattle ranch and doing some 
farming. Also for four years of that time he kept a store. In these under- 
takings he prospered and accumulated money. At the end of the twelve 
years he moved to Moulding Place, six miles east of Wagon Mound, where 
he has since made his home. From time to time he has acquired land 
until now he owns some fifty claims, of one hundred and sixty acres each, 
aggregating eight thousand acres, and is ranked as the richest man in the 
county. Three of his ranches are unsurpassed by any others in Colfax 
and Mora counties, and his residence at Moulding Place, erected at a cost 
of seven thousand dollars, is one of the most attractive country homes in 
the Territory. 

Mr. Martinez is a stanch Republican and for years has been actively 
identified with public affairs. In 1887 he was justice of the peace in Colfax 
county : was elected probate judge of that county in 1888, and served a 
term of two years, he being the first man in the county elected to that 
office on the Republican ticket. While there, he was a candidate for county 
treasurer, but was defeated. In 1897 he was appointed territorial sheep 
inspector, and served as such for a period of seven years, until 1904, when 
he resigned. He was again appointed to this position August 1, 1905, and 
is the incumbent of the office at this writing. In the advancement of edu- 
cational matters Mr. Martinez has always shown a keen interest and for 
years he was a school director. He was one of the leaders in the building 
of the school house at Wagon Mound and also it was largely due to his 
efforts that a school was secured at Martinez. During the year 1899 he 
was postmaster of Wagon Mound. 

Mr. Martinez was appointed and commissioned by the governor to 
represent the Territory of New Mexico at the Paris exposition in 1900, 
and while there he had the honor and pleasure of meeting the president 
of France and many of the monarchs of the different nations of the old 
world. He saw, too, the greatness and beauty of the different countries 
and the magnificent palaces of the once great Napoleon, likewise the pal- 
aces of Marie Antoinette of Versailles and the castles of King Philip XIV. 
He spent one month in Paris, where he made many friends, and at the 


exposition had the pleasure of seeing the samples of all of the manufactured 
products of the world, as well as the evidence of the civilization of different 
countries as represented in their ancient and modern customs, dress and 
practices. From Paris he made his way to many of the leading cities of 
Germany and Italy, passing through the San Gotthard tunnel, twelve miles 
in length. He visited Lake Corfio, the city of Milan and its surroundings, 
the palaces of Victor Emanuel, Venice with its San Marcos church and 
tower, also the great Doges palaces and the golden stairs. He also saw 
some of the finest crystal manufactories of the world and that Campanile, 
built over a thousand years ago. He says that one of the happiest periods 
of his life was spent on the Grand Canal at Venice as he rode for hours 
on the night of July 26, 1900, in one of the finest gondolas of that city. 
He visited Florence on his way to Rome, where he arrived on the 28th 
of July. At ten o'clock that night, when in the Plaza de Ricord, the 
telegram was received of the assassination of King Humbert. He visited 
the ruins of the Coliseum, also St. Peter's and the Vatican and many other 
points of interest of "the eternal city." Later he went to Naples and to 
Pompeii and climbed Mount Vesuvius. There he had a very narrow escape, 
being robbed by a gang of highwaymen, who took all of his money and 
valuable possessions that he had with him, but he fortunately escaped with- 
out personal injury. He afterward visited Christopher Columbus' native 
city and various points of interest in Spain, together with other places, 
modern and historic, on the continent. 

Mr. Martinez, on the roth of January. 1906, was appointed a commis- 
sioner to represent Mora county as one of the vice-presidents at the Fall 
Annual Fair held in Albuquerque in September of that year. He is num- 
bered today among the prosperous merchants of his town, being a member 
of the Wagon Mound Mercantile Company. 

April 22, 1887, Mr. Martinez married Miss Parfirio Mares. They 
have two adopted daughters. 

Juan Rafael Aguilar, a merchant and sheep rancher of Wagon Mound, 
Mora county, was born in Taos, New Mexico. February 9, i860, son of 
Pablo and Ramona (Pacheco) Ag^uilar. Pablo Aguilar, son of Salvador 
Aguilar, was born and reared in Taos, and made that place his home until 
1872, when he moved with his family to Ocate. He was a farmer and 
cattle raiser. Both he and his wife are deceased, her death having occurred 
in 1882 and his in 1894. 

Juan Rafael Aeruilar was twelve vears old at the time his patents 
moved to Ocate. There he lived until he was twenty, when he came 
to Wagon Mound, which then consisted of only three adobe houses. He 
entered the employ of Schmidt & Reinkin, the pioneer merchants of the 
town, and clerked for them for a period of thirteen years. In 1893 he 
engaged in the sheep and cattle business on land which he owns east and 
south of Wagon Mound, and which he has continued successfully up to the 
present time. He has thoroughly posted himself on the sheep industry and 
so successful has he been in this business that he has come to be regarded 
as an authority on the subject in his locality. Also, since 1903. he has con- 
ducted a store in Wagon Mound, which he keeps chiefly for his own 

Mr. Aguilar is politically a Republican, and for years has figrured 
prominently in public affairs in his county. Since 1893 he has been a notary 


public. In 1894 he was elected sheriff of Mora count)' for a term of two 
years. Since 1903 he has been sheep inspector, the duties of his office 
being to make inspection of all shipments made at Wagon Mound. In 
1902 he was appointed a United States commissioner. This office he re- 
signed in 1903, but was reappointed the following year. For years he has 
been a member of the Wagon Mound school board. 

Mr. Aguilar has an interesting family. October 5, 1885. he married 
Miss Cleofas Mascarenes. a native of Ciruela. Mora county, and the fruits 
of their union are eight children : Claudia, Adelina, Alfonso, Celina, Pablo, 
Antonita, Sofronia and Corina. 

Francisco Sales Ortega, one of the enterprising and public-spirited 
citizens of Wagon Mound, Mora county, New Mexico, was born in this 
county, January 29, 1864, son of Luciano and Ascencion (Aldecoa) Ortega. 
His father, a native of Mora county, died on the Ortega ranch in the Red 
River country, this county, in 1893 ; and his mother, born in Sonora, old 
Mexico, died in 1890. Luciano Ortega was in early life a strong Democrat 
but later transferred his franchise and influence to the Republican party. 
For years he was a justice of the peace. 

Francisco was reared on his father's ranch above Mora, which was 
the family home until 1885, when they moved to the Red River country, 
where he lived until 1902. that year taking up his residence in Wagon 
Mound. He was already interested in the livery business here, under the 
firm name of Ortega & Medina, and has since continued the business 
under the same name. Mr. Ortega owns the new residence he occupies 
and also has other town property here. 

Politically he is a Republican. In 1900 he was elected assessor of 
Mora county, and served a term of two years. Mr. Ortega's family con- 
sists of wife and daughter. Mrs. Ortega, formerly Miss Maximiana Stines. 
is a native of Watrous, New Mexico. The daughter, Adela, is the wife of 
Jose de la Luz Silva, of Wagon Mound. 

Albert Tison, who owns and conducts a ranch at Wagon Mound, 
dates his residence in the Territory from June, 1859. He was born in St. 
Louis, Missouri. January 8, 1839, and was educated in the public schools 
of Chicago, Illinois. When a young man of twenty years he started to 
Pike's Peak, but met one thousand wagons and three thousand people re- 
turning from the Colorado gold fields and giving unfavorable reports of 
mining conditions there. In consequence he changed the course of his 
travel at F'ort Mann and made his way to New Mexico, on the old Santa 
Fe trail. He located in Taos, where he engaged in clerking in the general 
mercantile store of Ferdinand Maxwell for two years. He afterward re- 
turned to "the states," where he remained until the Civil war was ended, 
his attention being given to general agricultural pursuits in St. Louis 
county, Missouri. 

In 1865 Mr. Tison again came to the Territory of New Mexico and 
has since been engaged in cattle raising, ranching and general live stock 
business. He first followed ranching near Cimarron on the Maxwell grant 
and in 1884 took up his present ranch two and a half miles northwest of 
Wagon Mound, where he has three hundred and twenty acres of patented 
land with a large public range. He runs about one hundred head of 
cattle on an average throughout the year. He cuts sixty acres of hay and 
has one hundred and twenty acres of cultivated land. In 1882 he engaged 


in the saloon business at Wagon Mound, which he continued for four or 
five years, but his attention is now given entirely to his ranching interests. 

In 1873 Mr. Tisoii was married at Cimarron to Miss Frances Ocosta, 
of Santa Fe. He is thoroughly familiar with pioneer experiences in the 
Territory and in the west. He crossed the plains a number of times during 
the '60s, but had no trouble with the Indians. He was deputy sheriff of 
Colfax county in an early daw filling the office during the time of the noted 
trouble over the Tolby murder. In politics he has always been a stalwart 

Patricia Sanchez, a merchant and farmer of Mora, was born Febru- 
ary 10, 1867, at Raciada, this Territory, son of Felipe and Bonifacia (Lujan) 
Sanchez. Felipe Sanchez, also a native of Xew Mexico, was born in 1829; 
has been engaged in ranching and the cattle business all his life, and now 
has a hundred acres of land under cultivation. In his younger days he 
served in the United States army against the Indians. His children are : 
Jesus Maria; Julia, wife of Juan B. Sanchez; Jose Ignacio; Pascoala, wife 
of Jose Martinez; Patricio, whose name introduces this sketch; Eulgio; 
Consolacion, wife of Manuel Martin; and Ignc-s, wife of Casto Mastas. 

Patricio Sanchez received his education in the Christian Brothers College 
at Mora, and when he started out to make his own way in the worjd he 
went to Las Vegas, where for four months he was driver on a street car. 
Returning to Mora, in 189c he engaged in the liquor business, which he has 
since continued. Also he is interested in cattle and sheep ranching, and has 
under cultivation about fifty acres of land : owns city real estate, and has a 
half interest in the general merchandise store at Ledoux, New Mexico. 

Always more or less interested in public affairs, Mr. Sanchez has for 
years been called upon to act in some public capacity. He was school 
superintendent of Mora county in 1897 and 1898. Previous to that, from 
1892 to 1896, he was deputy collector and treasurer; was deputy assessor 
three years, and at this writing is deputy sheriff. Politically he has always 
been a Republican. February 18, 1889, he married Miss Loretta Mucy. 
They have no children. 

Hon. Juan Navarro, a farmer of Mora. New Mexico, is a native of 
this place, born September it, 1848, son of Francisco and Maria Antonia 
( Martinez) Navarro. He was educated in the Christian Brothers College 
at Mora and, being the son of a prominent farmer, early became familiar 
with all the details of ranch life. On reaching his majority he engaged 
in farming on his own account, in which he has since been interested, now 
having seventy acres under cultivation, besides other lands used for stock 

For years Mr. Navarro has figured prominently in local and terri- 
torial politics, as one of the stanch workers of the Republican party. He 
was elected sheriff of Mora county for the term of two years. 1888 to 1890, 
which he filled with credit to himself and the county, and on his retirement 
from the sheriff's office he was elected a member of the territorial council 
to represent district No. 1. comprising Mora. Colfax and Union counties. 
He served as representative in 1900 and 1901. For the past eight vears 
he has been a member of the penitentiary board, of which at this writing he 
is secretary. Mr. Navarro married, in 1863, at Mora, Miss Margareta 
Galleyos, a native of this place. They have no children. 

Carl Harberg, general merchant, Cleveland, New Mexico, was born 


in Morsberg, Germany, November 22, 1861. He received his education in 
the German gymnasium and in a seminary, preparing himself for a teacher. 
He did not. however, take up the work of teaching. He served one year 
in the Crerman army, at the end of which time, in 1881, he came to the 
United States, and direct to New Mexico. 

Arrived here, he located at Mora, where he was employed as clerk in 
the wholesale mercantile establishment of Loewenstein, Strausse & Com- 
pany, with whom he remained ten years. Then he was one year with the 
St. Yrain Mercantile Company, which failed, and after the failure he 
went to Sonora, old Mexico. The climate in the latter place, however, not 
being conducive to his health, he soon returned to Mora, and re-entered the 
employ of Loewenstein, Strausse & Company, with whom he continued 
until 1897, when, in partnership with E. Romero and brother Joe, he bought 
the store of Loewenstein, Strausse & Company at Cleveland. This busi- 
ness was then run under the firm name of Carl Harberg & Co. In 1890 
Mr. Harberg purchased the interest of his partners and has since conducted 
the business successfully in his own name. In addition to merchandising, 
he is interested in cattle and sheep ranching. 

At Trinidad. Colorado, April 29, 1895, Mr. Harberg married Miss 
Julia Klein, a native of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and the)- have two 
children, Carrie and Solomon. Fraternally Mr. Harberg is identified with 
Chapman Lodge No. 2, A. F. & A. M., of Las Vegas. 

Richard Parr Strong, a retired rancher of Mora, New Mexico, is a 
native of the Emerald Isle. He was born in County Wicklow. Ireland, 
August 26, 1 83 1, and was reared and received his education in the city 
of Dublin. At the age of nineteen years he came to America, landing in 
New York city, where he remained a year and a half, employed in a 
furniture warehouse. October 21, 1851, he enlisted in the United States 
army. First Regular Mounted Cavalry ; re-enlisted August 27, 1856, and 
served a term of ten years, until August 18. 1861, when he was honorably 
discharged. The latter part of his army life covered the first five months 
of the Civil war. 

Mr. Strong first came to New Mexico from Texas, with Major Pope, 
to look for artesian water, and spent five weeks at Galisteo, Santa Fe 
county. In August, 1856. he again landed at Santa Fe, thence to old 
Fort Massachusetts, from there to the Presidio, ten miles south of Taos, 
known as Fort Canton Burgwyn, and thence to Fort Union, where he re- 
mained until the expiration of his term of service and was discharged. 

After leaving the army Mr. Strong took claim to a tract of govern- 
ment land, on which he settled and where he has since lived, all this time 
interested in the stock business. Also for several years, from 1864 to 
1875. he was engaged in freighting with his own teams, and in that time 
made seven trips over the old Santa Fe trail to Kansas City and Leaven- 
worth, the average time for each trip being three months. In the forty- 
nine years Mr. Strong has lived in New Mexico he has had trouble with 
the Indians only once. That was in August, 1864, when he was on his 
first freighting trip, and was attacked by a partv of twenty-five renegade 
Indians who were encamped on Cow creek. The Indians stole all of his 
horses and killed two of his men. In referring: to his early experience in 
the west, Mr. Strong says that in 1866 he came over the plains alone with 


two wagons, and two hours after he crossed the Wankarusha bridge in 
Kansas it was burned by Quantrell. 

In Taos, New Mexico, March i, 1857, Mr. Strong married Miss 
Fanny Ryan, a native of Ladvsbridge, County Cork, Ireland, Father Ortiz 
performing the ceremony. The children born to them are as follows : 
jane, born in Taos, December 5. 1857, is deceased; Mary, born in Taos, 
May 25, 1859, is deceased; Charles, born in Fort Union, January 6, i860, 
is deceased; William P., born in Ocate, May 25, 1862, is a resident of 
Garrett, Oklahoma; Daniel (and all the other children, natives of Ocate), 
born October 12, 1865, is deceased; Richard, born January 8, 1868, is 
deceased; Charles U., born January 19, 1869, is a resident of Mora; Ann, 
born Febraarv 2, 1871, is deceased; John R., born October 2, 1874, is a 
resident of Wagon Mound; Tulia C, born April 24. 1881, is the wife of 
W. L. Blattman. of Ocate. 

Charles Ulick Strong, clerk in the store of Dougherty & Cassidv, of 
Mora, New Mexico, and also deputy county treasurer and collector of 
Mora county, was born in Ocate, this county, January 19. 1869, son of 
Richard P. and Fannie (Ryan) Strong. His father, a rancher, Charles U., 
received his early training on the farm. He was educated in the Chris- 
tian Brothers' schools at Mora and Santa Fe. and his first business venture 
was in a store with his brother, William P., at Ocate, where he remained 
four years, until he reached his majority. He was then elected county 
clerk of Mora county on the Democratic ticket, and served a term of two 
years. After this he entered the employ of J. J. Smith, dealer in general 
merchandise at Wagon Mound. Four months later Mr. Smith was killed, 
after which Mr. Strong went to Mora as clerk for the St. Vrain Mercantile 
Company, with which he was connected in that capacity until 1896. In the 
meantime he served as county commissioner one term. From 1896 to 
1898 he owned and ran a store in Mora, which he sold, and until 1903 he 
clerked for P. D. St. Vrain. Mr. St. Vrain was deputy county treasurer 
of Mora county four years, the work being performed by Mr. Strong, who, 
at the end of that time, was appointed deputy, and is now serving as such. 
And he has had a clerkship with Dougherty & Cassidv since the establish- 
ment of their business, May I, 1904. 

The only lodge in which Mr. Strong has membership is the Fraternal 
Union of America, at Mora, of which he is secretary. December 4, 1892, 
he married Miss Julia Kahn, daughter of Louis Kahn, and they have six 
children : Daniel, Annie, Emma, Margaret. Julia and Josephine. 

Martin C. Needham, a rancher residing nine miles from Watrous, 
has been identified with this Territory for twenty-five years, having come 
here in government employ in 1880. Mr. Needham is a native of Oakland, 
California, born November 8. 1857. anc ^ was reared in Grundy county. 
Illinois, to which place he was taken when three years old. At the age of 
twenty he went to Colorado. There, in the vicinity of Ouray, he worked 
as steamfitter until 1880, when he came to New Mexico as a machinist for 
the government, and was stationed at Fort Union till the abandonment 
of that post in 1891. While at the fort he bought an undivided interest 
in the Mora grant, and since 1891 has made his home on the ranch, giving 
his attention to the cattle business. Also he is agent for the Butler in- 
terests here, which represent eighty-five per cent of the grant, and since 
he has acted in this capacity he has ejected from the grant no less than 


thirty-five squatters, paying them, of course, for the improvements they had 
made on their claims, and at this writing there are five injunctions pending. 
September 26. 1887, Mr. Needham married Miss Anna Riley, and their 
family consists of one son and two daughters : Stephen, Mary Agnes and 

S. E. Tipton resides at Watrous, New Mexico, his native city. He 
was born August 5, 1850, and pursued his education in the Brothers' Col- 
lege, and at the Presbyterian school of Dr. MacFarland at Santa Fe from 
November, 1864, to 1869. He entered the ranching business with his 
father, W. B. Tipton, who had come to the Territory in 1847 from! Boone 
county, Missouri, having- traveled with an ox team across the plains. He 
located first at Santa Fe, where he engaged in placer mining. Becoming 
acquainted with S. B. Watrous. he removed from Santa Fe and entered 
into partnership with Mr. Watrous, they locating on the Scully grant, in 
which thev purchased an interest. Mr. Tipton was from that time until 
his death, engaged in the stock business and farming, and was a representa- 
tive pioneer and ranchman of New Mexico. He wedded Mary M. 
Watrous. daughter of S. B. Watrous, the wedding being celebrated in 
1849. His death occurred February 17, 1888, at Tiptonville, New Mexico. 

In partnership with his father, S. E. Tipton secured contracts for 
supplying Fort Union with beef in 1870 to 1873. The fort was garrisoned 
with between five and six hundred men and was manned for government 
service until about May. i8qi. when it was abandoned. During the period 
when he supplied the fort Mr. Tipton was engaged in running twelve or 
fifteen hundred head of cattle. He continued in cattle raising and ranching 
until about 1885, having a ranch in Cinta Canyon, two miles wide and 
seven miles long. After disposing of his cattle business, he turned his 
attention to farming and merchandising, conducting a store at Tipton- 
ville, which place was named for his father. There he remained until 
November, 1888, when he sold his farm and lands to Hadlev & Hallett 
for $2=;,ooo, having previously disposed of his store. He subsequently 
devoted two or three years to freighting, and on June 13, 1892, came to 
Watrous, where he began work for H. D. Reinkin. 

On the 15th of October. 1871, at Sapello, New Mexico. Mr. Tipton 
was married to Miss Sallie Elizabeth Hern, of that place. Their children 
are: Jessie E., W. B., Albert A., Herbert A.. Mary S. and Bessie E. Tipton. 

He was united in marriage to Miss Jennie A. Hogsett, his present 
wife, formerly from Clay county, Missouri, at East Las Vegas, October 11, 
1893. No children have blessed this marriage. 

He has lived in Mora county all his life, and has no fault to find as 
yet to cause him to remove from his present pleasant and happy home 
at Watrous. 

In politics Mr. Tipton has always been a stalwart Democrat. He was 
elected justice of the peace at Tiptonville in 1873. and in November, 1882, 
was elected county commissioner, and was chairman of the board of county 
commissioners and at the same time was chairman of the school board. 
He was also elected probate judge of Mora countv for one term, in No- 
vember, 1888. and was a member of the lower house of the territorial 
legislature in 1887. He served as postmaster of Tiptonville for several 
years, first appointment dated April 3, 1883. He was elected justice of 
the peace of Watrous, precinct No. 20, Mora county, January 12, 1903, 


and is now serving for the second term of two years. During his term 
as chairman of the board of county commissioners the county debt was all 
paid, and county warrants were worth par value, dollar for dollar, for 
the first time, to his knowledge, in the history of the county. He was 
appointed postmaster of Watrous February 20, 1895, and served as such 
for a term of four years. 

Jesse E. Tipton, son of S. E. Tipton, was born in Tiptonville, Novem- 
ber 7, 1872, and was educated in Jesuit College at Las Vegas, New 
Mexico. Later he entered the employ of H. D. Reinkin, with whom he 
remained for eleven years, and in April, 1901, he formed a partnership 
with Otto Lange under the firm name of Lange & Tipton, dealers in gen- 
eral merchandise, in Watrous. In October, 1893, he married Miss Maude 
Bowmer, of Mora county, and their children are: Eugene, Thelma, Elmo 
and Angeline. 



The territory included within the present limits of Colfax county was 
detached from the original county of Mora in 1869, and the county seat 
"permanently established" at Elizabethtown by legislative enactment in 
1870. In 1872 it was removed to Cimarron, and by act of January 26, 
1882, it was again transferred to Springer, where it remained "perma- 
nently" — until changed to the town of Raton in 1897. 

The Last County Seat Fight. — Following the act of the legislature 
removing the county seat from Springer to Raton, John E. Codlin, then 
chairman of the board of county commissioners of Colfax county, and 
Manuel M. Salazar, clerk of the board, in pursuance of the dictates of 
public sentiment in the southern part of the county brought an action 
against citizens residing in Raton, raising the claim that the chapters of 
the law authorizing such removal and the issuing of bonds for the erection 
of a court house and jail were invalid, in that they were local and special 
laws and therefore in conflict with the act of Congress of July 30, 1886, 
forbidding the enactment of special laws locating or changing county seats 
on the part of territorial legislatures. The case was appealed to the Su- 
preme Court, which decided that "Congress has the power to modify or 
nullify laws enacted by the legislative assembly of a Territory; but if 
Congress fails or refuses to act, such laws remain in force so far as con- 
gressional action is concerned. There was no action by Congress as to 
these laws." It did not appear, according to the opinion of the Supreme 
Court, that the legislature intended to limit the operation of this specific 
act to Colfax county, but that, on the contrary, the act at the time of its 
passage applied to at least three counties, and had unlimited future ap- 
plication to all counties similarly situated. The court therefore decided in 
favor of the contention of the citizens of Raton. 

County Officers. — As the result of the repeated removals of the county 
seat, and the gross carelessness or criminal negligence of officials and citi- 
zens participating in the contests for changes in the location of the court 
house, nearly all the official records of this important county have been 
either lost or stolen. It is believed they are not now in existence. So far 
as the records at Raton show, the officials have been as follows : 

& County Clerks :— 189S. M. M. Salazar; 1895-6. A. C. Gutierrez: 1897-8, M. M. 
Salazar: 1899-1900. A. L. Hobbs : 1901-2. M. M. Dawson: 1903-6, J. P. Brackett. 

County Commissioners : — 189s. Juan C. Lucero. E. F. McGarvev, Jesus L. Abreu, 
also (same vear"). Thomas Fisher. Edward McBride, Pedro Y. Santistevan ; 1896. 
Thomas Fisher, J. F. Ruffner. Pedro Y. Santistevan; 1897-8. John E. Codlin, W. R. 
Griffin, J. F. Ruffner (resigned, and John B. Schroeder appointed to fill vacancy) : 
1899-1900, E. M. Hastings (resigned, and Frederick Brueggeman appointed to fill 
vacancv). J. H. Nash. Enrique Chavez; 1001-2. Edmond N. Burch. Harry Brainard, 
Tohn C. Tavlor; 1003-6. Edmond N. Burch, Pedro Y. Santistevan, John C Taylor. 

Old Court House, Sc 

Abandoned Court House at Springer, Colfax County 



The New Court House. — At a meeting of the county commissioners, 
held August 3, 1897, the board ordered an advertisement for bids for a new 
court house at Raton. The bid of the Morrison Contracting and Manu- 
facturing Company for $22,350 was accepted, and the court house com- 
pleted during the following year at a total cost of $28,000. 

Colfax County in General. — Colfax is in the upper tier of counties, 
the second from the eastern boundary of the Territory, bounded north 
by the state of Colorado, east by Union county, south by Mora and west 
by Taos. Its territory, embracing 3,784 square miles, lies on the eastern 
slopes of the Rocky mountains, beyond the Taos range, and the industries 
of the county are divided between mining and the raising of live stock. 
It has a population of more than 10,000 people, of which Raton has 3,600. 

About one-half the lands of Colfax are prairie and lie in the southern 
and eastern portions, while the northern and western sections consist of 
mesas or table lands and high hills or mountains. The mountain range 
which forms the western boundary is a continuation of the Sangre de 
Cristo range, and in the northern part of the county the mountains are 
called the Vermejo peaks ; in the southern portion, the Taos range. Some 
of these mountain peaks are over 12,000 feet in height. The soil in both 
the prairie and mountain regions is unusually deep, and capable of pro- 
ducing immense crops. 

In the western half of the county are the following streams, tribu- 
taries of the Canadian, the valleys of which afford the most natural farming 
lands : Sweetwater, fifteen miles ; Rayado, twenty miles ; Cimarroncito, 
twelve miles ; Cimarron, thirty-two miles ; Pohil, twenty-five miles ; Ver- 
mejo, forty miles ; Red, seventy-five miles ; Una de Gato and Chicarica, 
each fifteen miles in length. There is also much fine agricultural land in 
Moreno valley, Ute valley, Yalle de Piedra and Ponil and Vermejo parks, 
these districts being in the mountains. The mountainous region is es- 
pecially adapted to the production of onions, beets and cabbage, and Irish 
potatoes also do well. In the absence of irrigation, large portions of both 
the prairie and mountain districts are devoted to the grazing of cattle and 
sheep. The deciduous fruits do finely in Colfax county, and its horti- 
cultural interests generally are becoming vearly more reliable sources of 
income. There is an abundance of timber for building and fuel, the slopes 
of the Raton, Sangre de Cristo and Taos mountains embracing nearly half 
a million acres of yellow pine and cedar. It is in the great area of its 
coal beds, however, that Colfax county will in the future find its greatest 
commercial importance. It has been estimated that it contains 600,000 
acres of coal land, which, for all commercial purposes, compares favorably 
with the best soft coal of Pennsylvania. 

Much of Colfax county, including the towns of Maxwell City, 
Springer, Cimarron, Gardner and Van Houten, lies within the famous 
Maxwell land grant. (See elsewhere.) The original tract, comprising 
1,750,000 acres, was given by the Mexican government to Beaubien and 
Miranda for colonization purposes. No settlements were effected, but 
Carlos Beaubien finally purchased the interest of his associate, and when 
he died his son-in-law, Maxwell, inherited the grant. Many fortunes were 
sunk before the Supreme Court of the United States firmly established 
the title with the present owners, a syndicate of Amsterdam capitalists, 
who are represented at Raton by J. Van Houten. During the past five 


years 700,000 acres have been sold to ranchmen and mining companies 
and the projectors of new towns — a great portion of this within the limits 
of Colfax county. 

The Colfax County Pioneer Society. — Organized at Raton, on the 
20th of March, 1900. According to its constitution those eligible to mem- 
bership are persons who came to New Mexico prior to December 29, 1884, 
or those persons who were born in Colfax county prior to that date. The 
membership rolls contain the names of the following persons, in most in- 
stances the place from which they came and the date of their location in 
the county being given : 

F. M. Darling, from Coshocton, Ohio, May 1, 1879; Maud L. Dar- 
ling. Coshocton, Ohio, September 6, 1879; Edith Day Darling, Coshocton, 
Ohio, September 6, 1879; \V. H. Jack, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, October, 
1879; William C. Wrigley, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, June, 1882; Dr. 
James J. Shuler, Grove Hill, Virginia. March 16, 1881 ; Chester D. 
Stevens, Ogdensburg, New York, May 5, 1882 ; Mrs. C. D. Stevens, 
Ogdensburg, New York. May 5, 1882; Wade H. Brackett, Riceville, Ten- 
nessee, November, 1876; Dorothy Wheeler Brackett, Riceville, Tennessee, 
May, 1883; Joseph P. Brackett, Riceville, Tennessee, November, 1876; 
N. K. Oldham, Holt county, Missouri, February, 1875 ; Mrs. Ada Stevens 
Oldham, May, 1884; William A. Chapman, Maiden, Massachusetts, No- 
vember 1, 1883; James K. Hunt, June 24, 1874; Albert S. Stevens, May 6, 
1880; Mrs. Mary McColloch Young, Cooper county, Missouri, August 25, 
1875; Miss Bice Young, Cooper county, Missouri, August 25, 1875; 
Thomas W. Young, Cooper county, Missouri, August 25, 1875; Daniel 
Troy, Macomb, Illinois, October, 1874; Mrs. Fayette Gillespie. Macomb, 
Illinois, October, 1870; Mrs. Flora K. Troy, Clinton, Iowa, September, 
1876; Oscar Troy, California, November, 1875; Mrs. Louise Troy, Clin- 
ton, Iowa, September, 1876; William F. Degner, Mecklenburg, Germany, 
March, 1881 ; Mrs. William F. Degner, Springfield, Illinois, April, 1885; 
W. F. Ruffner, Hannibal, Missouri, August 29, 1883; Robert Love, Lon- 
don, Ontario, Canada, January 17. 1884; T. F. McAuliffe, June 22, 1879; 
A. V. McAuliffe, October, 1872; D. B. Parker, November, 1870; Jerome 
Troy. October 20, 1875 ; Mrs. Grace Troy, Los Angeles, California, July 29, 
1879; J. L. Smyth. August 27, 1875: Alfred Jelfs, Marshalltown, Iowa, 
October 1, 1880": Alice Jelfs, Marshalltown, Iowa, October 1, 1880: John 
Jelfs, Marshalltown. Iowa. July 5, 1880: Mrs. B. Schwachheim, Iowa, De- 
cember, 1881 ; T. F. Schwachheim, Fort Madison, Iowa, November 5, 
1880; Miss Sadie Johnson, born in Tohnson's Park, New Mexico, January 
4, 1884: G. E. Lyon, April 6, 1877: Mrs. F. C. Nash, Winchester, Ken- 
tucky. June 8. 1881 ; Marion Littrell, November 19, 1873; Robert Camp- 
bell/Tune 26, 1882: I. M. Heck. May 27, 1870; A. K. Letton, July 15, 1862; 
O. A. Larrazola, November. 1872; W. B. Bunker, August, 1886; W. E. 
Gortner, Julv 31, 1886: William J. Mills, July, 1879: Charles Springer, 
Iowa, October^, 1878; S. E. Booth, Connecticut, May, 1884; Albert" G. 
Shaw and wife; Tonv Meloche, France. August 15, 1858; Mrs. Mary E. 
Meloche, February 20. 1870: M. A. McMartin. December 2, 1859; Mrs. 
M. A. McMartin. 1879: Alonzo Service; John E. McKown, Virginia, i860; 
Mrs. Tohn F. McKown. 1880; John B. Dawson, first came in 1853, settled 
permanently in 1867; Mrs. L. A. Dawson, 1870; A. G Dawson, 1867; 
Mrs. T. B. Dawson, 1873; their family all natives of Colfax county: S. M. 


Dawson, born 1870; B. A. Dawson, bom 1872; M. M. Dawson, born 1874; 
Echvina Dawson, born 1880; Laura Dawson, born 1882. 

The Town of Raton. — The thriving town of Raton, the county seat, 
is situated at the northern entrance of the famous pass by that name, nearly 
8,000 feet above the level of the sea. The tunnel through which the Santa 
Fe trains pass the Great Divide is half a mile in length, and was opened 
in 1878, before there was any settlement at this point. 

When it became known that here was to be located a division head- 
quarters of the railroad company, settlers were naturally attracted to the 
locality. John Jelfs was one of the number, and when he reached the 
place, in July, 1880, he found that three inhabitants had already pitched 
their tents before him. By this time the line had reached Santa Fe, and 
there were a number of box cars standing around Raton. Jelfs, who was 
employed by the railroad, was one of the first to utilize one of them as a 
residence. Pending the erection of more permanent and stationary 
structures, not a few followed his example. Work on the railroad shops 
continued briskly during 1880-81, the first large building, the roundhouse, 
being completed' in the fall of the latter year, and the entire plant was 
opened by the end of 1881. The roundhouse then built is now being torn 
down to make way for a much lareer structure. The present repair shops 
employ about 600 men and constitute a strong feature in the local pros- 
perity of die town. 

In the founding of Raton, several of the first buildings occupied were 
removed from Otero, five miles south, some of these houses being still 
standing. By the summer of 1881 the settlement numbered fully 400 
people, which" made quite a respectable community. Among the pioneers 
in business may be mentioned W. C. Clark, who opened a small grocery 
and boarding house, and did not neglect the sale of liquor; George J. Pace, 
general merchandise; AT. A. McMartin, dry goods, next door south, Clark- 
occupying the site of the present Remsberd store. 

The Raton Water Works. — In the early days of Raton the town was 
supplied with water from a spring under the rim rock of Barela Mesa, 
the pumping station being situated east of town on Willow creek. This 
crude system, which was put in operation in 1882, was afterward improved 
by the Santa Fe Railroad. Immediately after the organization of the 
town, in 1891, Dr. J. J. Shuler organized the Raton Water Company, of 
which Colonel J. W. Dwver was president ; Charles A. Fox, secretary and 
superintendent ; other stockholders. Dr. V. E. Hestwood, E. D. Sowers 
and George J. Pace. Ex-Senator Stephen A. Dorsey, of Star Route fame, 
was also interested in it. 

The franchise to the new company was granted by Mayor Tindall 
July 20, 1891, and provided that the works were to be completed July 1, 
1802. Thus authorized, the companv started the construction of the first 
reservoir, damming Sugarite creek for their supply ; but before the com- 
pletion of the works they were sold to eastern capitalists, including E. D. 
Shepherd, of Xew York, who became president; ex-Governor Cleves, of 
Maine, and William E. Hawks, of Bennington, Vermont. LTider this man- 
agement the works were completed as a gravity svstem. but were rebuilt 
in 1905, with a new dam and wooden pipes. They have a present capacity 
of 3,000,000 gallons per day — 120 pounds pressure to the square inch. 

Town Government of Raton. — The first organized town government 


of Raton was instituted in 1891. Prior to that year the community had 
been under the general county government, the chief resident officers being 
a justice of the peace and a deputy sheriff. 

1891 : — At the first regular meeting of town officers, held May 12, 
[891, were the following: Mayor, William Tindall ; recorder, Charles A. 
Fox; marshal, Theodore Gardner; trustees, John Jelfs, James Walker, 
Sr., Dr. J. J. Shuler and Pedro Padilla. 

1892: — Mayor, William Tindall; recorder, Harry W. Carr ; marshal, 
James Howe; trustees, John Telfs, Dr. J. J. Shuler, Chester D. Stevens, 
C. C. Wray. 

1893: — Mayor, J. J. Kellv; recorder, Jules H. Kleinz; marshal, J. Rus- 
sell Dovle; trustees,' Dr. V. E. Hestwood, F. F. McAuliffe, J. J. Murphy, 

B. F. Houts. 

1894: — Mayor, W. E. Svmons ; recorder, J. H. Kleinz; marshal, J. 
Thomas Thatcher; trustees, G. W. Dwyer, James McPherson, John W. 
Crouse, Celso Chavez. 

180,5 : — Mayor, P. P. Fanning; recorder, J. H. Kleinz; marshal, 
Charles Gray; trustees, E. J. Gibson. J. J. Murphy, F. P. Canton, A. K. 
Letton; school trustees, J. R. Givens, James Walker, W. D. Hays. 

1896: — Mavor, P. P. Fanning; recorder, Charles E. Hornell; mar- 
shal, Edward Coker ; trustees, J. J. Murphy, C. M. C. Houck, F. R. Canton, 
O. B. Jewett. 

The City of Raton. — Under the general legislative act of 1897, pro- 
viding for municipal corporations in New Mexico, the citizens of Raton 
held their first election under a city charter on the first Tuesday in April 
of that year, at which time the following officers were chosen: Mayor, 
William M. Oliver; clerk, Charles E. Howell; aldermen. Tames R. Smith, 
W. W. Twyman, J. J. Murphy. C. E. Ellicott, Joseph R. Gaines, Albert E. 
McCready, Abran Cardenas, Francisco Salazar. Mayor Oliver appointed 

C. B. Th'acker, marshal, and at the regular meeting, held April 26, Jere- 
miah Leahy was appointed city attorney. The chief municipal officers 
elected and appointed for succeeding years were as below : 

1898: — Mayor, J. J. Murphy; clerk, P. P. Fanning; aldermen, J. R. 
Smith, W. W. Twyman, John Coyle, J. W. Dwyer, Abran Cardenas, 
F. P. Canton, G. M.' Fetter, "j. R. Gaines; marshal, James Welsh; attorney, 
John Morrow. 

^99: — Mayor, M. B. Stockton; clerk, David G. Dwyer; treasurer, 
S. W. Clark; attornev, D. T- Leahy ; aldermen, W. B. Thompson, T. F. 
McAuliffe, J. C. Orin, T. D. Pacheco; school trustees, E. O. Jones, J. J. 
Shuler, W. M. Oliver, T. B. Hart, T. F. Schwachheim. 

1900: — Mayor, J. J. Shuler; clerk, W. N. Morris; treasurer, A. Jelfs; 
marshal, Robert Kruger; attornev, A. C. Voorhees; aldermen, J. C. Orin, 
T. F. McAuliffe. W. B. Thompson, Charles Kline, D. Gasson, C. O. 
Madoulet, G. E. Lyon, Milton Tomlinson. 

1901 :— Mayor,' J. J. Shuler ; clerk, J. C. Orin ; treasurer, A. Jelfs ; 
marshal, Robert Kruger ; attorney, John Morrow ; aldermen. W. B. Thomp- 
son, Charles Klein, G. E. Lyon, George J. Pace, M. Tomlinson. Henry 
Schroeder, D. Cassan, J. C. Miller. 

1902: — Mayor. C. M. Bayne ; clerk, J. C. Orin; treasurer, C. M. C. 
Houck; marshal, Robert Kruger; attorney, D. J. Leahy; aldermen, C. O. 


•Madoulet, Alfred Peterson, George J. Pace, H. C. Jones, Henry Schroeder, 
J. C. Miller, M. Naravis, Con Murray. 

1903: — Mayor, C. M. Bayne; clerk, J. C. Orin; treasurer, George B. 
Frisby; marshal, Robert Kruger; attorney, D. J. Leahy; aldermen, C. O. 
Madoulet, Alfred Peterson, George J. Pace, G. E. Lyon, J. C. Miller, 
Henry Schroeder, M. Reybal. 

1904: — Mayor, John" C. Orin; clerk, R. H. Carter; treasurer, George 
B. Frisbv; chief of police, J. J. Duncan; attorney, D. J. Leahy; aldermen, 
J. A. Rush, F. C. Nash, J. J. Shuler, G. E. Lyon, H. C. Jones, J. M. San- 
doval, Patrick Boyle, Daniel Sandoval. 

At a meeting of the common council, held June 7, 1904, John C. Orin 
was removed from office as mayor, and G. E. Lyon was elected mayor pro 
tern. At the same meeting D. J. Leahy resigned as city attorney, and 
William C. Wrigley was appointed to succeed him. At the session of 
June 30th J. P. Brackett was appointed secretary pro tern,, R. H. Carter, 
the city clerk, having refused to act with G. E. Lyon, the acting mayor. 
The council by vote requested Mr. Carter to leave the records, seal of 
office, etc., with that body, but he refused to do so, locking the records in 
the vault. Samuel Ruffner was thereupon appointed clerk by the mayor 
pro tern., and the appointment was unanimously confirmed. 

After his removal from office the deposed mayor, John C. Orin, issued 
a proclamation calling for a special city election, which was attested by the 
deposed city clerk, R. H. Carter. At its meeting on August 29, 1904, the 
city council adopted a resolution declaring this alleged proclamation null 
and void, and instructed the city attorney to publish a notice to that effect, 
which was done. Mr. Carter was subsequently reinstated as clerk by tacit 
consent of the council. 

1905 : — Mayor, G. E. Lvon ; clerk, R. H. Carter ; treasurer, George 
B. Frisby ; aldefmen, Josiah A. Rush, F. C. Nash, Dr. J. J. Shuler, H. C. 
Jones, Patrick Boyle, Daniel Sandoval, J. M. Sandoval. 

Other Towns and Localities. — The town of Springer, the former county 
seat, is one of the most important shipping points for sheep and cattle 
along the Santa Fe road. It is also a trading center for the ranchmen for 
many miles around. Although the removal of the county seat retarded its 
growth, it is a brisk town of 1.500 people, and still developing. In the 
region tributary to Springer are a number of fine residences and ranches. 
Near the town stood the palace built by Frank Sherwin, of Chicago, when 
he was manager of the Maxwell grant, which was burned a few years 
ago. About fifteen miles away, in the mountains, Charles Springer has a 
fine ranch and a stone mansion of half a hundred rooms, while Frank 
Springer is raising cattle on 100,000 acres, and also lives like a king. Fur- 
ther away, nearer Raton, is the tuberculosis sanitarium, an imposing struct- 
ure which was formerly the palatial residence of Stephen Dorsey, standing 
in the midst of his former gigantic ranch, which he lost through his gov- 
ernment peculations and which is now owned by Sol Florsheim, of Las 
Vegas. Some forty miles from Springer is also the chateau of a Giicago 
business man — Mr. Bartlett. of the firm Bartlett, Frazier & Carrington — 
which is one of the most attractive country homes in the United States. 

Cimarron, the old county seat, is better known as the headquarters of 
the Maxwell grant, in the days of Maxwell himself, and was for many 
years a Lmited States army post, as well as one of the principal stations 


on the Santa Fe trail. During the exciting period between the early days 
of American occupation and the advent of railroads, Cimarron and the 
notorious "Clifton House,"' south of Raton, were the headquarters of some 
of the most notorious bands of criminals which ever afflicted the western 
frontier. Murders were of almost daily occurrence, and it is believed 
that many Mexican inhabitants who mysteriously disappeared in those 
days met death at the hands of their implacable enemies, the soldiers of the 
United States army. Among the noted characters who have visited Cimar- 
ron, in years past,' was Paul du Chaillu, the African traveler, who visited 
the town for six months, in 1880. while collecting notes for a "write-up 
on the Maxwell land grant,'' his companion being Frank R. Sherman. 

Elizabethtown, the first county seat, lies in the midst of a gold region 
in the western part of the county, and years ago was the center of a great 
mining boom. The Aztec mine, which first attracted population to this 
locality, was in its time famous throughout the west. The neighboring 
streams abound in placer gold, and the entire region is still productive. 

Maxwell City is on the railroad midway between Raton and Springer. 
It was projected by the Maxwell Grant Company as the headquarters of 
its operations and the location of the central offices. Blossburg, to which 
there is a railroad spur from the main line of the A., T. & S. F., is a large 
shipping point for coal, while Gardner and Van Houten are mining towns. 

Antirne Joseph Meloche, a ranchman residing eighteen miles east of 
Raton in Colfax county, is a pioneer of the Territory of 1869 and his 
memory bears the impress of its early historic annals as well as of its 
later progress and development. He has been identified with many interests 
which constitute an epochal chapter in the history of the west and the 
southwest. He was born at Lachine on the St. Lawrence river near Mon- 
treal, Canada. September 21, 1837, and left home when little more than 
eight years of age, since which time he has been dependent entirely upon 
his own resources, so that whatever success he has achieved has resulted 
from his earnest labors. He has faced difficulties and obstacles, adversity 
and danger and altogether his life has been one of untiring industry and 
enterprise. On leaving home he went to Hamilton, Canada, on a boat 
whose captain was a neighbor of the Meloche family in Canada. From 
Hamilton he proceeded to Chicago and thence continued on to St. Louis, 
Missouri, it requiring three days to make the trip between the two cities, 
which at that time, however, were small and inconsequential places. He 
worked for three years in St. Louis and in St. Clair county, Illinois. He 
was still but a boy at the time and had practically no money. For three 
years he was employed in a store on Bloody Island in the Mississippi 
river and afterward went to Kansas, where he spent a year. In the next 
spring, 1857, he started to drive a six mule team for the United States 
government to the scene of the Cheyenne war, the headquarters of the 
troops being at Leavenworth. 

In December, 1857, while returning to Fort Leavenworth from the 
Cheyenne war, he met, at the Big Blue in Kansas, General Cook with the 
Second United States Dragoons on his way to the Mormon war. Mr. 
Meloche and his companions joined the troops, and after a wintry march, 
through snow in which the horses and many of the men were exhausted, 
reached Fort Bridger on Christmas day. Here some ten thousand troops 
were gathered. The Second Dragoons lost 500 horses on the trip. Through 


the winter the troops were on short rations. Peace was made between the 
soldiers and Mormons in April, 1858, and in the fall Camp Floyd was built 
by the troops. 

In the middle of the summer Mr. Meloche started as a teamster from 
Salt Lake to California, driving for General Albert Sidney Johnston, and 
subsequently he worked for General W. S. Hancock, then quartermaster 
general for southern California. He continued in the Golden state until 
the fall of 1S58, when he went through Arizona to the Pinos Altos mines 
in New Mexico. When within fifteen miles of Tucson, at early daylight, 
he saw thirty or forty Indians on the war path, who occasioned him con- 
siderable annoyance but at length allowed him to depart in peace. He 
remained for four or five days at Tucson and there met Judge McKown, 
the noted San Francisco editor, who a short time before had killed another 
editor in San Francisco. In company with Judge McKown. Mr. Meloche 
continued the journey from Tucson to Pinos Altos. He was driven from 
here by Indians and after some adventures about Fort Stanton, on the 
23d of August, 1859, he reached Santa Fe, hunting work, on the way to 
the Missouri river. Three or four days later he started overland for Fort 
Union and obtained employment there at driving a six-mule team, continu- 
ing at that place until the close of the war. 

In 1861 Mr. Meloche became assistant wagon master for the gov- 
ernment and for four years was full wagon master, traveling sometimes to 
Albuquerque, again to Fort Craig, Fort Fillmore, Fort Stanton. Fort Win- 
gate and other points. In 1865 he wintered six hundred and fiftv cavalrv 
horses for the government at Maxwell, New Mexico, and in the spring of 
1866 he began operating a Maxwell farm on the shares and also raising 
cattle. This was his first real independent business venture. In 1867 he 
located a pre-emption homestead and timber claim, which is his present 
place of residence. Now, in connection with a partner, A. D. Thompson, 
of Duluth, Minnesota, he has twenty-two hundred and fifty acres of land, 
constituting a valuable ranch, and his son, A. J. Meloche, Jr., twenty- 
eight years of age, acts as his manager. Since coming into possession of 
his ranch Mr. Meloche has continuously carried on general farming and 
stock raising, developing a business of considerable importance and becom- 
ing one of the well known ranch men of the Territory. In earlv davs he 
had considerable trouble with the white cattle thieves, who threatened 
him and ordered him out of the country, but he was not afraid of them, 
although he was always alert and watchful. He says "they were good at a 
bluff" but he never shot at them. He relates an incident of a call from 
some desperadoes who wanted him and came to him on horseback, but his 
dauntless spirit showed them that they had better not interfere with him. 
He received many letters to "bundle up and leave or we will kill you," hut 
he sent back word, "Come on. I will be ready for you." Some of the same 
band of men afterward robbed a L T nited States coach of the Butterfield line 
at Apache Pass and seven of the number were handed for the crime. In 
1891-2, Mr. Meloche lost over twenty thousand dollars' worth of cattle 
because of the severe winter. He has had at times as high as one thousand 
head of cattle and at one time owned between four and five hundred head 
of horses. He now has an extensive ranch well stocked, and the business 
under the active management of his son and the careful direction of Mr. 
Meloche is proving profitable. In the fall of 1904 he erected his present 


handsome residence, which is one of the beautiful homes in his part of 
the Territory. 

In 1870, in Daviess county, Missouri, Mr. Meloche was married to 
Miss Mary Ann Isbell and they became the parents of five children, of 
whom a daughter and son are now deceased. The others are : Minnie, 
the wife of Charles B. Pirn, of Raton; Mrs. Pearl Skiles, of Raton; and 
Antime Joseph, Jr. 

Mr. Meloche in 1869 joined Kit Carson Lodge, A. F. & A. M., at 
Elizabethtown and is now a member of Raton lodge. He was also formerly 
identified with the Odd Fellows lodge at Raton. In politics he has always 
been a stanch Democrat and he served as postmaster at Yermejo, New 
Mexico, for three years, being commissioned by General Grant. His life 
history, if written in detail, would furnish a chapter more thrilling and 
interesting than any tale of fiction. As it is, he is a typical frontiersman 
who has aided in blazing the way of civilization and has remained to carry 
on the work of the earliest settlers in the development of the natural re- 
sources of the Territory and the establishment of business enterprises which 
work for activity and prosperity in the southwest. 

John Jelfs, vice-president of the First National Bank of Raton, and 
one of the founders of the town, was born near London, England, August 
8, 1836. Emigrating to the United States in 1872, he was employed by the 
Iowa Central Railroad Company until 1880, at which time he removed to 
New Mexico. Later he came to Raton, then a small railroad camp, and 
here he became foreman of the shops then being constructed by the Santa 
Fe Railroad Company. When he reached Raton he found but three other 
people at this place, all of whom were employes of the railroad company. 
and no houses had been constructed at that time. Mr. Jelfs was one of 
the first citizens of the new town to take up his abode in a box car belong- 
ing to the railroad company, and by the spring of 1881 sixty-three box 
cars were occupied in this manner as homes. 

From 1881 until 1898 he retained his position as foreman of the rail- 
road shops, and then resigned his position to identify himself with the First 
National Bank, in which he was, in that year, elected a director. Soon 
afterward he was chosen vice-president of the institution, which position 
he has continued to fill to the present time. 

Upon the organization of the town of Raton, in the spring of 1891, 
Mr. Jelfs was elected a member of the Board of Trustees, serving two 
terms in that office. He was also a member of the first school board of the 
new town, and one of the organizers of the Raton Buildinp- & Loan Asso- 
ciation, having, served as its president since its organization, in 1889. 

On the 4th of September, 1858, Mr. Jelfs was united in marriage to 
Miss Sarah Bunyan, a native of England, and they have become the par- 
ents of the following named: Annie, the wife of Frank Henning, of 
Raton; Harry, a resident of Tucson, Arizona; Alfred, who is living in 
Raton ; and Alice, who is with her parents. Mr. Jelfs, in his business 
career, has made consecutive advancement, until he today occupies a posi- 
tion of affluence in the community where he has made his home since the 
inception of the town. 

Edmund N. Burch, county commissioner of Colfax county, was born 
in Keokuk, Iowa, December 12, 1849. son of Eli and Apphiah (Tolman) 
Burch, and was reared on his father's farm and educated in the common 


schools of his native state. He continued to reside in Iowa until the spring 
of 1883, when he landed in New Mexico, the date of his arrival being 
March 1. His first work here was as a car repairer, in the employ of the 
Santa Fe Railroad Company. Afterward he clerked for seven years in the 
grocery of George J. Pace. Then for four years he ran a dairy on the 
Sugarite, five miles from Raton. In the spring of 1898 he filed a home- 
stead claim to one hundred and sixty acres of land on Johnson's mesa, 
since then he bought one hundred and sixty acres adjoining him on the 
south, and now he has three hundred and twenty acres, devoted chiefly 
to dairy purposes. On this farm is a fine well of pure water, which comes 
from a depth of ten feet through a crevice of the rock and affords a con- 
stant and abundant supply of water. 

Politically Mr. Burch is a Republican. In the fall of 1900 he was 
elected county commissioner of Colfax county, for a term of four years, 
in 1904 was re-elected for two years, and is the incumbent of the office 
at this writing. His service as commissioner has been characterized by 
that enterprise and thoroughness which have brought success to him in his 
own private affairs. Among other county matters he has been especially 
interested in the betterment of roads, with the result that many new roads 
have been made and old ones improved. In educational affairs also has 
Mr. Burch been prominent and active. He was a member of the school 
board two years, 1899-1900. It was largely through his efforts that school 
district No. 5 was organized in 1900 and the schoolhouse built in the spring 
of the following year, this being the third school on the mesa. Another 
movement in which Mr. Burch was an important factor was that of secur- 
ing a telephone system for his locality, in the summer of 1904, he having 
helped to organize and incorporate a company under the name of the John- 
son Mesa Telephone Company. And he has contributed some valuable 
articles to the Raton Ranger. 

December 8, 1875. Mr. Burch married Ada Clark, a native of Iowa. 
Their fourth born, a daughter, Blanche, died at the age of three years. 
Of their other children, we record that Maud A. is the wife of Henry 
Floyd, of Johnson's mesa ; Nellie M. is the wife of James Floyd, also of 
Johnson's mesa; Eli L T . and Verne E.. at home. Mr. Burch holds to the 
Baptist creed and has membership in the church at Raton. 

Eugene G. Twitty, deputy county clerk of Colfax county, making 
his home in Raton, was for a number of years connected with the cattle 
industry of this section of the country, and is a worthy representative of a 
high type of citizenship in the southwest. He was born in Chicago, Illi- 
nois, November 15, 1861, and is a son of Edward and Elizabeth (Jones) 
Twitty. He spent his boyhood and youth in Chicago, pursuing his educa- 
tion in the public schools there, and on the 6th of June, 1881, arrived in 
New Mexico, in company with his father. He located at Vermejo Park, 
where he engaged in the cattle business, residing there until 1889, and from 
1882 was associated in business with his brother. They were squatters on 
a grant, which in 1889 they sold to the Maxwell Land Grant Company, at 
which time Mr. Twitty of this review entered the employ of that company 
as bookkeeper in charge of their accounts connected with their farming 
and cattle-raising interests. He was thus employed from September, 1889, 
until March, 1901, at Cimarron, and in February, 1892, became a resident 
of Raton. 


After leaving the Maxwell Land Grant Company he gave his atten- 
tion to the cattle business on Point creek, where he still owns a ranch, 
devoted exclusively to his cattle interests, which return him a good in- 
come annually. Since the ist of January, 1905, he has held the position 
of deputy county clerk of Colfax county, and is proving a most capable 
official, being systematic, prompt and reliable in the performance of the 
duties which devolve upon him. In his political views he is a Republican, 
and fraternally is connected with the Benevolent and Protective Order of 
Elks. He is popular in his community and has a wide and favorable ac- 

Mathias Heck, a pioneer of New Mexico, who is now living retired 
near Cimarron, came to Xew Mexico in 1863 from California, making his 
wav to Santa Fe. He was born in Cologne, Germany, June 19, 1829, and 
came to the United States in 184.4, when a youth of fifteen years. He 
landed at New York and afterward made his way westward. He engaged 
in peddling jewelry in the southern states until 1849, when, attracted by 
the discovery of gold in California, he went by way of the Panama route 
to the Pacific coast. He was very successful in his operations there and 
was identified with mining and other interests until 1862, when he en- 
listed at San Francisco for service in the Civil war, becoming a member 
of Company K, of the First California Cavalry. It was with this com- 
mand that he came to New Mexico in 1863, going to Santa Fe and after- 
ward to F'ort Yuma, Arizona. He participated in the battle of Adobe 
Walls, or Panhandle, in the fall of 1864, in which engagement General Kit 
Carson took part. About three hundred and forty Indians were killed, 
while among the whites there were only two killed and twenty-two wounded. 
Air. Heck was also a participant in the fight with the Indians in 1865 at 
Julesburg, Colorado, where the federal troops succeeded in quelling the red 
men. He did much frontier service while connected with the army and 
made a circuit of all the old forts in New Mexico, being discharged at Santa 
Fe on the 4th of July, 1866. 

In the following year. 1867, Air. Heck was married to Miss Margaret 
Plum, who came to this Territory from St. Louis, July 2. 1864, arriving at 
Las Vegas. She started on the first of June of th<rt year in a coach which 
had a military escort. It was at that time that the Kansas Southern rail- 
road, now the Santa Fe, was being built and the Indians were very trouble- 

Mrs. Heck located at Las Yegas. Xew Mexico, where she remained 
as a servant for fifteen months, being in the employ of Mrs. Andreas Doll. 
She afterward spent fifteen months with Frederick Meyer at Mora and it 
was there, on the 6th of November, 1867, that the wedding occurred. The 
children are: Theodore, who died September 8. 1892; J. Matt: Paulina, 
the widow of Isaac Benton ; and Katherina, die wife of Juston Green, of 

In 1869 Air. Heck located eighteen miles south of Cimarron, where 
he kept a government station, furnishing supplies to the soldiers and 
also feed for horses. He conducted a store there for nine years and the 
Indians were all around him. He often fed the Indian thieves in order to 
keep them on good terms. They would sit on the floor in a circle while 
he gave them coffee, bread and molasses. He also had a government con- 
tract to furnish the Indians at his present place with meat. On one side 


of him were the Apaches and en the other side of Cimarron creek were 
the I'tes. The)* all drew rations at Cimarron, receiving nine or ten thou- 
sand pounds of beef every ten days. Air. Heck is now owner of a large 
ranch, which is managed by his son Matt, who is engaged in the cattle 
business. He also has an orchard of two acres and his son has an orchard 
of five acres. For many years Mr. Heck was very active in the develop- 
ment of fanning and cattle raising interests here, but is now practically 
living retired. He was one of the first to discover gold at Elizabethtown, 
and he has mining claims there and also at Springer. He has always been 
a Democrat and was active in organizing the count}-. His wife was a 
resident of Las Vegas when there were only six other white women in 
the town, and Mr. Heck visited Santa Fe before there was a single shingled 
roof in that city. He is familiar with all of the experiences, hardships 
and trials of pioneer life in an Indian country and has watched with inter- 
est the progress that has been made as this region has been reclaimed for 
the uses of the white race and the seeds of civilization have been planted 
and have borne rich fruit. 

Obadiah J. Niles, deceased, was one of the pioneers of Elizabethtown, 
New Mexico. He came to this Territory from his native state, Illinois, in 
1868 or 1869, and settled at Elizabethtown, where he opened a shop and 
worked at his trade, that of wagonmaker. Also he was interested in the 
cattle business and had a dairy. He continued an active life here until 
well advanced in years, when he moved to Springer and retired. There 
he died at the ripe age of eighty-three years. He was a Democrat, promi- 
nent and active in public affairs. For twelve years he served as a justice 
of the peace at Elizabethtown, this being during the most unsettled and 
disorderly times in the history of the town, and he did much toward bring- 
ing about a change for the better in conditions here. He was a charter 
member of the Masonic lodge at Elizabethtown. Mr. Niles' widow died 
in Springer, in 1903. The)- had an only son, George Johnson Niles. 

Geoige Johnson Niles was born in Iowa. About 1871 he went to 
Ecuador, South America, in the employ of the Arroyo Railroad Company, 
where he remained a few years, and from whence, about 1875 or 1876. he 
went to California. After spending a year or more in the Golden state he 
came, in 1877, to New Mexico, joining his parents in Elizabethtown. Here 
he mined for a time in the employ of Matthew Lynch. Afterward he 
turned his attention to the cattle business and to dairying on Moreno creek, 
where he remained until his death. His wife, nee Mary O'Connell, died 
in Ecuador. 

O. Jay Niles, only son of George Johnson and Mary (O'Connell) Niles, 
was born in Wyandotte, Kansas, September 20, i860; accompanied his 
parents to South America and after his mother's death went with his 
father to California and thence came to New Mexico in 1877, as stated. 
He attended for a short time an industrial school in San Francisco and 
afterward went to public school in Elizabethtown. He was on the ranch 
with his father until his father's death, anil has since been more or less 
interested in the cattle business. For several years he has been engaged 
in surveyins-, doing- government work on the subdivisions of Colfax and 
Mora counties. He sold his ranch, eighteen miles west of Springer, in the 
fall of 1904, and has since lived in Elizabethtown. He is proprietor of 
the Maxwell House, so named because title to the propertv came from 


L. B. Maxwell in 1869. Like his grandfather and father before him, 
O. Jay Niles is a Democrat. In local politics, however, he gives his sup- 
port to the man rather than the party. From 1892 to 1898 he served as 
deputy sheriff of Colfax county. He is a member of the Fraternal Broth- 
erhood at Springer. 

Mr. Niles has a wife and three children : Edith Adeline, George 
Maurice and Stanley J. Mrs. Niles, formerly Miss Mary E. Gallagher, 
is a daughter of Maurice Gallagher, a miner and early settler of Eliza- 

George E. Beebe, until recently postmaster of Elizabethtown, Colfax 
county, was born in Liverpool, Medina countv, Ohio, November 27, 1845, 
son of Warner and Jane (Gilchrist) Beebe. His father was a farmer. 
George E. Beebe's boyhood days were passed like those of other farmer 
boys in the middle west. December 16, 1863, at the age of eighteen, he 
enlisted for service in the Civil war, and went to the front as a member of 
the Ohio Sharpshooters that acted as guard for General George H. Thomas, 
their service being chiefly in Tennessee, Alabama and Georgia. At the 
close of the war, with a record for bravery and without a demerit mark, 
young Beebe was mustered out of the ranks at Nashville, Tennessee, in 
July, 1865, and returned north to Michigan, where he remained for some 
lime. Exposure and hardship incident to army life left him in ill health, 
and seeking a milder climate than was found in the lake states, he came in 
1869 to New Mexico. His first stop here was in Lincoln county, where 
he remained two years. Then he traveled through the southwest, hunting 
buffalo, and on his return from the buffalo hunt located permanently in 
Elizabethtown, where he engaged in placer mining. Later he clerked for 
John Rearson, Sr., after which he engaged in business for himself, and 
from April, 1903, until his death was postmaster of the town. While not 
active in politics, Mr. Beebe always voted the Republican ticket. Mr. 
Beebe's wife, formerly Miss Romana Sanchez, is a daughter of Narciso 
Sanchez, and a native of San Miguel county. New Mexico. 

James Scully, a rancher living at Elizabethtown, was born in Ireland 
in 1840, and when but nine vears of age was brought to the United States 
by an aunt. He was reared by a French family in Louisiana, and in 1861, 
responding to the call of the Confederacy, joined a military company known 
as the Louisiana Rifle Tigers. In an engagement he was captured and 
afterward sent to Chicago, where for some time he was held as a prisoner 
of war. 

Following the close of hostilities Mr. Scully made his way westward, 
and was engaged at teaming at Fort Riley and at Fort Lyon. In 1868 he 
came to Elizabethtown, where he took up mining- claims and worked 
placer mining profitably for six or seven years, but believed that the cattle 
industry would prove a more profitable source of income, and in 1874 he 
purchased a ranch of Major Alford and began the conduct of this place 
and the herding and sale of stock. He now has between seven and eight 
thousand acres of land and a lease on thirty thousand acres of grazing land. 
He runs large numbers of cattle and horses, and is one of the well known 
and prominent stock men and ranchers of the southwest. He likewise has 
five hundred acres of his land under cultivation and produces thereon 
abundant crops. In his farming operations he follows the most modern, 
practical and progressive methods and thereby secures good results. Both 


his farming and cattle business are proving profitable, and in addition to 
bis property in Texas he owns real estate in Springer and Albuquerque, 
New Mexico, and in Louisiana. 

Jason F. Carrington, a retired citizen of Elizabethtown, was born at 
Fairfax Court House, Virginia, October 10, 1S37, where the family home 
was maintained until he was eight years old. Then they moved to Detroit, 
Michigan. He was reared in Michigan, and educated in Ann Arbor 
University. When Civil war was inaugurated he was among the first 
to enlist his services for the suppression of the rebellion, and went to the 
front as a member of the Second Michigan Cavalry. At the expiration 
of his term of enlistment, in 1863, he was at Baltimore, Maryland, where 
he immediately re-enlisted, this time as a member of the Bradford 
Dragoons, which became the Third Maryland Cavalry, and he remained 
in the army until the close of the war, when he was mustered out at Yicks- 
burg, September 14, 1865. Although he participated in many engagements 
and was often in the thickest of the fight, he never received but one 
wound, that being while on the Red river expedition. 

The war over, Mr. Carrington returned to Detroit, and in 1866 went 
from there to St. Louis, thence to Westport, Missouri, and from that place 
to Leavenworth, Kansas. Later he made the journey with a wagon train 
to Denver, Colorado, and from Denver, in 1867, came to Elizabethtown, 
New Mexico. Not long afterward he went to Silver City, where he worked 
at the trade of millwright until 1871 : thence to Taos, next on a prospect- 
ing tour in Colorado and elsewhere, finally in 1870 landed in Taos again, 
and since 1883 has made his home in Elizabethtown. For some fifteen 
years Mr. Carrington served as a justice of the peace. Several years he 
was school director, and for a time he acted as postmaster of Elizabeth- 
town, after the death of Postmaster C. N. Story. At present he is again 
serving as postmaster. While at Silver City he w T as a member of Farragut 
Post No. 1, G. A. R.. but is not now affiliated with that order. In Sep- 
tember, 1880. Mr. Carrington married Miss Seferino Tenioro, who died in 
1901, leaving him with four children: Frank, Emma, Mabel and Gracie. 

John Pearson, Sr., deceased, one of the pioneers of Elizabethtown, 
Colfax county, located in Elizabethtown in May, 1868. He was born at 
Sunsval, Sweden, July 7, 1848; learned the trade of shoemaker in Sweden; 
came to the United States in 1866. His first winter here was spent in a 
Michigan lumber camp, from whence he went down into Indiana, where 
for six or eight months he worked at his trade. Next we find him in 
Kansas, employed in railroad construction work, and from there, a few 
months later, he came to New Mexico and located at Elizabethtown, where 
he worked on the Maxwell ditch until it was completed. Then he pros- 
pected in the Red River district, worked in the Aztec mines for six months, 
and clerked for Lewis Clark at Placidella Alcalde in Rio Arriba county. 
Coming back to Elizabethtown, he opened a shoe shop in partnership with 
Sam Salisbury. Afterward he was in business for himself at Cimarron. 
In March, 1872, he again returned to Elizabethtown and opened a shoe shop 
and grocery, being associated in this venture with Herman Froeliek. 
They dissolved partnership in the fall of that year, and Mr. Pearson con- 
tinued to run the shop in his own name. In December, 1874. he bought 
Peterson & Hitchcock's store on Willow Gulch ; in November. 1880, bought 
out Charles Rand on Ute Creek, and ran the two stores together. The 


former he sold in 1882 to Magnus Olson, his uncle, who came with him 
from Sweden ; and then moved back to Elizabethtown, continuing, however, 
to run the Ute Creek store until 1903. On his return to Elizabethtown in 
1882 he formed a partnership with Mr. Froeliek, bought the A. F. Meadow 
building, and conducted both a wholesale and retail business here until 
1903. Also during a part of that time he was interested in placer mining. 
His uncle, Magnus Olson, also interested in mining for some years, died 
here in 1895. 

Mr. Pearson served as school director of Elizabethtown, and for a 
number of years was postmaster of the town, having been appointed by 
President Cleveland in February, 1887, and served until 1897. Since Sep- 
tember 16, 1903, he resided in Douglas and Lowell, Arizona. He died at 
Lowell, Arizona, January 23, 1906. 

Of his family, we record that his wife, formerly Miss Nephene Mary 
Guhl. was born in Copenhagen, Denmark. She still lives in Elizabeth- 
town. They have had eleven children, of whom three are deceased, namely : 
Amelia Mary. William Thomas and Walter Edwin. Those living are 
Nellie Renshaw. wife of James Abreu of Springer: Emma Christina, in 
Elizabethtown; Charles August, of Raton; John, Jr., Elizabethtown; Harry 
Guhl, Chilili. New Mexico ; Roy Frederick, George Edward and Lillie 
Nephene, all of Elizabethtown. 

John Pearson, Jr., was born January 2, 1880, in Willow Creek, Colfax 
county. He was educated in the public schools of Elizabethtown and 
Trinidad, and for several years clerked for his father and Herman Froeliek, 
after which, in 1901, he engaged in mercantile business for himself. He 
sold out in May. 1905, to Louis Leonard, and at this writing is again 
employed as clerk for Mr. Froeliek. Also he is interested in mining, be- 
ing vice president of the Gold and Copper Deep Tunnel Mining & Milling 
Company. Politically. Mr. Pearson is a Republican. Since the spring of 
1904 he has been school director. July 29, 1902, he married Miss Perry 
Lou Kelly, daughter of James Perry and Lou (Schloemer) Kelly, the 
former a native of Pulaski county, Kentucky, and the latter of Longwood, 
Pettis county, Missouri. Mr. and Mrs. Pearson have a son, Lawrence, 
aged two years, and another son, Tohn Perry, aged six months. 

Stephen Eden Booth, who for nearly a quarter of a century has 
been one of the striking figures in the historv of New Mexico, has been 
so actively identified with the development of the resources of the Terri- 
tory and so intimately associated with its political and social life that the 
simple record of his career, in epitome, in itself forms one of the dramatic 
chapters in the annals of the Territory. 

Born in Monroe, Connecticut. March 6. 1830, Mr. Booth was taken 
to New Haven by his parents when two years old and was there reared 
to a sea-faring life. At the age of fourteen he ran away from home tx> 
follow the sea. His first voyage was to the Spanish main. In 1847 ' ie 
visited Ireland with the first ship load of grain sent from America to the 
famine-stricken people of that land. In 1849 he went to California before 
the mast. Upon arriving at Benicia he fell a victim to the gold fever, 
deserted his ship, was captured and placed in irons for thirty-one davs. 
Going to Sacramento after his release, he secured a job at "ten dollars a 
day and grub," his work being driving oxen for freighters. In the mine 1 ; 
on Yuba river he was generally known by the sobriquet of "Connecticut." 


After mining on the Yuba river for four years he returned to Connecticut 
to purchase belting for mining purposes. On his return journey to Cali- 
fornia he met General Santa Ana at Acapulco and through the assistance 
of another Mexican purchased for thirty dollars a handsome serape which 
the general was wearing and which is now in Judge Booth's possession. 

In 1855, Judge Booth left California, entered into the mercantile busi- 
ness until the opening of the Civil war. In 1861 he entered the United 
States navy under Commodore Porter and was made second in command 
of the Griffith, one of the twenty-one vessels in Admiral Farragut's 
squadron. His first service was as master's mate on the Griffith. He was 
at one time offered command of a brig with a commission to pursue and 
capture blockade runners, but declined on account of impaired health, 
which compelled him to retire from service after the fall of New Orleans. 
Among the sixty-two officers of this flotilla Judge Booth took first rank of 
his grade and still treasures a letter from Commodore Porter attesting 
that fact. 

After the war Judge Booth continued his travels and in fact remains 
a great traveler to this day. He has visited many portions of the globe, 
attended the funeral of Daniel O'Connell in Dublin, dined with Don Pedro, 
the last emperor of Brazil. He was wrecked in the Sea Bell and was taken 
off with two others who died soon after rescue. He has spent five days 
on the ocean without food or drink. He was first mate of the ship Two 
Brothers when the crew mutinied, and he saved the life of Captain Meeks, 
whom the crew were about to throw overboard. During the years of his 
residence in California he helped found the city of Redlands and in 
many other ways became intimately identified with the upbuilding of that 
great state. 

Coming to Colfax county. New Mexico, in 1883 with Wilson Wadding- 
ham, who had founded important stock enterprises in the northern part 
of the Territory, Judge Booth was made superintendent of the enterprise 
known as the Fort Bascom Cattle Raising Company. This company handled 
large herds of cattle on the Montoya grant for about ten years, when it 
went into liquidation. 

During his residence in Las Vegas, Judge Booth was elected county 
commissioner of San Miguel county and made chairman of this body. 
While filling this office the historic "white cap" events that stirred San 
Miguel county occurred and he was drawn into the vortex of the trouble 
in the fulfillment of his official duties. 

In 1893, Judge Booth went to Elizabethtown as the resident rep- 
resentative of the Maxwell Land Grant Company. He still fills that posi- 
tion, though spending much of his time in Las Vegas and in California. 
He has served as a member of the territorial cattle sanitary board. He is 
a stanch Republican and prior to the Civil war was a vigorous opponent 
of slavery. So strong were his principles in this direction that at one 
time, while in Rio Janeiro, he refused an offer of his weight in silver if 
he would go to Africa and obtain a ship load of slaves for the Brazilian 
trade. He has been a Mason since 18^3 and was the organizer of Anawan 
Lodge No. 43, A. F. & A. M., at West Haven, Connecticut. Since 1853 
Judge Booth has not tasted intoxicating liquor of any kind. 

Judge Booth's wife, Mary Eliza Thompson, died in California. He 


has two sons : Fred E., of Elmhurst, California, and Elmer L., of Fill- 
more, California. 

The subject of this biographical sketch, Melvin Whitson Mills, could 
be said to be one of the pioneer American citizens, though there were an- 
other still older lot that came to New Mexico between 1840 and 1850. The 
landing of M. W. Mills was not until 1868, at a time when quite a num- 
ber of Americans began to emigrate to the then quite remote Territory. 
The father of Mr. Mills, Daniel W. Milis, was already residing in New 
Mexico ; the mother, Hannah Mills, accompanying her son and only child 
to join her husband. These parents were of New England stock and of 
Quaker faith. The father, D. W. Mills, set out after his failure during 
the financial crisis of 1856, to regain his fortune in the West. He served as 
a soldier in the Colorado Home Guards during the Civil war. The boy, M. 
W. Mills, received only an academic education, attending school at Adrian 
and Ann Arbor. Michigan, then graduating from the Law department of 
Michigan University in 1868. 

The place of his landing in New Mexico was at Elizabethtown, a 
mining town that had started up for the most part that same year, upon 
the wild report that gold abounded in fabulous quantities from the grass 
roots down to bed rock. Such gold glittering reports going out over the 
country did not take long to gather together not only the adventuresome 
gold hunters, but as well the gambler and saloon keeper, the fugitive from 
justice, the dance hall speculator, and all sorts of people from all over the 
country, until a motley crowd as had ever cast their fortunes together, was 
on the ground mingling and commingling together, the subject of this 
sketch, a young lawyer among them. The place was high up in a mountain 
valley, with great mountains viewing each other with their snow capped 
peaks from all sides of the vallev. There were only two outlets from this 
valley ; one to the west of the valley leading through the Fernandez Canyon 
to the very old settlement of Taos, and the other to the east, passing through 
the Cimarron Canyon out to the east connecting with the old road known 
as the Santa Fe trail. 

The valley was called at one end the Moreno valley, at the other the 
Cieneguella valley; this valley being a remote place in the mountains, and 
not settled until gold was discovered. The whole Territory was remote, 
and this valley considerably more so ; hence the law and its enforcement a 
precarious happening. The predominating law at the place, for the few 
years it lasted in its better days, seemed rather more a sort of six shooter 
law than anything else, though there were several lawyers old and young, 
such as they were, pretending to be practicing law, but actually living by 
mining, gambling, or some other way. There were several halls of a hun- 
dred or two feet deep, generally having a liquor bar in front for the saloon 
part, then came the gambling tables with the dance hall, so that liquor 
bars, gambling tables, and dance halls all run together. These halls usually 
ran all clay, or at least all night. The male dancer compensated for his 
privilege of dancing by going up to the bar after each dance, where he 
and partner partook of the luxuries kept there for the occasion. Such 
frequent visits to' this flowing table soon induced a lot of convivialitv, stir- 
ring up the wilder men, who most always had hung to their belts this six 
shooter law, and very often declared the law unto themselves, playing at 
such amusements as shooting out the lights in the halls; then shooting 


quite promiscuously, until a commotion or stampede resulted, when the 
crowds would tumble over one another in the dark, amid the screams of 
the more refined sex, until all should be quiet again, except for the groans 
of the wounded who lay dying after the commotion ; and little was said 
next morning except that the shooter "got his man" last night. 

It was at this valley that the notorious character, Charles Kennedy 
lived, who "had got" his fourteen victims. Charles Kennedy lived at the 
head of the Fernandez Canyon, where he kept a few log rooms where 
travelers sometimes stopped over night, some of whom turned up missing. 
Finally suspicion was aroused and the people sent a delegation to investi- 
gate. This investigation unearthed a few bags of human bones. These 
prospectors returned with Kennedy, who sought young Mills as his coun- 
sel. A mob jury was summoned to try Kennedy. The bag of human bones 
found buried in his yard and under his floor seemed quite convincing. Still 
young Mills got two jurors to desert the rest of the mob jury and hang up 
a verdict ; but it was for a little while only, as Kennedy was found hanging 
to a pine limb a few mornings later; his body was cut down and turned over 
to Dr. Bradford, who wired his skeleton together and sent it to the Smith- 
sonian Institute, where, with its most peculiar skull, it can be seen. Also 
in this valley lived that notorious character, Wall W. Henderson, who had 
on his pistol eight notches filed for victims wounded, and on the other side 
seven notches to represent the victims he had sent to their happy hunting 
grounds, regarding all of whom he boasted of having sent the ball straight 
to their eyes. One of his victims fell at the feet of young Mills one even- 
ing while he was addressing the bystanders, and a little later he had the 
honor to look down the same gun, under the command that he should go 
to the Justice of the Peace and make a speech that should legally discharge 
the prisoner for the same and other killings. A little later Wall fell a 
victim and his gun sent to the Smithsonian Institute where it is now. It 
was there also that Tom Taylor was first brought after killing his victim, 
and lodged in a little log jail. He also employed young Mills as his legal 
defender, who little later on concluded to part company with the log jail 
and his lawyer also. Tom Taylor then took into his confidence a young 
man called "Coal-oil Jimmie" and the two took to the mountains, hiding in 
the canyons, going now and then out to trails and public roads, and rob- 
bing everybody they met, thus spreading terror over the whole country 
They were afterward joined by Joe McCurdy and John Stewart, who called 
young Mills into their confidence at a midnight meeting to advise with him 
about some money that had been taken from a coach of one of their friends. 
At this meeting Joe McCurdy and John Stewart also came to discuss about 
assisting the two robbers, and it was there determined that they would 
join them in robbing the people over the country. In a week or so after 
this meeting McCurdy and Stewart returned to the town of Cimarron with 
the dead bodies of Tom Taylor and Jimmie on a farm wagon, sending at 
once for attorney M. W. Mills, and proposing to retain him to collect the 
$3,000 reward offered for the two dead robbers. 

The lawless desperado element kept on increasing until respectable 
families were threatened with all sorts of violence and all kinds of crime 
seemed to be on the rampage. Then a lot of the more respectable people 
organized themselves for protection, afterward called "Vigilantes." This 
band of resolute and determined men would meet in a dark room, sending 
Vol. 11. 11 


for young Mills to come to their place of meeting and pass a cigar box 
containing black and white gamblers' chips around, and by this means 
decide the fate of some desperado and also decide who should put him 
away ; and in the next day or so, the fate of the condemned was known 
to everybody. It was not long after a few of the bad men had met this 
kind of fate, that this class of men who boasted of having "got their man" 
began to disappear. 

Then came the winter of 1872 with a light snow fall in the mountains 
so that there was a scarcity of water for mining, and it became known that 
gold did not abound in such quantities from the grass roots down as was 
first reported. This town began to decline, and the town of Cimarron 
started up thirty miles away out on the prairie at the foot of trie mountains. 
It became apparent that the county seat would have to be moved toward 
the new settlements, and M. W. Mills was chosen to go to Santa Fe and 
present the subject to the legislature then in session, which was done and 
the county seat moved to Cimarron. It is said that the new neighboring 
city never equaled in extreme wickedness the town of Elizabethtown, 
though there were eleven human creatures shot down in one bar room 
within a few months. There were other conditions surrounding Cimarron, 
the previous home of Lucien B. Maxwell. There were two tribes of In- 
dians who would get whisky in spite of all precautions, and with their 
wild demonstrations would frighten and terrorize the people, more particu- 
larly the families. On one of these occasions the people arrested and put in 
jail two of these wild Indian bucks one evening, the jailer being a young 
fellow called Bob Grisby. In the morning several hundred Indians of that 
tribe came into town and demanded that these bucks should be given up. 
A little previous to this time Grisby had sent a messenger to call M. W. 
Mills to come to the jail, who went thither and saw both Indian "bucks cold 
in the grasp of death itself. The jailer claimed that the Indians assaulted 
him with a butcher knife while giving them something to eat. It was not 
long before the whole tribe became fully advised of the situation and they 
began to get ready for war, threatening to annihilate the town, which they 
could have done before the arrival of soldiers from the nearest fort. A few 
of the citizens with most influence with the Indians were selected to treat 
with the Indians, Mr. Mills being one of them, and after paying a few 
hundred dollars as a ransom, peace was restored. No one could describe 
the relief of joy that went through that little town when those Indians got 
on their ponies and went to their camp. 

The town of Cimarron, lying on one side of the cattle range of country 
was frequented by the festive cowboy, who would visit the place, take on 
board all the bad whisky he could buy, and then amuse himself by dancing 
on the billiard tables, poking his six shooter down through the glass show 
cases in the stores to get what his eye fancied, then riding up and down the 
streets as if to imitate the wild drunken Indian by whooping and yelling and 
shooting sometimes into the doors and windows of the houses. The people, 
becoming a little tired of these antics, nominated Jack Turner for sheriff, 
and elected him upon the theory that he would arrest these cowboys when 
they came to town and got on these furious rampages. Soon after Jack 
got' elected a little partv of these cowboy braves came to town and took on 
the usual cargo of bad whisky. The sheriff summoned a lot of citizens and 
armed them ready for battle. Without much warning, the posse opened fire 


and the boys fled to their horses, mounted and were off, shooting back as 
they went ; but the bullets of the posse flew after them and all but one fell 
from their horses, one of them (Wallace) surviving in a most miraculous 
form, as he was shot many times. He is still living, a most distorted look- 
ing creature. The escaping comrade, riding a white horse, after getting 
a half mile out of town on a high hill, waved to come back to help his 
party in distress, and some of the posse, to demonstrate their marksmanship, 
shot the poor fellow in a merciless way. The settlers out along ' the 
creek who were mostly stock raisers, were sympathizers with these cow- 
buys, taking sides with them. Reports and warnings began to come into 
town thick and fast from these settlements that the town would be fired 
from all sides and burned up in the night time. About the only man in the 
place who had not supported Turner, who had not given countenance to 
this manner of arrest, and who had any friends and influence with these 
settlers and stock-raisers out along the creek was M. W. Mills. The town 
people began to entreat him to intercede for them, and to save the place 
from ashes. After a treaty, an armistice was effected. A little later two 
more cowboys, by name Davie Crocket and Gus Hefferon, took the town 
in somewhat the usual form, visiting it many times, and shooting it up at 
all hours of the night. A new sheriff had been elected by name of Rine- 
hart. a business partner of Mills ; but the people did not seem to want to 
volunteer to help arrest these and other desperadoes. One day these boys 
went into the postoffice, pointing a double barreled shot gun at a man by 
name of Joe Holbrook, and another at the postmaster, John B. McCullough, 
inviting these men to look down their shot gun barrels while they played 
with the gun hammers, and taunting them with all sorts of names, with 
charges of cowardice, etc. These men, Holbrook and McCullough, with 
Sheriff Rinehart. met at the office of Mr. Mills, and there offered to aid the 
sheriff in annihilating these midnight marauders, all of which was then 
and there agreed to. Accordingly, these men in the darkness called upon 
Crockett and Hefferon to halt. Instead of halting they began shooting, the 
sheriff and posse doing likewise, and the two dead outlaws were added to 
the long list. The sheriff and his two assistants were tried and defended 
by Mills and another attorney and their acquittal easily secured in another 

At the fall election of 1875 a bitter campaign was fought that had few 
equals if any in this western country, many people having lost their lives 
directly and indirectly over feuds growing out of this election. On the 
one side for the Legislature, Attorney Mills headed the ticket; the battle for 
the Mills side prevailed, but a snakey trail followed in the wake. A month 
or so after this election, a minister, name Rev. Thos Tolby, who was com- 
ing down from Elizabethtown through the Cimarron Canyon on horseback- 
was murdered, dragged off into the bushes, and his horse tied to a tree. 
A bad man by the name of Harberger, on the defeated election side, got 
hold of a Mexican named Cardinas and with a pistol pointed at him com- 
pelled him to subscribe to an affidavit charging a half dozen men with the 
crime of murdering Rev. Tolby. This affidavit charged M. W. Mills as be- 
ing the adviser of the murderers and knowing all about it. At this time 
Mr. Mills was up in Colorado attending court. A printer preacher by name 
of McMains took this affidavit, traveled all over the immediate country, 
through the settlements, and aroused the people so that they gathered at 


Cimarron to avenge the death of Rev. Tolby. The people turned out with 
their arms and in mob form, gathering from all sides so that the saloons and 
hotels looked like arsenals with arms stacked and piled up on billiard tables 
and other places. Some of the principals so charged in this forced affidavit, 
the mob arrested, but Dr. Longwell who had been elected on the Mills 
ticket fled in advance of the mob and reached Santa Fe, a hundred and fifty 
miles away, a few miles ahead of the mob. The whole country was wrought 
up into a tension of intense excitement, and M. W. Mills was advised, by 
floods of telegrams from his friends, not to come home ; but disregarding 
these warnings he fled to the scene of the mob assemblage, going in on 
the coach one afternoon. No sooner had he landed in the town than the 
mob took possession of him, proceeding to have a lynching party right 
away. But an opposition party arose of several hundred men who, with 
threats of vengeance and demonstrations of war, demanded that Mills should 
not then suffer death. For a little time it looked as if human blood would 
run like water in the Cimarron river. But the councils of a few men on 
both sides prevailed and it was agreed that the justice of the peace and 
men chosen from the mob should proceed with a trial, and all abide their 
verdict, and during the time of the trial, twelve men from each side of the 
two differing mobs, were to be selected to take Mills and hold him. The 
wires leading out of the town were all cut, until Indian Agent Irwin noti- 
fied the leaders of the mob that they were fighting L'ncle Sam and that he 
needed the wires about his Indian business. The mob then connected the 
wires, upon the assurance of Irwin and the operator that no business should 
go over the wire except the United States Indian business. Indian Agent 
Irwin and the operator, however, to save human life wired the situation to 
the governor of New Mexico. Samuel B. Axtel ; and (J. S. Cavalry came 
suddenly upon the scene, confronting the mob in the streets of the town, 
and leveling their guns upon them demanded the surrender of Mills. At 
this time the men guarding Mills were standing near by the cavalry, and 
Mills ran before he could be shot, and got in between the horses of the 
officers, the cavalry then marching to a camp established nearby. It is 
said that at this time, tlie mob of men began to murmur vengeance, while 
many of them, including their leaders, began to change front and say that 
they had not believed all the time that Mills was guilty. Anyway the mob 
court soon found that way, liberating Mills but implicating many others. 
The .Mexican, Cardinas, was ordered back to jail, but was shot on his way. 
never reaching there, as also were others — both shot and hung by the men 
composing this mob. 

The legislature to which Mills had been elected moved the courts from 
Cimarron and Colfax county to the adjoining county of Taos, where the 
next term was held early in the following spring. Because of the threats 
said to have come from these mob people in Colfax county, it was thought 
best by Federal officials to send U. S. Troops, and accordingly the court 
was held by Chief Justice Waldo under the shadow of United States In- 
fantrv. A full investigation was had by the grand jury, witnesses were 
subpoened from Colfax county and all over the country ; but no indictments 
were found against Mills or any of the men named in the Cardinas affidavit. 
The Methodist church, becoming much interested because of the murder of 
the Rev. Tolby, and the part that McMains had taken, and because of the 
charges against him. sent Bishop Bowman to make a full investigation also, 


and much has been done to ferret out the motive of the murderers of the 
Rev. Thcfs. Tolby. Although nearly thirty years have intervened, no fur- 
ther evidence has ever been discovered and no motive ever located that 
should have induced anyone to have taken the life of the preacher. The 
innocent men who lost their lives and were sent into the unknown coun- 
try by being shot and hung are as innocent now, so far as any discovery of 
any evidence against them, as they were the nights they were murdered. 
The leader, Harberger. who extorted the Cardinas affidavit and who was 
said to have shot Cardinas afterward, and who murdered another man, was 
afterward prosecuted by Mills as district attorney, convicted and sent to 
the penitentiary, within the walls of which he afterwards died. 

It was here at Cimarron that many desperado bad men grew into 
prominence, many of whom have been referred to in other pages of New 
Mexico history; but none of them outranked that wild, dark eyed Ten- 
nessseean. Clay Allison, the slayer of "Chunk," "Cooper," "Griego," and 
others. This man sought with a mob at one time to capture and make M. 
W. Mills his victim of death, and strange to say a few hours later ac- 
knowledged that he was wrong and took another mob of men to wrest 
Mills from the hands of another mob, who, with a hangman's rope, were 
after him and within a few rods of his house, so that Clay Allison boasted 
man\' times afterwards of having saved the life of M. W. Mills. This man 
Allison had such power and personal following making him immune from 
sheriff's arrest for many years, but the Federal authorities finally sent to 
the aid of Sheriff Rinehart a few companies of soldiers that surrounded, 
in the early morning, the house where Allison was located and finally suc- 
ceeded in arresting him. He afterwards made his escape, however, and 
after all, like most all men who take human life, died an unnatural death. 

It soon became apparent that this wild town of Cimarron, so properly 
named, the former rendezvous of Maxwell. Abreu, Shout, Dold, Moore, 
St. Yrain. Wheatcn, Kroenig. Beaubien, Wootton, Carson, and many other 
old time characters, was about to subside. The great Santa Fe Railroad 
had already crossed the Raton mountains and was over the northern bound- 
ary of Xew Mexico, and would so centralize business centers, calling for 
another removal of the county seat of Colfax county. As before, it fell 
upon M. W. Mills to head the proposition, who went to the legislature, 
securing the removal to the town of Springer. At this time Mills was 
county attorney, and a little later district attorney for Northern Xew Mex- 
ico. The better class of people began to say among themselves, and to con- 
gratulate themselves that the days of mob law and terrors of desperadoes 
were things of the past, but their congratulations came quite too previous as 
it turned out. A party of outlaws got together under the leadership of a 
voung cowboy fellow, by the name of Dick Rogers, a party of thirty or 
forty, who appropriated to themselves about what they wanted. They be- 
gan to board the trains, walking back and forth through the cars with their 
big hats, spurs, chaparral, pistols, etc., alarming the passengers, intimidat- 
ing the people again, in the old fashioned way. A new sheriff had been 
elected, largely by efforts of M. W. Mills, by name of John Hixenbaugh, 
and a militia company organized under the leadership of a man by the 
name of Matherson. But the Dick Rogers gang took possession of them 
and all their munitions of war early one morning when first starting out, 
marching- some of them over the Raton mountains into Colorado. The new 


sheriff attempting to arrest some outlaws had got shot, and his principal 
under-sheriff, Jesse Lee, after the militia had been captured, took charge 
of the court house and jail at Springer, who along with a fellow called 
Dirty Dick made a stand against the Dick Rogers gang of outlaws to keep 
them from liberating some prisoners they wanted in jail. At that time 
Rogers with a party of thirty or forty went to the office of the district attor- 
ney and demanded of him that the prisoners be liberated. Upon being re- 
fused they gave notice, all being heavily armed and equipped for warfare, 
that unless the prisoners should be turned loose, the district attorney and 
other officers would be transformed into cold corpses before morning. The 
next morning, very early, an attack was made on the jail by Rogers' party, 
who were repulsed by Jesse Lee and his comrade, Dick Rogers, and two 
others shot and killed, while others were wounded and their horses shot 
from under them. These outlaws had many friends who began to gather 
at Springer until a thousand or so of demonstrative, threatening, frenzied 
people were on the ground. The telegraph office was surrounded, so that 
District Attorney Mills could not wire the governor at Santa Fe, and then 
Mills took his private conveyance, ran the horses twenty-five miles to Wagon 
Mound, telegraphing to Governor Sheldon at Santa Fe, and General Pope 
at Leavenworth, Kansas, and succeeded, with the aid of Chas. Dyer, Santa 
Fe Superintendent, in getting United States soldiers on the ground before 
the mob reached the court house with wagons of baled hay saturated with 
coal oil to fire and tumble into that structure. The soldiers took the under- 
sheriff and his deputy before Chief Justice Axtel. A grand jury was organ- 
ized, many indictments and convictions followed, prosecuted by the district 
attorney, with Jesse Lee and his companion tried and turned loose. 

Shortly after this time, Mr. Mills becoming tired of this strenuous 
life, gave up for the most part his practice and his official life, devoting him- 
self to the looking after a lot of investments in ranches and other enter- 
prises ; principally horse, cattle, and fruit ranches. After having these 
properties very successfully developed into a paying investment, resort, and 
retirement places, the flood of 1904 came, sweeping away orchards, ditches, 
fences, buildings, and extensive improvements valued at hundreds of thou- 
sands of dollars — the work of a whole life time swept away, — and now, for 
the most part, he is still engaged in rebuilding and restoring these prop- 
erties. Mr. Mills was married in 1877 ; not having any children, he adopted 
four as his own children. His mother and wife (Ella E. Mills) are still 
living, his father having died in 1903. 

Louis Garcia, postmaster of Springer, Colfax county, New Mexico, 
was born seventy miles southeast of Albuquerque, near Manzano, Septem- 
ber 25, 1873, son of Juan Garcia and Francisca (Padilla) de Garcia. His 
father, a minister of the Spanish Methodist Episcopal church, for many 
years preached on the circuit embracing Manzano and wielded an influence 
that was felt for good far and wide in the locality in which he labored. 
He died in 1897. Mr. Garcia's mother is still living. He has three brothers 
and two sisters, all married and living in New Mexico. 

At the age of six or seven years Mr. Garcia came to live with his 
uncle. Rev. Benito Garcia, of Ciruelita, Mora county. New Mexico, the 
first ordained Spanish Methodist minister in the world so far as we know. 

Louis Garcia was educated in the Mission school, under Mrs. Thomas 
Harwood, at Tiptonville. New Mexico, and when he started out in the 


business world it was to work in a printing office at Wagon Mound, the 
office in which La Flecha (The Arrow) was printed, under the manage- 
ment of W. T. Henderson. The publication of this paper has been dis- 
continued. After remaining- there seven or eight months, young Garcia 
worked at his trade on other papers, among them El Abogado Cristnmo. 
published at Albuquerque, Socorro ( hicftain. Raton Range and Colfax 
County Stockman. He was employed in the Raton Range for about ten 
years — Capt. G. W. Collier was editor of the paper at that time — and con- 
tinued thus occupied until he was appointed postmaster of Springer, April 
18, 1903. Springer was at that time a third-class office. July 14. 1905, it was 
recommissioned as a fourth-class office. 

Mr. Garcia is a member of the Knights of Pythias and the Woodmen 
of the World. Politically he is a Republican, and he has served as inter- 
preter in the Republican county convention of Colfax county. 

October 22, 1896, he married Miss Lucinda Arellano, at Springer, 
New Mexico, and they have one daughter, Fabiola Elminda, living, and 
a son and daughter dead. They are members of the Spanish Methodist 
Episcopal church. 

Marion Littrell, sheriff of Colfax county, New Mexico, was born in 
Carroll county. Arkansas, February i. 1855, son °f John C. and Miranda 
(Howard) Littrell. About 1862 or '63 the family moved to Missouri and 
located near Springfield, where they remained until the close of the Civil 
war, when they returned to Arkansas. Being a northern sympathizer, 
John C. Littrell suffered on account of numerous depredations in Arkan- 
sas before he took his family to Missouri. 

His father, a farmer, Marion Littrell, early became familiar with all 
the details of ranch life. From 1869 until 1873 ne was m Texas, the 
latter part of that time on a cattle ranch, and in 1873 he came to New 
Mexico, driving a herd of cattle for a man named Cox, and that yearspent 
some time on the Una de Gato creek. The next year he returned to Texas 
and came back with more cattle, and continued in the employ of Mr. Cox 
until the latter moved to the San Juan country, about 1877. In the mean- 
time young Littrell had saved his earnings and invested in cattle, accu- 
mulating a nice little bunch. The next two or three years he worked. for 
Dr. Wilson L. South and others. About 1881 he entered the employ of 
the Maxwell Land Grant Company, being placed in charge of their round- 
up outfit, and continued thus occupied for twelve years. During this time 
he made his home on the A^ermejo. 

In 1894 Mr Littrell was elected sheriff of Colfax county, at the end 
of his term was re-elected, and served four continuous years as sheriff. 
Again, in the fall of 1902, he was the choice for sheriff, and was again re- 
elected at the end of his term. A man of cool nerve and daring courage, 
as sheriff he is the right man in the right place. Between his official 
terms Mr. Littrell was engaged in stockraising on land leased of the Max- 
well Company, which he finally bought. This land, 9,000 acres on the 
Vermejo, lie sold to William Rustin in August, 1903. He owns real es- 
tate in Raton, where he lives, and is a stockholder in the First National 
Bank of this place. Formerly he was a stockholder and director in the old 
Citizens' Bank, which he helped to organize. 

Mr. Littrell has always been a Republican. Fraternally he is both a 
Mason and an Elk. He is a member of Gate City Lodge, No. 11, A. F. 


& A. M.j and has also taken the chapter degrees. While living on the 
Vermejo he served as a member of the school board. 

September 19, 1879, Mr. Littrell married Miss Carrie C. Gale, a na- 
tive of Ohio, but reared in Illinois, and they have five children living, viz. : 
Violet May, wife of George Warden, a merchant of Springer, New Mex- 
ico ; and Ollie, Roy, Carmelia and Mation, at home. 

William Albert Chapman, county surveyor of Colfax county. New 
Mexico, was born in Maiden, Massachusetts, June 2, 1861, son of John 
W. and Agnes (Allen) Chapman. His father was killed in a wreck on 
the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, at Angola, New York, in December, 
1868; his mother died October 1, 1867, and thus at an early age William 
A. was left to the care of a guardian. He was educated in Allen's Eng- 
lish and Classical School at West Newton, Massachusetts, and at High- 
land Military Academy. Worcester, Massachusetts, where he graduated. 
Afterward he attended Croton Military Institute, Croton, New York, and 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1883. on account of failing 
health he sought a change of climate and came to San Marcial, Xew Mex- 
ico, where he remained until 1887, engaged in the cattle business, and 
where he was si> unfortunate as to lose everything he had. In 1887 he 
came to Raton and worked at anything he could get; was transit man for 
L. S. Preston, surveyor for the Maxwell Land Grant Co.; taught school 
at Catskill, Elizabethtown and Ponil Park in Moreno Valley; in 1898 was 
elected county superintendent of schools, to which office he was twice re- 
elected, and at the end of his third term declined renomination, his last 
term ending January, 1, 1904. In 1900 he was president of the Terri- 
torial Educational Association. He was elected county surveyor in the 
fall of 1904. Previous to this, while teaching, in 1895, he filled the office 
of count}' survevor. Since January. 1905, he has been a member of the 
school board ; is also a member of the examining board for Colfax county. 

Mr. Chapman has been a Mason since the first year of his residence 
in New Mexico, having received the degrees in Hiram Lodge No. 13 at 
San Marcial; is now a member of Gate City Lodge, A. F. & A. M. ; Raton 
Chapter No. 6, R. A. M.. and Aztec Commandery No. 5. He was first 
lieutenant of the Third Regiment of Cavalry. New Mexico National 
Guards, commissioned October 29, 1887, by Governor Ross, and served 
throughout his administration. Politically he has always been a Demo- 
crat. At the spring election of 1906 he was elected city clerk for a two- 
year term, and in May of the same vear was appointed city engineer by 
"Mayor McAuliffe. 

August 3. 1899, Mr. Chapman married Lottie Manville, a native of 
Bayard. Iowa, and they have one son, Manville Chapman. 

Manuel M. Salazar, a merchant of Springer, was born in Puertecito, 
San Miguel county. New Mexico, December 10, 1854, and is a son of 
Tomas and Margarita (Sandoval) Salazar. Toribio Salazar. his great- 
grandfather, was married to Apolinaria Gutierrez (otherwise known as 
Na Zarquita). Thev located at Puertecito, San Miguel county, now Sena, 
in 1826 and there their son, Juan Jose Salazar. was married to Rita Mar- 
tinez. She was the daughter of Francisco Martin, a son of Antonio Mar- 
tin, who married Ana Maria Cruz. Francisco Martin married Marta 
Lucero and his death occurred in 1863, while his wife died in 1865. They 
had several children, including Rita Martinez, who became the wife of 

yy % ^Jtlyf^-^v^v^y^ 


Juan Jose Salazar. His death occurred in 1863, while his wife passed 
away in 1868. It will be noticed that there is a different form of spelling 
in the above record as Martin and Martinez. The proper surname is Mar- 
tinez, while the name Martin is really a given name, but the Spanish form 
has frequently been dropped for the English. 

In research amid the annals of the maternal ancestry of Manuel M. 
Salazar it is found that his great-great-grandfather, Miguel ( Irtiz, was 
married to Na Juanica, believed to have been Juana Lopez. They only 
had one child, Juan Christobal Ortiz, who died at Santa Fe, New Mex- 
ico, in 1837. He was married to Josefa Lobato, who died at Santa Fe, New 
Mexico, in 1825. They had several children, including Martina Ortiz, wdio 
was married to Mateo Sandoval, who was born in 1801 and was a son of 
Antonio and Marta (Garcia) Sandoval. The former died in 1842 and the 
latter in 1848. Their son Mateo, as before stated, married Martina Ortiz. 
He died at Santa Fe in 1861 and was buried in St. Michael's church cem- 
etery, while his wife died at Sweetwater, Colfax county. New Mexico, in 
1889. They had several children, including Margarita Sandoval, who 
was born at Santa Fe, New Mexico, February 22. 1832. She gave her 
hand in marriage to Tomas Salazar at Mora, New Mexico, in November, 
1853. and their only child is the subject of this review. Tomas Salazar, 
who was born November 21, 1832, died November 6, 1897, and is still 
survived by his widow, who has reached the age of seventy-four years. 
Tomas Salazar was a first lieutenant in the United States army, holding a 
commission from Miguel Otero, father of ex-governor M. A. Otero, then 
secretary of the Territory. He participated in the battle of Val Verde. 
The last years of his life were spent in stock raising in Sweetwater valley. 

Manuel M. Salazar remained a resident of San Miguel county until 
twenty years of age, when in 1874 he went to Mora county, where he be- 
came a teacher in the Spanish schools. On the 28th of February, 1878, 
he removed to Rayado, where he continued to teach for three vears and was 
a part of the time in the clerk's office at Cimarron. In 1881 he went to 
Springer to become deputy county clerk under John Lee" and in 1884 was 
chosen by popular suffrage to the office of county clerk of Colfax county, 
being the second clerk elected. He served in that capacity until January 
1. 1895. when he was succeeded by A. C. Guiterrez. Upon the expiration 
of another term on the 1st of January, 1897, ^ fr - Salazar was again 
elected, serving until January I, 1899. being elected in 1898 by over six 
hundred majority. On account of the contest between Springer and 
Raton for the removal of the county seat Mr. Salazar was summarilv re- 
moved from office by Governor Otero, which was a strictly partisan meas- 
ure. In 1895 he had established a mercantile business, which he has since 

On the 27th of October, 1881, Mr. Salazar was married to Fannie 
Warder, who was born in Golondrinas. Mora county and is a descendant 
of the old and prominent Shotwell family of Missouri. Their living chil- 
dren are: Thomas A., Agnes, Fannie, Manuel, Sophia, Esther. Rosa and 
Eliodoro. Mr. Salazar is a member of St. Joseph's Roman Catholic church 
which was established in 1881. In 1895-6 'be was a member of the school 
board and he is deeplv interested in community affairs, co-operating heart- 
ily and zealously in many movements for the general good. 

William D. Kershner, interested in mining operations in the vicinity 


of Raton, where he makes his home, was born in Bond county, Illinois, 
and became a resident of this Territory in 1883. In the following year he 
secured a position of cow puncher on the Dorsey ranch, where he was em- 
ployed until 1885. He was working in the southern part of the Territory 
during the Apache Indian war and in 1887 returned to Raton. He made 
three trips over the old trail from Texas to Cheyenne, Wyoming, for the 
Ute Cattle Company and following his return took part in the fight at 
Stonewall, concerning the Maxwell land grant. In 1890 he entered the 
employ of the Maxwell Land Grant Company as special officer and deputy 
sheriff and was thus engaged until 1894 when, in connection with W. E. 
Hughes, he established a saloon in Raton, carrying on business for about 
eleven years, or until the fall of 1905, when he sold out. He is now inter- 
ested in mining on Red river. Mr. Kershner has a family of four chil- 
dren and belongs to Raton Lodge No. 815, B. P. O. E. 

Frank Arnold Hill, postmaster of the town of Raton, was born in 
Livingston county. Missouri, September 13, 1868, son of Amos L. and 
Cordelia (Arnold) Hill. He remained in his native state until he was 
seventeen, when he went to Wyoming as a cow boy, and for nearly ten 
years he enjoyed the wild, free life of the plains. September 8, 1895. he 
landed in Raton, Xew Mexico, and bought H. H. Butler's harness shop. 
This business he conducted until the opening of the Spanish-American war, 
when, April 29. 1898, he enlisted at Raton for the war. He was mus- 
tered in at Santa Fe on May 2nd of that year, as a saddler in Troop G, 
Rough Riders, under Capt. W. H. H. Llewellyn. They sailed from Port 
Tampa for Cuba on the Yucatan June 13, 1898. He remained in the 
service until the close of the war, when, in September, 1898, he was mus- 
tered out. as sergeant, at Camp Wyckoff, Long Island, Xew York. Among 
the engagements in which he participated were the fight of June 24th at 
Las Guasimas, the battles of Kettle Hill and San Juan Hill, July 1 to 4, 
and the surrender on July 17th. He was with the soldiers who made the 
voyage to Xew York on the steamer Miami, sailing August 8th. 

From Xew York Mr. Hill came brick to Xew Mexico. He sold his 
business in Raton and soon afterward became under sheriff, a position he 
filled for six years, until he was commissioned postmaster, April 18, 1904, 
by President Roosevelt. 

For years Mr. Hill has taken an active part in political affairs in his 
locality, giving his stanch support always to the Republican party. Fra- 
ternally he is a member of the Elks Lodge at Las Vegas. 

Mr. Hill was married October 7, 1903, to Miss Amelia C. Weaver. 
3 native of Brooklyn, Xew York. 

Robert Kruger, city marshal of Raton, who was formerly connected 
with industrial interests" of the city, is a native of Hanover, Germany, and 
came to the United States in 1869. He was for eighteen years engaged 
in general merchandising at Mitchell. Illinois, where he conducted a good 
store, and later he carried on general farming in York county, Xebraska. 
On the 6th of January. 1896, he arrived in Raton, where he had charge 
of the throttle and steam pipes on the engines in the Santa Fe railroad 
shops. He there remained for four years and was recognized as a 
capable employe of the railroad company. In April, 1899, ' le was a P" 
pointed marshal of Raton bv Mayor Shuler and has filled the position 
continuously since, discharging his duties without fear or favor and with 


marked promptness and fidelity. He has also been street commissioner 
and sewer inspector and was elected constable for three different terms. 

Mr. Kruger is married and has a family of four grown children. 
He is a member of Raton Lodge No. 865, B. P. O. E. He has gained a 
wide and favorable acquaintance during the ten years of his residence 
in Raton and has proved a very capable and trustworthy city official. 

Josiah A. Rush, proprietor and manager of the Rush Lumber Com- 
pany, Raton, Colfax county, became a resident of this Territory in 1887. 
That year he located at Springer, as manager for Hughes Brothers' 
Lumber Company, and remained there until the fall of 1890, when he 
came to Raton, where he has since made his home. He continued as 
manager for Hughes Brothers till he bought them out in 1903, since 
which time the business has been conducted under the name of the Rush 
Lumber Company. 

Mr. Rush is a native of McDonough county, Illinois, the date of his 
birth being Aug. 6, 1858. His early life was passed on a farm in Illinois 
and his education obtained in the district schools. April 11, 1886, the 
year before he came west, he married Miss Emma Mitchell, daughter of 
Theophilus and Alpha (Riggs) Mitchell; and they have two sons and 
two daughters, namely. Laura, Roy, Harry and Florence. 

Politically Mr. Rush is a Democrat. During the fifteen years he 
has resided in Raton he has taken an active part in promoting the best 
interests of the city. He served one term as a member of the city coun- 
cil, from the first ward, elected on the citizens' ticket, and in 1899 he was 
a member of the school board. 

For nearly twenty-five years William F. Degner has been a resident 
of Xew Afexico. the most of this time identified with Raton, where he 
has acquired valuable property, and is ranked with the representative 
citizens of the town. He was born in Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Germany, 
January 1, 1859, and in his native land spent the first seven years of 
his life. Then the family emigrated to America. From Cleveland, 
Ohio, in 1881 he came to New Mexico, locating first at Springer. Six 
months later he came to Raton, where he has, since that date, been in 
business, and has met with prosperity. From time to time he has made 
valuable investments, including much city property, and land south of 
Raton ; and he is a director and stockholder in the First National Bank 
of Raton. 

For a number of years Mr. Degner has been an active member of 
Raton Lodge, I. O. O. F.. No. 8, in which he has filled all the chairs; 
and has also been a delegate to the Grand Lodge. 

A. S. Neff, for the past eight years engaged in the grocery business 
at Raton. New Mexico, has had an eventful life in manv respects. Mr. 
Neff was born in Ohio. July 11, 1844. and passed his boyhood on a farm, 
receiving his education in the district schools. At the time the Civil 
war broke out he was a youth of seventeen, ambitious and patriotic, and 
when the call was made for volunteers he was not slow to respond. En- 
listing as a member of Company B, Seventh Iowa Volunteer Infantry, 
he served until the close of his term, when he was honorably discharged. 
Afterward he re-enlisted, becoming a member of Company B, Fortieth 
Iowa Volunteer Infantry, the fortunes, of which he shared until the 
close of the war. His army service took him into many states, on hard 


marches and in numerous engagements, among them being the Arkansas 
campaign. Fort Donelson, Gainesville, siege of Yicksburg and capture 
of Little Rock. Three times he was wounded. To present a detailed 
record of his army life would be to write a history that would cover 
many pages and include much that has been written of the Civil war. 
Suffice it to say in this connection, that Mr. Neff proved himself a .brave, 
true soldier from the time he entered the ranks until he received his final 
discharge at the close of hostilities. 

Until 1873 Mr. Xeff's occupation was farming. That year he went 
overland to Arizona, following the old Dick Wootton trail, and for seven 
years he was a prospector. During this time he had many wild and in- 
teresting experiences. In 1873, while on a trip from Amarron to Fort 
Wingate, lie ami his part)- rode with guns in their hands as protection 
against the roving Indians. The authorities at the fort would not let 
them proceed from that point without an escort. As a result of his pros- 
pecting, he returned to Kansas with some money, and there he again 
settled down on a farm; but on account of bad crops and bad luck he 
Inst all he had accumulated. Afterward he assisted in building the first 
railroad line through Indian Territory; in 1883. as a grading contractor, 
he was located at Catskill, New Mexico, employed on a branch of the 
Santa Fe railroad, from the main line to Catskill ; next was engaged in 
stock raising, in Spring Canyon, near Colfax. New Mexico, and not far 
from the Colorado line, where he remained three years, after which he 
sold out and spent the next two years in the same business in Indian 
Territory, also doing some farming at the latter place. He returned to 
New Mexico in 1894 and located at Raton, where he carried on freight- 
ing business till 1897. Since the latter date he has conducted a grocery 
business, meeting with prosperity here and acquiring valuable real estate 
in the town. 

Mr. Neff is a member of the Raton Commercial Club, and politically 
has always been a Republican. He was married at Fort Smith, Arkansas, 
in 1865, to Miss Sarah C. Wright, and they have four children, namely: 
Anne E., wife of W. P. Graham, of Oklahoma ; Wynona Leona, wife of 
Abe. Hipenbaugh, of Dawson, New Mexico ; and Arthur S. and Wyatt 
T., both of Raton. 

S. A. Wiseman, a contractor and builder of Raton, whose business 
activity has been a valued factor in the development and improvement of 
this city, was horn in Indiana. February 24, 1859, and was reared to farm 
life in Kansas. He began contracting in Raton in 1891, in which year 
he first came to New Mexico, and has since remained in this city, doing 
a growing and profitable business as a stone and brick contractor. He 
is the owner of considerable real estate, developing the northwestern part 
of the city, where he has an addition. Through his efforts unsightly 
vacancies have been converted into fine residence property and he is 
recognized today as one of the leaders in his line of business activity in 
the county. Moreover, he is interested in public affairs to the extent of 
giving helpful co-operation to man)" movements, which have been of 
direct benefit to the town and count)-. 

M. R. Mendelson. a representative of commercial and financial in- 
terests in Raton, whose business interests make him a leading citizen, 
was horn September 27, 1861, in Kletzew, Poland. He was educated 

ts. e& 




in Posen, Germany, and came to the United States in 1884. He crossed 
the Atlantic, to become an American citizen and took out his naturaliza- 
tion papers at the first possible moment. After serving a three years' 
apprenticeship in the dry goods business he conducted a shoestore in 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, for one year and on selling out there removed to 
North Dakota, where he engaged in general merchandising for two years. 
He afterward traveled through the Territory for ten or twelve years, 
representing the house of Edson Keith & Company, of Chicago. He 
considers New Mexico as one of the most progressive parts of the United 
States, for during his entire experience as a traveling salesman in this 
Territory he has never lost a dollar in doing business. Being pleased with 
Raton and its future prospects he located here August 14, 1896, and 
established the firm of Newman & Mendelson. dealers in general mer- 
chandise. That success attended their efforts is indicated by the fact 
that in August. 1901, they erected a commodius building in which to 
carry on their large and growing trade and in 1898 Mr. Mendelson ac- 
quired sole ownership of the business which he is now conducting. He 
was also a stockholder in the Citizens National Bank of Raton, and now 
holds stock in the First National Bank. He was largely financially in- 
terested and also a director in the Raton Building & Loan Association and 
he does an extensive city real estate and loan business, and in addition 
owns four hundred acres of ranch land on Sugarite river. 

In 1890 Mr. Mendelson was married to Miss Rebecca C. Apple, a 
daughter of Captain Jacob Apple, of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and their 
children are Margaret and Gertrude Mendelson. Mr. Mendelson belongs 
to Harmony Lodge No. 6, K. P., and to the Fraternal Brotherhood Lodge 
No. 80. His faith in New Mexico has been justified by his business suc- 
cess which has resulted from close application, earnest effort and sound 

M. M. Chase, a rancher at Cimarron, Colfax county, was born in 
Rock county, Wisconsin, October 8, 1842, and was there educated. He 
started west in 1857 when only fifteen years of age, making his way to 
California. He traveled with a party, but the Indians captured their outfit 
and only nine men in the train escaped. There were thirty-seven altogether 
in the party who traveled westward with a wagon train until they were at- 
tacked by Sioux Indians. The survivors of the party managed to return 
to the states, and Mr. Chase lived in the middle west until i860, when he 
went to Colorado and engaged in the meat business. He first made his wax- 
to the Gregory diggings, now Central City. Colorado, where he engaged 
in mining to a limited extent, but in 1861 took a contract for furnishing 
beef to the United States troops and removed to Denver, where he con- 
tinued in the meat business until his arrival in New Mexico in June. 1867, 
when he purchased a ranch and located on the Vermejo river. Subse- 
quently he sold that property and took a claim, but on account of the In- 
dians, who rendered life and property insecure, he purchased his present 
place — the old Kit Carson homestead — in 1872. 

In the meantime Mr. Chase had been married in 1861, at Central City, 
Colorado, to Miss Theresa M. Wade. After the removal to New Mexico 
Mrs. Giase and three other white women in Colfax and Union counties 
purchased from the Maxwell company nine hundred and sixty acres of land, 
and later nine hundred and sixty acres more. Mr. Giase engaged in the 


cattle business on the Vermejo, where he continued for a quarter of a 
century. It was a wild country, in which the work of improvement and 
development had scarcely been begun. Among his neighbors were Mr. 
and Mrs. Hogue, and during the absence of the husband the Indians cap- 
tured the wife. Hastily securing the assistance of the settlers, a party 
started in pursuit, but their horses gave out before they had come up with 
the red men. Mr. Hogue, however, insisted on going on and at length 
reached Denver, where he committed suicide. General Custer, however, 
captured Mrs. Hogue and returned her in safetv to the Southern Hotel in 
St. Louis. Mr. Chase is very familiar with the history of pioneer experi- 
ences in this part of the country and relates many interesting incidents of 
the early days. He says that Si Huff was the first man to drive a herd of 
cattle from northwestern Texas. Mr. Chase went to Pecos to meet Huff 
with the cattle, and on returning to Las Vegas received a telegram that the 
Indians had surrounded Cimarron and were demanding their just rations, 
which had been stolen by the commissary department. This was in 1876. 
Ir'vin, who was in charge of the agency, wired the family in town to go 
home in a covered wagon. Thev reached the Cimarron hill and told the 
Indians that supplies would be run out according to their demands. The 
Utes and Apaches were the Indians who lived in this locality and they 
were the only protection from hostile tribes who resided elsewhere. 

For sometime Mr. Chase engaged in the cattle business and found it 
profitable, and he also gave considerable attention to the sheep industry, 
but in 1901 sold his sheep and the Horseshoe ranch. In 1873 he planted 
an orchard, setting out at first two hundred and fifty trees. He afterward 
enlarged his orchards until he had seventy-six acres in fruit, mostly apples 
and pears, and the average crops amounted to five hundred thousand pounds 
yearly. He also placed five hundred acres of land under irrigation and 
engaged in the raising of oats, alfalfa and barley. All through the years 
he continued actively in the cattle business and was connected with the first 
cattle company, known as the Cimarron Cattle Company. 

Unto Mr. and Airs. Chase were born the following sons and daughters : 
Lottie, the deceased wife of Charles Springer ; Nason G. : Laura, the wife 
of Dr. C. B Kohlhausen ; Ida, the wife of H. P. England; Mary, the sec- 
ond wife of Charles Springer ; and Stanley M. In former years Mr. Chase 
was a Mason and acted as master of Cimarron lodge. In politics he was 
an active but independent voter. He is well known as a prominent pioneer 
resident of the Territory, his identification with its interests dating back 
to a very early period in its progress. His mind bears the impress of the 
early and picturesque times when the red men rode over the prairies and 
across the ranges, stealing: cattle and other stock and rendering life inse- 
cure. On the° other hand the pioneers displayed great personal courage 
and bravery in defending their interests and the warfare was one between 
barbarism and civilization, in which the latter has eventually come off con- 
querer in the strife. 

Henry Lambert, of Cimarron, Colfax county, was born in France, 
October 28. 1838, and when twelve years of age ran away from home, after 
which he learned cooking at Havre. He came to the United States in 
1 861, deserting from a French sailing vessel. For a year he was employed 
in working on a submarine boat in Pennsylvania, and thence sailed on a 
packet ship to Liverpool, but returned after three months. He afterward 


became a member of the northern navy as captain's steward. When he 
had beer, employed in that way for three months he deserted and went to 
Montevideo, South America. He traveled for some time on that conti- 
nent, acting as cook with a circus, but returning to the coast he shipped to 
Portland, Maine, thence went to New York and afterward to Washington, 
D. C. He spent two months in the capital city cooking for the Fifth Army 
Corps, and for one month he cooked for General Grant. Later he went to 
North Carolina, but returned to the army as cook for the Fifth Corps under 
General Warren. He afterward conducted a restaurant in Petersburg, 
Virginia, after which he came to the southwest, arriving in New Mexico 
in May, 1868. He located first at Elizabethtown because of the gold ex- 
citement and spent six months in placer mining. He conducted the second 
hotel in the town, remaining its proprietor until 1871, and in the fall of 
that year he went to Cimarron, where he purchased a place from Grant. 
In 1880 he built the St. James Hotel, which he completed in 1882. and has 
since been its proprietor. He also owns an old ranch on Ute Creek of 
six hundred and forty acres, on which he raised cattle for a number of 
years, beginning in 1890. He also owns mining property in the Cimarron 
district. He has been identified with many important events which are 
epochal in the history of his section of New Mexico. He caught the des- 
peradoes, Mills and Donoghue, in his house. Ponchoe's nephew, who car- 
ried the mail, was hanged until told who paid the money, and said that 
Mills, Donoghue and Longwell were the culprits, while a big Mexican did 
the shooting. They caught him in Taos, but the trial was never com- 

In 1868 Mr. Lambert was joined in wedlock at Petersburg, Virginia, 
to Miss Schmidt, who died in 1882. Mr. Lambert was again married in 
1883 to Miss Mary Davis, at Liberty, Missouri, and their children are: 
William, now at Dawson: Frank. Fred. Eugene, and John, who died at the 
age of two years. 

Thomas Clouser. of Elizabethtown. Xew Mexico, who for fifteen or 
sixteen years has been a mining prospector of this part of the territory, was 
born in Bloomfield. Perry county, Pennsylvania, about twenty-eight miles 
from Harrisburg, March 7. 1845. ar >d was reared on his grandfather's farm. 
He was a youth of seventeen years, when, in June, 1852, he enlisted for 
nine months' service in the Union Army as a member of the One Hundred 
and Thirty-third Pennsylvania Infantry, participating in the battles of 
Antietam. Fredericksburg. Chancellorsviile and others of minor importance. 
After a few months spent at home, following the expiration of his first 
term, he re-enlisted, in January, 1864, in the One Hundred and Twenty- 
third Pennsylvania Infantry, and did detached service until honorably dis- 
charged, in Philadelphia. August 28. 1865. the war having ended. 

Returning home Mr. Clouser became imbued with a desire to seek a 
home in the west, and with a friend left Harrisburg April 13, 1866, for 
Leavenworth. Kansas, intending to go to Montana, but instead went to 
Tunction City and accompanied one of Ben Holliday's ox-trains to Denver, 
driving a team in order to pay his way. In the spring of 1868. he started 
for Elizabethtown, New Mexico, arriving at Cimarron late in April, and 
two weeks later reaching his destination. Since then he has remained in 
this vicinitv. making Elizabethtown his home. He worked in a sawmill 
from May until September, and then spent some time prospecting in the 


mountains. Several lumber mills were in operation in northeastern New 
Mexico at that time, and he worked in the Hibbard lumber camps for a 
while. In the spring of 1869 he returned to Elizabethtown, and for a 
number of years worked in the shoeshop of Mr. Salisbury, whom he then 
bought out. continuing in the business for several years. He then sold the 
business, but later purchased it again. Subsequently he went to Silver 
City, and upon his return to Elizabethtown opened a shoeshop, which he 
conducted for three or four years. He has since engaged in prospecting. 
Frederick Rohr, for more than two decades a resident of Raton, all 
this time engaged in the butcher business, is one of the well known citizens 
.if the town. Mr. Rohr is a German. He was born in Lichtenau. county 
Kehl, Baden, Germany. March 23. 1863, and spent his youthful days at- 
tending school in the old country. He came to the United States in 1878, 
locating first in Auglaize countv. Ohio. In 1882 he came to New Mexico, 
and at Raton entered the employ of Williams & Fitch, butchers, for 
whom he worked two years. The next year he had a meat market of his 
own at Blossburg, New Mexico. In 18R5 he returned to Raton and formed 
a partnership with W. F. Degner, in the butcher business, under the firm 
name of Degner & Rohr. which continued for two years, at the end of 
which time Mr. Rohr purchased the interest of his partner, and has since 
conducted the business in his own name, keeping a first class meat market, 
up-to-date in every respect. At different times he has invested in real 
estate in Raton and is today the owner of much valuable city property. 

For years Mr. Rohr has taken a deep interest in Masonry. He is 
a member of Gate City Lodge No. 11, A. F. & A. M., in which he has 
the honor to be a past master. Also he is a Knight Templar. Mr. Rohr 
married, April 28. 1886, Miss Magdelena Shulemeister, and to them have 
been given seven children, namely : Charles M., Frederick C, Christine. 
William, John, Sophia and Lena. 

David Howarth. a rancher of Raton. Colfax county, was born in Meigs 
county, Ohio. Januarv 27. 1846. and after acquiring a public school edu- 
cation was engaged in coal mining in Illinois until 1864, when he went 
to Colorado on a prospecting tour. He engaged in mining in that state 
until 1876, when he went to the Flack Hills just after the Custer massacre. 
There he was engaged in mining gold for a time, but returned later to 
Colorado and in 1880 came to New Mexico, settling first at Blossburg. 
After three weeks there passed, however, he continued southward in the 
Territory to Silver City on a prospecting trip. In 1882 he returned to 
Blossburg and was employed in the coal mines until he returned to the 
east. After a summer passed elsewhere, however, he again came to New 
Mexico in 1886 and worked through the four succeeding- years in the 
mines. He then established a merchandise business in Blossburg. which 
he conducted ten years, after which he sold out to the Maxwell Land 
Grant Company, and purchased a ranch two and a half miles southeast 
of Raton comprising six hundred and thirtv-eight acres. He has eighty 
acres under irrigation and finds that the soil is very productive. He also 
raises some cattle and horses. 

Mr. Howarth was married in Blossburg in 1888 to Miss Annie Pieper, 
of Kentucky, and their children are: Fred. Barbara. Anna, Emma, Evelyn 
and a baby. Mr. Howarth is a Mason, belonging to Cassville (Kentucky) 
Lodge No. 168, A. F. & A. M., and his military experience covers a serv- 


ice with Company K of the Eighth Missouri Infantry of the Confederate 
army in the Civil war. 

Charles Rohr, proprietor of a meat market at Raton, Colfax county, 
lias in his make-up the characteristics which have insured success to so 
many of his countrymen in America. Mr. Rohr was born in Baden, Ger- 
many, October 30, 1869, and was educated in the public schools of his 
native land. In April, 1887, he came to New York, and four months 
later continued his way westward to Raton, New Mexico, where his older 
brother had already located and was engaged in business under the firm 
name of Degner & Rohr, butchers. Charles entered their employ and 
learned the trade, and remained here thus occupied until 1890. That year 
he went to Blossburg, New Mexico, and started a shop of his own, which 
he ran for three years. Then he returned to Raton and soon afterward 
went back to Germany, spending six months on a visit to his old home 
and other European points. Coming back to America and to New Mexico, 
he worked as butcher for the Raton Coal & Coke Co., at Blossburg. Later 
he spent three years in Kansas. February 17. 1900. he again landed in 
Raton, this time to locate here permanently, and he at once established 
himself in the butcher business, in which he has been successful from the 
start and which he has continued up to the present time. 

In 1896 Mr. Rohr married Miss Carla A. Shulemeister of Blossburg. 
Their union has been blessed in the birth of three children : George, 
Elsie and Elfreida. Mr. Rohr is a Knight of Pythias and an Elk. having 
membership in Harmonv Lodge No. 6, K. of P.. and Raton Lodge No. 
865, B. P. O. E. 

R. L. Pooler, who has been identified with many exciting epochal 
events in the history of New Mexico and is well known as a pioneer and 
Indian fighter, now makes his home in Gardiner, Colfax county. He was 
born in Ohio in 1836 and was reared to farming, but finding that pursuit 
uncongenial he turned his attention to railroading. In 1859 he went to 
Colorado, attracted by the discoveries of gold on Pike's Peak, and when 
he found that he could not, as he had anticipated, rapidly realize a fortune 
there he continued on his westward way to Virginia City, Nevada, where 
he arrived soon after the famous Comstock vein was opened. He had many 
trying, exciting and dangerous experiences with the Indians, and the tales, 
which to the later-day reader seem wildly improbable, were to him mat- 
ters of actual experience. In 1850 he was wintering at Genoa and carry- 
ing the mail six hundred miles from Salt Lake to Carson City, Nevada, 
for it was an era prior to the advent of the Pony Express. He was thus 
engaged on the Major & Russell contract. One of the most difficult Indian 
experiences which he ever had was at Pyramid Lake, Nevada, in i860. 
The Pony Express had just been established when the Indians went upon 
the warpath and desolation followed in their wake at Williams Station, 
where they killed four men and ran off six hundred head of stock. A 
company of one hundred men were raised and started in pursuit with 
Major Ownesby of Canyon Citv in command. On the 12th of May they 
encountered a band of between twelve and fifteen hundred Indians. The 
Americans charged and the Indians retreated into some timber, the white 
men following, and sixty-five of the one hundred were there killed in the 
forest. Ownesby tried to gather the few survivors together to make a 
stand but this could not be done and the only hope for the living was to 


escape on their own resources by retreating. Mr. Pooler, after many 
hair-breadth escapes, succeeded in getting through the surrounding hordes 
and making his way into the mountains, whence he returned to Carson 
City, Nevada. Major Ownesby was killed in the retreat. It was never 
definitely known how many were killed, but this was one of the tragic 
events in the history of the west, resulting in great slaughter. Air. Pooler 
also had many other encounters with the Indians in Nevada and other 
sections of the west, but lived to become a pioneer of New Mexico and 
leave the impress of his individuality upon the early development and 
substantial progress of the Territory. For some time he acted as a scout 
under Captain Payne in Nevada in the vicinity of Kings and Queens rivers 
and was thus engaged in extremely difficult and arduous warfare, which 
involved hardships and dangers unknown to the soldier who can meet his 
foe in open fight. 

Mr. Pooler was married in i86q to a Mrs. Coe, of Nevada, and has 
a daughter, Cora, now the wife of Frank Hadden, of Catskill. In 1867 
he located at Stonewall, Colorado, bought a ranch of one hundred and 
sixty acres and turned his attention to the cattle business, being thus en- 
gaged for many years thereafter. In 1885 or 1886. during the famous 
trouble with the Maxwell Land Grant people and the settlers, he sold out 
to the grant and subsequently purchased a hay ranch of three hundred and 
twenty acres of the grant adjoining the old place. Seven or eight years 
passed and he then disposed of the ranch and his cattle. In the spring 
of 1902 he came to Gardiner and entered the employ of the Raton Coal & 
Coke Company, which he still represents. He is also raising some cattle 
in the Black Lake region and has extensive gold and silver mining prop- 
erty on Bitter Creek, four miles above Red River city. He belongs to 
that class of representative pioneer men to whom civilization will ever 
owe a debt of gratitude, for they blazed the wav into the forests and made 
the first paths over the wild prairies, leaving in their wake the evidence 
of civilization and making possible permanent and safe settlement for 

John C. Taylor, a rancher, and discoverer of the Aztec Mineral Spring 
at Taylor, Colfax county. New Mexico, was born in Elgin. Illinois, June 
15, 1854, son of James S. and Abigail (Colby) Taylor. At the age of 
seven years he moved with his parents from Illinois to Nebraska, where 
they made their home until 1866, when the family again started westward, 
Denver, Colorado, being their objective point. From Denver they went 
to Colorado Springs, where the father engaged in stock ranching. John C. 
remained in Colorado until 1880. That year he came to New Mexico and 
purchased the ranch on which he now lives, from the Maxwell Land 
Grant Company, and here he has since been in the cattle business. Since 
the discovery of the Aztec spring he has been giving some of his time to 
the water business, intending soon to devote his entire attention to it. 
Description of this spring will be found on another page of this work. 

Mr. Tavlor is a Republican. In moo he was elected on the Repub- 
lican ticket to the office of county commissioner of Colfax county for a 
term of two years; was re-elected in 1002, and again in 1904. the last time 
for four rears, the term of office having been extended to that length of 
time. A public-spirited citizen, with the best interests of the county at 
heart, as county commissioner he is the right man in the right place. 


Fraternally Mr. Taylor is an Elk and a Knight of Pythias. He was 
initiated into the mysteries of the B. P. O. E. in Las Vegas Lodge No. 
408, and is one of the charter members of the Elks' organization at Raton. 
His membership in the K. of P. is at Springer. February 5, 1885, Mr. 
Taylor married Miss Ella Black, a native of Oakland, Cole county, Illi- 
nois. They have four children: Ethel, Jacob. Nellie and Ruby. 

George Gratton King, manager of the Aztec Mineral Water Com- 
pany ( incorporated ) . Tavlor. Colfax county, New Mexico, was born in 
Emporia, Kansas. November 22, 1874. son of Patrick and Catherine (Sul- 
livan) King, and was reared and educated in Kansas. In 1891, while 
yet in his teens, he engaged in railroad contract work, as a member of the 
Chase County Stone Company, at Cottonwood Falls, Kansas, and that 
same year came to New Mexico to build the abutments and bridges at 
Cerrillos. He was also engaged in similar work at Las Vegas, and on the 
Santa Fe Railway between Kansas City and Albuquerque, and at the quarry 
at Las Vegas Hot Springs. Afterward he was interested in general con- 
tracting. He still retains an interest in the business, which is now in 
charge of his brother, E. E. Kins". 

In February, 1905, he entered into a partnership with J. C. Taylor, 
of Taylor Springs. New Mexico, and incorporated the Aztec Mineral 
Water Co. The Aztec mineral water is obtained from the Aztec Spring 
located six miles east of Springer, in Colfax county, and the business, al- 
though a new one, promises to be successful. Mr. King is devoting his 
entire attention to it. 

In June, 1897, Mr. King married Anneta Carter, and they have two 
children, John, born March 17, 1898, and Villar, May 9, 1899. 

John Utton, postmaster of Bell, Colfax county. New Mexico, has 
been identified with this localitv for a period of twenty years. Mr. Utton 
is an Englishman by birth. He was born in Oxfordshire, April 23, 1857, 
and spent the first twentv-two years of his life in his native countrv. In 
1879 he came to the United States, and that year located near Pittsburg, 
where he engaged in coal mining for three years. In 1882 he returned to 
England, but after eighteen months he came back to America and again 
sought the mines in Pennsylvania. Six months later we find him in Pana, 
Illinois. The next two years he spent there and in various other places, 
and finally, in 1886, he came to New Mexico. Here for six months he 
worked in the mines of Blossburg. Then he took claim to a tract of land 
on Johnson's mesa, and for several years devoted his summers to the 
improvement and cultivation of his land, and the winter months he spent 
in Blossburg mines. With the exception of three months in 1894, when 
he was in Utah, Mr. Utton has continued to reside on his homestead, 
which now comprises three hundred and twenty acres of land, and on 
which he raises a variety of crops, chiefly oats, wheat, barley and potatoes. 
Also he has a small general store, the only one on the mesa, in connection 
with which he keeps the postoffice, he having been appointed postmaster 
of Bell in 1903. 

Politically Mr. Utton is a Republican. He was initiated into the mys- 
teries of the Knights of Pythias order while at Blossburg, and now has 
membership in the lodge at Raton. June 19, 1901. he married Miss Lulu 
T. English, daughter of C. A. English, an old settler of the mesa, and 


they have two children, Thomas Clyde and Annie Clair. Mrs. Utton is a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal church. 

John Henry Towndrow, for twenty years a rancher on Johnson's 
mesa, in Colfax county, New Mexico, is an Englishman. He was born 
in Derbyshire, England, March 19, 1852, and may be said to have been 
reared in the mines, as he was put to work there before he was eight years 
old. He continued mining in England until 1878, when he came to Amer- 
ica. His first work in this country was in the coal mines at Brazil, Indi- 
ana, where he spent two months. Coming west to Colorado, he was 
eight months in the mines of Trinidad, after which he returned to Indiana 
and resumed work in the Brazil mines, where he remained two years. 
Then again we find him at Trinidad, and from that place, in June, 1882, 
he came to Blossburg. New Mexico. Here he mined four years. In 
June, 1886, he pre-empted a claim of 160 acres and tree-claimed another 
160 acres. That year he built a small house and put up sixty tons of 
wild hay. Then he continued mining for a time, going once a week to 
the ranch. In 1887 he enlarged and improved the house and moved his 
family here, and from that time forward the work of improving and add- 
ing to his original holdings has been carried forward until now Mr. Town- 
drow has 1,400 acres, and his sons have land as follows: Arthur, 640 
acres; Henry, 160; George, 160; William, 160; Richard, 160; Herbert, 
160. His first crops were oats and wheat, and later potatoes, and of recent 
years, while they raise a variety of crops, he and his sons have been giving 
their chief attention to dairying. In a single year he has sold $800 worth 
of butter, the average price being twenty-seven and a half cents per 

Having brought his family to this new home, Mr. Towndrow's next 
care was to secure a school here for his children, and in 1889, largely 
through his efforts, a schoolhouse was built on the mesa. Politically he is 
a Republican ; fraternally, a Knight of Pythias. He was a charter mem- 
ber of the K. of P. lodge at Raton, but now has his membership at Bloss- 
burg. November 28, 1869, Mr. Towndrow married Miss Emma Treese, 
who proved herself a worthy helpmate and shared the joys and sorrows 
of life with him for nearly three decades, until she was called home. July 
21, 1897. Their children are: Arthur, Henry, Joseph, George, William, 
Herbert, John Richard, Mary and Isabella. The last named is the wife 
of William Nisch. 

John R. . Belisle, a farmer on Johnson's mesa, Colfax county. New 
Mexico, his postofnce address being Bell, dates his birth in Bates county, 
Missouri, December 27, 1868. He is a son of William and Millie Par- 
thenia (McClain) Belisle. farmers, and was reared in Bates and St. Clair 
counties. At the age of twenty-one years he came west to New Mexico, 
landing here in August, 1800. The next year he was followed by his 
brother, Marion W., and subsequently by his other six brothers. 

On his arrival in Colfax countv, John R. Belisle was employed on 
the mesa by A. L. Bell, and while thus occupied he took claim to a tract 
of government land, which he "proved up," and which he traded, in No- 
vember, 1900, for his present farm, a tract of four hundred and eighty 
acres. On this place at the time he came into possession, a house had been 
built and some other improvements made. He is continuing the work of 
improvement and devoting his broad acres to general farming and stock 


raising, with the success which his well directed efforts merit. Polit- 
ically Mr. Belisle has always been a Democrat. He served one term as a 
member of the school board, District No. 5. September 24, 1893, he mar- 
ried Miss Rosa E. Dale, daughter of J. P. Dale, who came to this Terri- 
tory the year before Mr. Belisle located here. Three children are the 
fruits of their union, namely: Willie, Mary and John. 

George Honevfield, the owner of a ranch on Johnson's mesa, his post- 
office being Bell, in Colfax county, was born in Dorsetshire, England, in 
1841, and came to the United States in 1862, locating at Johnstown, Penn- 
sylvania, where he worked in the coal mines. He was also similarly em- 
ployed in Allegheny, Armstrong and Venango counties, and in 1871 re- 
moved to Trumbull county, Ohio, where he followed farming and mining 
and also worked at the mason's and plasterer's trades. In 1887 he re- 
moved to Blossburg, Colfax county, New Mexico, and a few months later 
took up a claim on Johnson's mesa, where he has since resided. He was 
one of the first men to make a permanent location there, and put in his first 
crops in 1886. He has contributed in substantial measure to agricultural 
progress and now has one hundred and sixty acres planted to grain and 
potatoes. His political support is given the Republican party, but he has 
never sought office. 

In 1864 Mr. Honevfield was married to Rebecca Saville, of- Armstrong 
county, Pennsylvania. They have reared eight children : Charles, of 
Raton, New Mexico; William and John, who are living on the mesa; Mark, 
also of Raton ; Sarah, the wife of Henry Windier, of the state of Washing- 
ton ; Eliza, the wife of D. L. Strine, of California; Liney, deceased wife of 
Alexander Heck, of Raton ; and Lizzie, the wife of Irving Shirley, living 
on the mesa. 

London D. Moore, a rancher residing eleven miles southeast of Raton, 
New Mexico, has been a resident of this Territory for over twenty-five 
years. Mr. Moore is a native of Tennessee. He was born near Jonesboro, 
that state, in 1857, an( ^ there spent his youth and early manhood. In 1879, 
at the age of twenty-two years, he came west to try his fortune on the 
frontier, and here for fifteen years he was employed as a cow puncher. 
About 1 88 1 he was for a year in the employ of Hon. O. A. Hadley, on 
Eagle Tail ranch. In i8qq he took a homestead claim and previous to that 
time bought a piece of land from the Maxwell Land Grant Company. Al- 
together he now has about ten thousand acres of land, where he lives. 
January 6, 1887, Mr. Moore married Miss Cora Gillespie, also a native of 
Tennessee, and they are the parents of four children, namely : Minnie J., 
Walter W., Ernest L., and an infant at this writing unnamed. 

John Barkely Dawson, a rancher and cattleman, formerly of Colfax 
county, New Mexico, but now living in Colorado, was born in Bourbon 
county, Kentucky, in 1831. He passed through this Territory in 1853 en 
route to California, attracted by the discovery of gold on the Pacific coast. 
He spent the winter of 1859 in New Mexico and drove cattle through the 
Territory from Texas to Colorado until 1867, when he located in Colfax 
county, on the Vermejo Creek. He purchased from the Maxwell Land 
Grant Company twenty-three thousand acres of land, known as the Dawson 
ranch, and the Dawson coal fields and Dawson railroad were named in his 
honor. He continued ranching until igoo, when he sold out to the Dawson 
Fuel Company and removed to Colorado. He now owns a large ranch in 


Routt county, Colorado. He was born a typical frontiersman, and is now- 
located one hundred and twenty miles from a railroad. He left Kentucky 
when a youth with absolutely nothing, and in the midst of an active business 
career, in which he has had to contend with all the hardships, trials and 
vicissitudes of pioneer life, he has steadily worked his way upward, and 
from 1902 until 1904 was president of the Citizens' National Bank, of 
Raton, New Mexico. 

Mr. Dawson has been married three times. His third wife was Miss 
Lavina Jefferson, of Burlington, Iowa, a daughter of an old Virginian fam- 
ily. Their children are: Augustus G. ; Si M. ; Bruce A.; Manley M. ; 
L. Jefferson, who died in 1888; John B., who died in 1888; Edwina, the 
wife of Frederick Whitney, of Waterloo, Iowa; Laura, the wife of Earl 
Wilkins, of Milwaukee, Wisconsin ; and Henry M. Dawson, who died in 

Manley M. Dawson, secretary and treasurer of the Raton Electric 
Light & Power Company, at Raton, New Mexico, was born May 20, 1874, 
in Colfax county, on a ranch near the Yermejo creek, and is the son of 
John Barkley Dawson. He was educated in the public schools of Raton, 
and in Missouri State University at Columbia, Missouri, while eventually 
he was graduated in law at the Northern Indiana Normal School, at Val- 
paraiso, Indiana. He practiced his profession for two years in Denver, 
Colorado, and afterward engaged in the sheep business with his brothers 
for a short time. Returning to Raton, New Mexico, in 1898, he resumed 
the practice of law, in which he continued until elected probate clerk of 
Colfax county in 1900, which position he filled for two years. Cpon his 
retirement from office he became cashier of the Citizens' National Bank of 
Raton, serving from 1902 until 1904. when he became secretary and treas- 
urer of the Raton Electric Light & Power Company, which is his present 
business connection. 

Mr. Dawson was married June 29, 1896, to Miss Grace C. Strong, 
a daughter of Albert M. Strong, of loliet, Illinois, and they have one child, 
Bernice. Mr. Dawson belongs to the Masonic fraternity, having taken the 
degrees of the blue lodge and of Aztec Commandery No. 5, K. T. He is 
also a member of Raton Lodge No. 865, B. P. O. E. 

William F. Ruffner, a merchant of Raton, who has been a resident 
of New Mexico since 1883, was born in Hannibal, Missouri, December 7, 
1855, and is indebted to the public school system of that city for the edu- 
cational privileges he enjoyed. He was reared to farm life in Missouri 
and agriculture remained his chief occupation until his removal to New 
Mexico. He arrived in the Territory in 1883, locating at Raton in the 
service of the Santa Fe Railroad Company, and after about two years he 
embarked in general merchandising in June, 1885, on Front street, con- 
ducting his store for eight years, or until 1893, when he restricted the scope 
of his trade to groceries, queensware and kindred goods. He has since con- 
ducted a grocery store and is enjoying now a large and gratifying patron- 
age. He spent six months in Dawson, New Mexico, and in addition to his 
mercantile interests is the owner of real estate in Raton. 

On the 28th of November, 1889, Mr. Ruffner was married to Miss 
Anna Clarke, of Ouincy. Illinois, and to them was born a daughter, Mau- 
rine, in 1890. Fraternally Mr. Ruffner is connected with Raton Lodge No. 


8, I. O. O. F., and is interested in community affairs to the extent of giv- 
ing hearty co-operation to many progressive public measures. 

Chester D. Stevens, who has been one of the actual builders of the 
progressive city of Raton, has resided in that city since 1882. His father, 
A. S. Stevens, preceded him to New Mexico in 1880 and was engaged in 
mining and in work at his trade of carpentering for several years. Both 
father and son soon became well known throughout the northern part of 
the Territory. 

Chester D. Stevens was born in YVatertown, New York, September 
18, 1856, his parents being A. S. and Julia A. (Perry) Stevens. He was 
educated at Ogdensburg, New York, and in April, 1879, making his way 
westward, located at Blackhall, Colorado, where he worked at the carpen- 
ter's trade for a year. He afterward returned to New York and on the 
5th of May, 1882, came to Raton, where he has since been actively engaged 
in business as a contractor and builder and was for a time a dealer in 
lumber. Raton was a mere village at the time of his arrival here and he 
has witnessed its growth to its present size and population. The terminus 
of the Santa Fe railroad was at that time at Otero, five miles below Raton. 
Chester D. Stevens has erected, under contract, many of the most sub- 
stantial business blocks and residences in Raton and has taken an active 
interest in all movements inspired by a desire to promote the general wel- 
fare of the community. 

In January, 1880, in Ogdensburg, New York, Chester D. Stevens was 
married to Miss Marion Patterson, and to them has been born a son, 
Chester P. Stevens. In his political views Mr. Stevens is a Democrat and 
has served as a member of the school board and of the city council. In 
'community affairs he is actively and helpfully interested and his efforts 
along the lines of substantial improvement have been of direct benefit to 
the city. Fraternally he is a Knight Templar Mason. 

George James Pace, Raton, county treasurer and collector of Colfax 
county. New Mexico, was born in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania, Novem- 
ber 19, 1843, son of David and Margaret (Woods) Pace. At an early 
age he became self-supporting and in his youth learned the trade of stove 
moulder. When the Civil war came on he had not yet emerged from his 
teens, but his patriotism soon asserted itself and on August 7, 1862, he 
enlisted as a member of the One Hundred Twenty-Third Pennsylvania 
Infantry. After a service of nine months, he was honorably discharged, 
May 13, 1863. February 6, 1865, he again enlisted, this time as a member 
of the Fourth Pennsylvania Cavalry, with which he served until July 1st 
of that year. Both times his service was in the Army of the Potomac, 
and among the engagements in which he participated were the battles of 
Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. 

After the war Mr. Pace worked at his trade in the east until 1873, 
when he came west and located in Las Animas, Colorado. When the 
present Las Animas was founded he was on the ground and sold the first 
merchandise in the town. In 1876 he went to Lake City. Colorado, where 
he was in business eighteen months. In November, 1878, he came to 
Willow Springs, a stage station. He helped to establish the town of 
Otero and had a store there until the railroad came and Raton was started, 
since which time Mr. Pace has been identified with its growth and develop- 
ment, having a grocery store here until June, 1902. 


As showing his popularity, we note that although Colfax county is 
nominally Democratic, Mr. Pace has several times been elected to office 
on the Republican ticket. In 1880 he was elected county commissioner, 
for a term of four years ; in the fall of 1902 was the choice for county 
treasurer and collector, in 1904 was re-elected to succeed himself, and is 
now the incumbent of the office. In 1888 Mr. Pace married Mrs. Laura 
R. Thomas. She has two children by her former marriage : James Ray 
Thomas and Alice M.. wife of S. W. Clark. 

John Thomas Hixenbaugh, county assessor of Colfax county, New 
Mexico, was born in Centerville, Iowa, September 23, 1859, son of George 
and Sarah Jane (Davis) Hixenbaugh. At the early age of ten years we 
find him on a cattle range in Kansas. A few years later he came with 
a bunch of cattle from Indian Territory on his way to Prescott. Arizona, 
and stopped in New Mexico at Senator Dorsey's Chico Springs ranch. 
Instead of continuing with the rest of the party to Arizona, he remained 
and went to work as a cow puncher for Senator Dorsey. Before he reached 
his majority he was appointed deputy sheriff, under Peter Burleson, and 
subsequently served as deputy under Sheriffs Bowman and Wallace, and 
at the close of Judge Wallace's term, in 1884, was elected to succeed 
him, as sheriff and collector. During the first year of his term, while 
performing his official duty in attempting to arrest Dick Rogers for the 
murder of a man in "Chihuahua," in the suburbs of Raton, Mr. Hixen- 
baugh was shot through the knee, from which he suffered serious injury, 
necessitating three amputations. Rogers was afterward killed at Springer, 
Colfax county, while trying to release a friend of his who was incarcerated 
in the jail at that place. On account of his injuries Mr. Hixenbaugh re- 
signed the office. Since then he has been engaged in the liquor business, 
at different times, and he is also interested in ranching, owning the old 
Hall ranch west of Springer. In 1897 he was elected county assessor, has 
been re-elected, and is now serving his eighth year in this office. He has 
always been a Democrat, and has usually received a majority of from 
600 to 700 votes. 

Mr. Hixenbaugh is a member of the Elks Lodge at Las Vegas and 
the Eagles and Red Men in Raton. 

Hugh H. Smith, living retired in Raton, was born in Killwinning, 
Scotland. July 27, 1859, a son of John and Margaret (Haddow) Smith, 
who in 1867 came with their family to the United States. They settled at 
Morris Run, Pennsylvania, and Hugh H. Smith began working in the 
coal mines there, being thus employed for about ten years. He after- 
ward spent two years in the coal fields at Staunton, Illinois, and subse- 
quently was in the coal mines at Cleveland, Iowa, but after a few months 
returned to Staunton. In 1882 he went to Blossburg, New Mexico, where 
mines had been opened about a year before, two hundred men being em- 
ployed there. For a number of years Mr. Smith was identified with the 
development of the coal industry of Blossburg and on leaving that place 
went to Indian Territory in 1883. He was working there in a mine when 
coal gas caused an explosion which blinded him for three weeks. Soon 
afterward he returned to Blossburg, where he continued mining until 1888. 
In the meantime he engaged in merchandising and about 1888 became 
manager of the store. He was associated in this enterprise with his two 
brothers, William H. and John H. Smith, the latter a noted cornet soloist, 


who won the first prize at Denver in 1897. The other brother, William 
H. Smith, now makes his home at the head of Dillon canyon. Hugh 
H. Smith continued as manager of the store until 1899 and he and his 
brothers also conducted a harness shop in connection with the store. In 
1896 they erected the Palace Hotel building and recently Mr. Smith of 
this review has purchased his brother's interests in the property. He has 
thus been closely associated with the industrial and commercial develop- 
ment of his community and his efforts have been an important factor in 
the material progress, contributing to the public prosperity as well as to 
individual success. 

Mr. Smith has been married twice. He first wedded Clara Turner, 
a native of Staffordsbire, England, who died November 1, 1893. Of their 
three children one is now living, Alice Elizabeth, who is yet at home. In 
July, 1901, Mr. Smith wedded Mrs. Ann Jane McArthur, who, by her 
"former marriage, had four children ; Sarah, the wife of Frank S. Law- 
rence; Charles, who married Cora Masters: William and Ann Jane. 

In community affairs Mr. Smith has been prominent and influential. 
In politics he is a stalwart Republican and ■ was twice chosen by popular 
suffrage to the office of county collector and treasurer, serving for four 
years, beginning in 1894. He was a candidate for mayor in the spring 
of 1904, but lost the election by thirty votes. He is a Mason, belonging 
to Gate City Lodge at Raton and also the Chapter. He is chancellor of 
the local lodge of Knights of Pvthias and is now deputy grand chancellor, 
is connected with the uniformed rank, and was formerly an Odd Fellow. 
He likewise belongs to the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. He 
served on the school board of Blossburg and he and his brother John were 
active members of the band of Blossburg. Starting out in life in the 
humble capacity of a worker in the coal mines he has gradually advanced 
to a position of prominence in business circles and is now in possession 
of a handsone competence that enables him to live retired. 

Mathias Broyles Stockton, now living retired at Raton, Colfax county, 
has been prominently identified with the affairs of both town and county 
during his residence here, which covers a long period. Mr. Stockton was 
born in Ray county, east Tennessee, June 23, 1845, son °f William Hay- 
den and Emeline (Broyles) Stockton, and passed his earlv bovhood days 
in his native state. At the age of fourteen years we find him on his 
father's cattle ranch in northwestern Texas. He was in Texas at the time 
of the Civil war. Joining the state troops, he became a member of Com- 
pany D, and performed guard duty on the frontier, meeting with some 
exciting experiences incident to skirmishes with the Indians. From 
Texas he made trips up the valley of the Pecos, bringing droves of cat- 
tle to New Mexico, and in 1868 he and his father came as far as the 
present site of Raton. The only settlement of anv kind then on the Pecos 
was the government post at Fort Sumner. His first location was on the 
Sugarite. Thomas L. Stockton, his brother, had come to the Territory 
over a year previous to that time. With the stock thev brought with them 
they established themselves in the cattle business in Colfax county, which 
they continued successfully for years. 

Mr. Stockton has alwavs been an ardent Republican. In June, 1882, 
he was appointed sheriff of Colfax county to fill a vacancy, and acted in 
that capacity for eighteen months. In 1890 he was elected to the office, and 


served a term of two years. Next he was elected and served one term as 
mayor of Raton. In 1903 he was honored by election to the office of repre- 
sentative from his district to the territorial legislature, and also in 1905, 
and while a member of that body introduced a bill that became a law during 
the next session, namely, a law reauiring marriage licenses to be recorded. 
Fraternally Mr. Stockton is a Mason, having membership in the lodge, 
chapter and commandery. He married, in 1872, Miss Dove Stout, a native 
of East Tennessee, who bore him four children : Alvin Claude, Clarence 
T., Laura V.. and Frank. 

Alonzo Lyden Bell, a ranchman residing two miles east of Raton, was 
born in Vinton county, Ohio, about one hundred and twenty miles east of Cin- 
cinnati, on the 15th of August, 1845, a son or J 000 an d Sarah (Laycock) 
Bell. He remained in Ohio until 1877, a ^ ter which he spent two years in 
Rush county, Kansas, and in 1879 came to New Mexico to fill a contract 
to cut ties at the head of Chicken creek for the Santa Fe railroad. He was 
thus engaged for two years and in 1881 he bought cattle and located in 
Dutchman Canyon, New Mexico, in the stock raising business. The first 
coal prospectors of that locality boarded with him and his wife, and in 
1881 a camp was opened at Blossburg, after which Mr. Bell worked in the 
mines for a part of the time. In 1886 he and John Towndrow cut the first 
crop of hay, and they were partners in business interests for a number of 
years. In 1887 Mr.Bell took his family to the ranch and about 1889 he 
built a stone house there. He raised good crops and made his home there 
for about eleven years, but since 1900 has resided on his present home- 
stead. While on the mesa he gave his attention to farming and stock rais- 
ing, and has raised and threshed fifty bushels of wheat to the acre. After 
locating in the valley he was the first to adopt the Campbell system of 
farming. He did this as an experiment, soon demonstrated its success, and 
believes it to be the greatest system in the world. 

At the time of the Civil war Mr. Bell enlisted in the Eighty-first Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry under Colonel William Hill, and served in 1864 and 
1865, being largely engaged in duty in South Carolina, North Carolina, 
Tennessee," Virginia and Kentucky. He went with Sherman on the cele- 
brated march to the sea, and participated in the grand review in Washing- 
ton. He has been helpfully interested in public affairs in New Mexico, 
and was the first postmaster at Bell following the establishment of the office 
in 1891. In politics he is an independent voter. 

Mr. Bell was married March 31, 1867, to Louisa Dearth, a native of 
Ohio, and their children are: Charles Homer and John William, who are 
living in Raton ; and Maggie Melissa, the wife of Thomas L. O'Connor, re- 
siding on the home ranch. 

Oscar Troy, a rancher in Blosser Gap, Colfax county, New Mexico, 
was bom near Petaluma, in Sonoma county, California. April 7, 1853, son 
of the late Daniel Troy. Daniel Trov was a native of Illinois, who went 
from that state to California during the gold excitement of 1849. He was 
engaged in mining and hotel keeping in the Golden state until 1872, when 
he came to New Mexico and turned his attention to the sheep industry, 
which he followed for several years. Oscar, at the age of twenty-two years, 
joined his father on the sheep ranch here, and later they added cattle to the 
business. From 1878 to 1898 the subject of our sketch was on a ranch 
south of the present place in Blosser Gap, where, since the latter date, he 



has carried on his ranching operations. This place, with a cabin on it, at 
one time sold for a pony worth from $50 to $75. Here Mr. Troy now has 
7,000 acres of land, patented, and also at times ranges his stock on govern- 
ment land as well as his own. At this writing he has about 5,000 sheep and 
300 cattle. So successful has he been with the former that he has come 
to be an expert in this line, and is recognized locally as an authority on 

Mr. Troy's family divide their time between the ranch and their home 
in Raton, preferring, however, to spend the most of the year in town. Mrs. 
Troy, formerly Miss Louise Pieper, is a native of Clinton, Iowa. They 
were married in New Mexico December 28. 1878, and are the parents of 
six children: Edith Edna, wife of M. R. Grindle, of Raton; Eva Louise, 
deceased ; Earl, Rene, Marie and Myrtle, twins. 

Joseph Workman Dwyer, deceased, was one of the prominent early- 
pioneers of New Mexico, and for years carried on extensive operations as 
a cattle raiser and trader. He was born in Maryland, October 6, 1832, son 
of Thomas Dwyer, and died in Raton, New Mexico, .March 2j, 1904. 

Thomas Dwyer, a cabinetmaker by trade, moved with his family from 
Maryland to Ohio and there settled on a farm. This removal was when 
Joseph W. was a boy. He grew up on his father's farm, receiving his edu- 
cation in the public schools, and remained in Ohio until 1876. During 
President Grant's .administration he served as pension agent. In 1876 he 
came to New Mexico, driving teams from Pueblo, Colorado, and located 
first on Una de Gato creek, on a ranch purchased from Robert Marr. His 
first venture in the stock business here was with sheep ; later with cattle, to 
which he devoted his time up to 1892, that year selling out and moving to 
Raton to engage in the real estate business. At one time he bought ten 
thousand yearlings and two-vear-olds in Texas and brought them to John- 
son's Mesa, where he then owned all the water rights, he and his partner, 
John S. Delano, under the name of the Delano & Dwyer Ranch Co., having 
bought out all the pre-empters and homesteaders there. In Raton he 
erected several buildings, including the residence now occupied by his son, 
David G., on Second street, on the exact line of the old Santa Fe trail. 

Joseph W. Dwyer was always a Republican. Several times he was 
elected and served as alderman of Raton, and his influence at all times 
could be counted upon to support the best measures and the best men. 
While in Ohio — probably at Coshocton — he was made a Mason, and re- 
mained a member in good standing up to the time of his death, having 
transferred his membership to Gate City Lodge. Also, he had received the 
degrees of the chapter and commandery up to and including the thirty- 
second degree. 

Mr. Dwyer's choice of life companion was Miss Emma A. Titus, who 
was born March 2y, 1835, and died December 4, 1898. She bore him 
three children ; two died in early childhood. The other, David G. Dwyer, 
is a prominent and influential citizen of Raton. 

David G. Dwyer was born in Coshocton, Ohio, April 4, 1867. In 
1877 ne accompanied his mother to New Mexico, his father, as above stated, 
having come to the Territory the year previous ; and after a visit of two 
months thev returned to Ohio, where they remained until 1884, at that 
time again joining his father in the west. He attended the public schools 
of Coshocton, and immediately after his return west spent one year in a 


business college in Denver. Then for two years he was clerk in the bank 
of Chappelle & Officers, at Raton, after which, until 1891, he was a cattle- 
man on his father's range. Three vears he clerked in the hardware store 
of Charles A. Fox, then spent some time in the real estate business, in 1899 
was deputy county assessor, in 1900-T901 was deputy postmaster under T. 
W. Collier, and since 1901 has been deputy county assessor. 

Like his father before him. Air. Dwyer is a stanch Republican. For 
two years, 1898 and 1899, he served as city clerk, to which office he was 
elected on the Republican ticket. Fraternally he is an Elk. While not a 
communicant of any church, he contributes of his means to the support of 
the various church institutions in Raton. Indeed, as a generous, broad- 
minded, public-spirited citizen, he is ever ready to give a helping hand to 
any worthy cause. 

January 10, i<)00. Mr. Dwyer married Miss Nettie Chase, daughter of 
C. C. Chase, of Fredonia, Kansas, and they have two children. Helen and 

Edward Rogers Mannine, who lives on a ranch near Maxwell City, 
New Mexico, was born in Newark, Knox county, Missouri, January 30, 
1854, son of Washington T. and Eliza (Smith) Manning, and was reared 
on a farm in Lynn county. Kansas, and spent two years in the State Normal 
School at Emporia, preparing himself for a teacher. He taught, however, 
only a short time. In 1876 he went to Colorado. There for two months he 
was a member of the guard that protected the Atchison. Topeka & Santa 
Fe Railroad employes at the Roval Gorge, and afterward for a short time 
worked for the D. & R. G. Then for five years he was conductor on a 
Pullman car running from Kansas City to Deming, New Mexico, and 
other points out of Kansas City. He started out in life without any finan- 
cial assistance, and at the end of his five years of railroading he had saved 
$2,500, which he lost in the subscription book business in Topeka, Kansas. 
But he was not to be discouraged. Again he set out for Denver, where he 
landed with forty dollars in his pocket. From Denver he came to Springer, 
New Mexico, to enter the employ of the Maxwell Land Grant Co., and 
went to work with the engineer corps on the grant survey and the building 
of the ditch. On June 1st of that vear he was placed in charge of the ditch 
system, which he managed until i8qq. since which time he has been manager 
of the Maxwell farm, an experimental farm covering six sections of land, 
one thousand acres of which are now under cultivation. This place is lo- 
cated six miles northwest of Maxwell Citv. 

Since becoming a resident of New Mexico. Mr. Manning has by 
energy and good management replaced his losses. Among the investments 
he has made are 7,000 acres of land, thirtv-five miles west of Maxwell 
Citv. devoted to stock purposes, and he is interested in coal mining. 
While he has never sought or filled office, he has always been a stanch 
supporter of the Republican party. He is a member of the Masonic 
or( jer — the lodge, chapter and commandery at Raton and the Mystic 
Sbrine at Albuquerque. 

Mr. Manning has been twice married. His first wife, whose maiden 
name was Fannie R. Denison, and who was a native of Manhattan. Kan- 
sas, died, leaving a son, Edward Denison Manning, now a student in the 
University of Nebraska. By his second wife, ncc Minnie McGregor, he 
has a daughter, Arline Frances. 


John Gallagher, deceased, who was for many years well known as an 
extensive rancher of New Mexico and also engaged in farming, was born 
m Ireland in 1842 and came to the United States about 1861, when nine- 
teen rears of age. He first settled in Pennsylvania, where he worked in 
coal mines, and in 1861 he came to the west, his destination being Cali- 

He stopped, however, at Elizabethtown and in 1868 took up his 
abode permanently here, attracted by the mining excitement. Like others, 
he sought for gold in this part of the country, working in placer claims 
in Grouse and Willow gulches until 1881. He was successful in his 
mining operations and with the capital thus acquired he took up a home- 
stead, purchasing 5.237 acres of land from the Maxwell Land Grant Com- 
pany. He then turned his attention to the raising- and herding of cattle 
and also to a limited extent followed farming. He likewise bought other 
land in Union county and was extensivelv engaged in business as a rancher 
up to the time of his death, which occurred on the 25th of May. 1905. 

Mr. Gallagher was married in 1875 to Miss Marv McGarvey, and in 
addition to the property which was left the family by the husband and 
father, they also have ranches on the Chico river. There were eight 
children, including Patrick, who has charge of the ranch on the creek; 
John, wlni lias charge of the Chico river ranch and the cattle on the place; 
and Charlie, who has charge of the home place. 

Patrick Dugan, a ranchman living at Elizabethtown, Colfax county, 
is a native of Ireland and in i860 crossed the Atlantic from the Emerald 
Isle to Boston, Massachusetts. At the opening of the Civil war he entered 
the Civil Marine Corps in 1861, but they were afterward ordered to the 
United States steamship Lancaster at Panama Bay. He was there en- 
gaged in duty for two years and upon his request was transferred to the 
United States Marine barracks on Main Island off the coast of California, 
where he remained until honorably discharged on the 6th of September, 
1865, following the close of the war. He was on the United States 
steamer Lancaster at a time when trouble with the British ships over the 
Mason and Slidel incident was but narrowdy averted. 

Mr. Dugan was married in Boston and has a family of four grown 
children. He came to Elizabethtown in March. 1868, attracted by the 
discovery of gold in this part of New Mexico and was engaged in work- 
ing placer claims with good success until 1878, when he sold out and 
bought a ranch from the Maxwell Land Grant Company, comprising 
thirty-three hundred acres. He then entered the cattle business, in which 
he has continued to the present. The broad tract of prairie offers excellent 
range for the stock and he is meeting with creditable success in this busi- 
ness venture. 

Don Severino Martinez, a ranchman at Black Lakes, in Colfax coun- 
ty, was born in Taos county near the city of Taos, New Mexico, July 2. 
1854, a son of Don Pascual and Teodora (Gallegos) Martinez." The 
father's grandfather. General Martinez, came from Chihuahua and the Galle- 
gos family from El Paso, Mexico. In the maternal line the subject of 
this review is also descended from the Bermudez family, and the Baca 
and Manganaris families are likewise related by marriage. The father 
was a native of Abiquiu. Rio Arriba county, and was a farmer and stock- 
raiser. He spent most of his life in Taos., which he represented in the 


territorial council for three or four terms. At an earlier day he was pro- 
hate judge of the county and was a very active and influential Republican. 
He was also interested in the school of his brother, Father Antonio Jose 
Martinez, and was an active and able champion of Catholicism. He died 
February 2j, 1882, at the age of seventy-six years. He was captain of 
the Mexican Rurales with a commission from Governor Santa Ana. He 
was a very prominent and influential man. known throughout the Terri- 
tory, and his military commission is still in possession of his son, Don 
Severino Martinez. These are valuable papers and read as follow : 

SEAL SECOND. ( (One dollar and a half. 

■ SEAL. ■ 
For the years of 1800. \ (.Eight hundred and thirty-nine. 

Provisional President of the Republic of Mexico and Well Deserving of the Country. 
In compliance with the circumstances attendant upon the matter of the Citizen 
Pascual Martinez I have seen proper to appoint him captain of the mounted police 
of Taos, 1st district. Department of New Mexico, which post is vacant as it has 
been only recently created. 

By virtue whereof the commanding officer to whom this may apply shall comply 
with the same at once and shall issue the necessary order therefore, so that he may 
be invested with the appointment and be placed in command, and that due respect 
may be paid his rank and that he be obeyed as such by his subordinates in rank, be 
his orders given by word of mouth or in writing. 

Government palace, Mexico, the 23d day of April, one thousand eight hundred 
and thirty-nine. Nineteenth of Independence and Twelfth of Liberty. 

Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana. 
Jose Maria Tornel. 
The President shall appoint citizen Pascual Martinez captain of the rural troop 
of mounted police of Taos, New Mexico. 
Santa Fe, September 12, 1839. 

Let the order be complied with, as given by the President, at the time designated. 

Manuel Armijo. 

SEAL SECOND. ( 1 One dollar and a half. 

For the year 1800 ( ( Eight hundred and forty-one. 

The Undersigned Minister of State, and of the Army and Xavy Office: 

Whereas by decree of August 28, 1840, and in conformity with the authority 
vested upon the government by the National Congress on the 26th of the same month 
and year, a cross of honor has been granted to the generals, chiefs and other officers 
who have fought in defense of the integrity of the national territory, with certain 
modifications as may be determined by the government, in conformity with the 

acts and individuals concerned ; and the 

citizen Pascual Martinez, commandant of the superior squadron, captain of the rural 
mounted police, being accredited with having taken part in the campaign of New 
Mexico against the adventurers from Texas in 1841, he is awarded for this service 
an escutcheon of honor in the left arm with the motto and in the form designated 
by the supreme order of the 17th of October last, and to which he is entitled in con- 
formity with dispositions in article fourth, as being embodied in the aforesaid and 
expressed decree; His Excellency, the President, orders that he be given the present 
diploma, and through which he may use the honorable distinction in conformity with 
the rules that obtain in the staff of the army and under the directions given, where 
proper cognizance of this document must be had and which is granted to him as a 
testimony to his valor, loyalty and patriotism. 

Given in Mexico on the 21st day of December, one thousand eight hundred and 
forty-one. The twenty-first of Independence and the twentieth of Liberty. Tornel. 

Diploma of the cross of honor substituted into an escutcheon which is granted 
to the citizen Pascual Martinez, commandant of the superior squadron, captain of 
the rural mounted police for his campaign in New Mexico against the adventurers 
from Texas in 1841. 

Santa Fe, March 23, 1842. 


Let the order be complied with so that he may enjoy the honorable distinction 
granted him by this diploma. 

Manuel Armijo. 

Don Severino Martinez spent four months with the Rev. J. M. Rob- 
erts, Presbyterian minister at Taos, who conducted a large school and who 
had been sent by the government to teach the Indians at Taos pueblo, in 
which work he succeeded in spite of the opposition of the Catholic broth- 
ers. Following the completion of his education. Mr. Martinez began 
ranching in connection with his father and brothers in Union, then Colfax 
county, and was thus engaged from 1871 until 1882, when his father died. 
The cattle and sheep were then divided among the sons, who inherited a 
goodlv property. About this time, however. Senator Dorsey and his gang 
began fraudulent land entries and trouble ensued, resulting in the shoot- 
ing of herders on both sides. Because of this Mr. Martinez came to the 
Black Lakes district and took up government land, on which he has since 
resided, now having eight claims of one hundred and sixty acres each. 
Here he raises sheep and some cattle. He also has seven claims east of 
Roy, in Union county, and owns a store which was established in 1902, 
his cousin. Guillermo Martinez, being his partner. The latter is also post- 
master. In his political views he was a Republican until 1882. since which 
time he has been an advocate of the Democracy, and he was the first 
justice of the peace of the present precinct, serving for two terms, while 
prior to that time he was deputy United States marshal in New Mexico. 
He was also a member of the lower house in 1894, serving for one term, 
and for thirteen years has been school director of the district, which he 
organized two years after the precinct was organized. The first post- 
office was called Osha and since 1901 has been known as Black Lakes. 

Don Severino Martinez is a member of the Catholic church. He was 
married January 4, 1877, to Guadalupe Mares, who was born in Taos, a 
daughter of Christobal and Trinidad de Mares. 

Thomas McBride, a retired rancher of Raton, New Mexico, is a 
native of the Emerald Isle. Born September 20, 1863, he passed his boy- 
hood days in Ireland, and in 1880, at the age of seventeen, crossed the 
Atlantic, seeking a new home in America. After six months spent in 
New York, he came to New Mexico, where he has since lived, and where 
lie joined his two brothers. Patrick and John, who came to New Mexico 
in 1867. Two other brothers. James and Edward, came in 1876. All 
landed in this country practically without means and here found the op- 
portunity they sought to make their way in the world. 

Thomas soon found employment as a "cow puncher," saved his earn- 
ings and invested in sheep which he ranged in Union county, south of 
Clayton. In this he prospered until the winter of 1890-91, when his flock 
numbered 11,600. He was unfortunate, however, and in the spring he 
had left only 450 head of his large band of sheep. Afterward he sold out 
and engaged in the cattle business, in the canyon between Johnson's mesa 
and Barela mesa, near the Colorado state line, where he patented about 
2,000 acres of land. He sold his cattle in the fall of 1904, and also dis- 
posed of 2,000 acres of land. Since then he has lived retired in Raton. 
Here he has built several houses and owns some valuable property. 

While Mr. McBride has never taken any active part in politics or 
public affairs, he always keeps himself pretty well posted, and casts his 


franchise with the Republican party. He was reared in the Catholic 
church, and is a devoted member of the same. April 29, 1897, he married 
Miss Rose E. McArdle. a native of Mendota, Illinois. They have had 
two children, but have lost both by death. 

Frederick Roth, one of the wealthiest ranchers of northern New Mex- 
ico, was born in Wismar, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Germany, October 23, 
1838, and there spent his boyhood. At the age of sixteen he accompanied 
his father, George Roth, to America, and located in Ohio. His father, a 
tanner, Frederick learned the tanner's trade, at which he first worked for 
wages in Ohio. I^ater he owned a tannery and carried on an extensive 
business for a number of years, employing many men. For several years 
he did a $100,000 business annually, and in nine years he cleared $54,000. 
He made his home in Ohio thirty-one years, the last four years of that 
time being engaged in farming. In 1885 he came to New Mexico, bring- 
ing with him $85,000, which lie has increased many fold since he came to 
the Territory. First he bought a small bunch of cattle, which he ranged 
upon 160 acres of land he pre-empted in the eastern part of Colfax county, 
near Johnson's mesa, and where he made his home for seven or eight years, 
Then he moved further west, and since 1900 has resided on his present 
ranch, twelve miles southeast of Raton. Here he has 40,000 acres of land, 
one of the finest cattle ranches in the county. Also, he owns valuable prop- 
erty in Raton, including a handsome business block on Front street, three 
other buildings on that street, and a two-story brick block on Park avenue, 
between First and Second streets, the last named erected in 1905, to be 
used for stores and offices. Mr. Roth has made it the rule of his life to 
attend strictly to his own business, and to this may be attributed the suc- 
cess he has won. 

In 1867 Mr. Roth married Miss Margaret Coons, who died in 1892. 
They had no children. He was reared a Lutheran, but is not now actively 
identified with the church. He is Republican in politics. 

Peter Larsen is known throughout Colfax county and, indeed, all over 
the Territory of New Mexico, as a scientific and successful farmer, there 
being few ranches in Xew Mexico that can compare with the Larsen farm 
near Springer. 

Mr. Larsen was born on the Island of Fyen, Denmark, May 24, 1844, 
and his early environments were those of the garden and farm. In the 
spring of 1866, at the age of twentv-two vears, he came to the United 
States and located first in Moline, Illinois, where he worked at the trade of 
cabinet-maker. He spent one year in Moline, five years in Omaha, Ne- 
braska, and a year and a half in Utah, being engaged in mining at the last 
named place. Then he returned to Nebraska, where he resumed farming, 
and the next seventeen years he carried on agricultural pursuits near Oak- 
land. On account of failing health, the result of a serious attack of la 
grippe, he left Nebraska in 1891 and came to New Mexico, direct to 
Springer, where he bought his present farm. Although ditches had been 
built, the land was at that time without irrigation, and all the improve- 
ments here are the result of Mr. Larsen's well-directed efforts. He first 
put up a small shack, in which he and his family lived until 1903. when he 
built his present home, a comfortable, substantial house, the work of his own 
hands. In fact, he does nearly all the work on his ranch. He now has 
plenty of water for irrigation, and his fertile acres are productive of fine 


At the Age of 31 


crops. Among his first work here was tree-planting. Today he has a 
fine orchard of fifteen acres, principally apples, with a variety of other 
fruits. He has twenty-seven acres of frejolcs, eighty acres in oats and 
other grain, and fifty acres in alfalfa. He annually gathers three crops 
from his alfalfa fields and has harvested as much as seven tons per acre, 
the average amount, however, being five tons. Altogether he has 150 acres 
under cultivation, and usually keeps about one hundred cattle and eighteen 

Mr. Larsen is a member of the I. O. O. F. at Springer. His religious 
creed is Lutheran. November 10, 1874, he married Miss Elesa Pauline 
Hanson, a native of Copenhagen, who came to the United States in 1873. 
They have six children living, namely : Mary, wife of Julius Edwerson, 
of Springer; Minnie, wife of Charles Pearson, of Springer; Emma Louise, 
Louis Clemens, Charlotte Annie, and Florence Gertrude, at home. 



Union is a long and narrow county of 5,772 square miles, situated in 
the northeastern corner of New Mexico, and is bounded north by Colorado, 
east by Oklahoma and the Panhandle of Texas, south by Quay and San 
Miguel counties, and west by San Miguel, Mora and Colfax counties. It 
has a population of about 7,000, and its county seat is Clayton, a town of 
some 1,000 people in the northeastern part of the county, on the Colorado & 
Southern Railway. Folsom, also, and some of the larger towns are on 
this line of road, which crosses the northeastern corner of the county for a 
distance of 84 miles. The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad runs 
for 56 miles through the southern part, and that line, with its branch from 
Tucumcari, Quay county, is doing much to develop this section. The bridge 
of the Rock Island over the Canadian river is over 750 feet in length, spans 
the stream at a height of 135 feet, and is considered one of the best pieces of 
engineering work in New Mexico. 

Formation of the County. — For many years prior to the formation of 
Union county, the citizens of the eastern portions of Colfax, San Miguel 
and Mora counties had complained of the great distances which they were 
obliged to travel in order to transact legal and official business at the county 
seat. Not only did they have this common and reasonable complaint, but 
they possessed a bond of union in a community of interests, as they were 
nearly all engaged in the raising of sheep and cattle. There naturally 
arose a desire to unite under one county government, whose seat of justice 
and official procedures should be of easier access, and which should par- 
ticularly foster the main business of their lives. As is the usual case, the 
controlling portions of the counties were opposed to a decrease of their 
territory, but the rational nature of the proposed division and creation ap- 
pealed to the territorial legislature, which passed an act for the formation 
of Union county, and which was approved by Governor Prince February 
2 3» J 893- Under the circumstances, the name was well chosen. In 1903 
the county assumed its present dimensions by the creation of Quay county, 
to whose territory it contributed 265 square miles. 

Natural Features. — The county is chiefly drained by Ute creek, which 
flows southeast through its western and southwestern portions into the 
Canadian river, and by the Cimarron river, which traverses its northern 
sections in an eastward course toward the Arkansas. The general slope 
of the county is toward the southeast, and the surface is generally divided 
into high mesas, extensive plains and narrow river valleys and canyons. 
Mountains and hills covered with timber occupy the northern and western 
portions; thence they gradually slope into valley lands, which sink into 
grass-covered mesas, and roll on into the plains of the Panhandle of Texas. 
On the Cimarron, Tramperos and Ute creeks are valuable tracts of cedar 


and pine, which have not been touched except to supply a small amount of 
fuel for domestic purposes. 

The altitude of Union county ranges from 4,000 to 8,000 feet, and both 
air and climate generally are favorable to pulmonary troubles. The nights 
are always cool, the summer heat is modified by the altitude and the moun- 
tain breezes, and the cold is tempered by the mountain barriers which shut 
off the high winds. The country abounds in mineral springs. Both the 
large and the small game of the west is abundant, so that the region is be- 
coming a favorite resort for hunters, pleasure seekers and semi-invalids. 

Stock Raising and Agriculture. — In the raising of sheep and the pro- 
duction of wool. Union county is first in New Mexico, and Clayton one of 
the most important centers in the Territory for the handling of the live 
stock and raw material. The river bottoms, especially along the Cimarron, 
are used to some extent in the cultivation of alfalfa for cattle and sheep. 
The raising of goats and horses is a growing industry, and the live stock- 
interests, as a whole, are in process of rapid expansion because of the good 
transportation facilities afforded by the three railroads of the county. 

Wherever water can be obtained all grains, vegetables and fruits can 
be successfully raised. Unfortunately, irrigation has made little progress 
in the county. Except corn, every agricultural product is raised success- 
fully on the higher mesas without resorting to irrigation. Especially fine 
potatoes are produced, and the alfalfa crops are prodigious. In fact, during 
the eighteen or twenty years which cover the period of its cultivation, the 
mesa has never failed the agriculturist. According to the census of 1900 
the value of all stock and farm property in the county was $4,664,000, only- 
two other counties in the Territory- exceeding it in that respect. When 
it is remembered that Union county has something like 600.000 sheep. 
60,000 cattle, and 10.000 horses and goats, it will be realized how small a 
proportion of this sum can be credited to its agricultural interests. It 
must also be remembered that this is the taxabie valuation, and by no means 
represents the selling, or true value. 

Chief Towns. — Clayton, the county seat, is a town of about 800 people, 
a station on the Colorado & Southern Railway, and is situated in the north- 
eastern part of the county. It has electric lights and waterworks, a tele- 
phone system, a good public school building, Methodist, Baptist and Christ- 
ian organizations, a number of secret societies and the usual business es- 
tablishments, with large yards and other extensive facilities for handling 
cattle, sheep, lambs and wool. There are also a first-class hotel, a $20,000 
court house, a national bank, and a weekly newspaper published in Spanish. 

Folsom, situated in the extreme northwestern part of the county, also 
on the Colorado & Southern Railroad, is nearly the size of Clayton, and 
is gaining quite a name as a health resort. It is located in a beautiful 
valley, 6,400 feet above sea level, while twelve miles to the southwest rises 
the noble Sierra Grande to an altitude of 11,500 feet. During the summer 
months this mountain is a mass of flowers rising into the clear blue sky, 
and is one of the most charming and magnificent sights in New Mexico. 
Five miles from town is Sierra Capulin, 9,500 feet high, bearing on its 
crest a perfect volcano crater, and affording a magnificent outlook over 
lesser peaks in all directions, while in clear days the range of vision may 
sweep far to the northwest and include the Spanish and Pike's peaks of 


Colorado. Sulphur and iron springs abound near Folsom, and there are 
several imposing sanitariums. 

Folsom (formerly Fort Folsom) has long been an important shipping 
point for live stock and wool, and one of the busiest localities in New 
Mexico is the ground upon which stand the sheep-dipping tanks owned 
and operated by the railroad company. The town has a fine public school, 
a large hotel (sanitarium ) , and Union Protestant and Catholic congrega- 
tions. Its business houses are creditable, and from the lime quarries near 
bv is manufactured a good quality of plaster. A Spanish weekly is pub- 
lished in Folsom, and altogether it is a brisk and growing little place. 

John F. Wolford, of Clayton, was born in Cleveland, Ohio, October 
22, 1844, a son of John and Elizabeth Wolford. He attended the public 
schools in his native city to the age of fifteen years and some months after- 
ward left Ohio and went to Leavenworth, Kansas, where he located in 
the spring of 1859. He was first employed in a shingle factors- and after- 
ward went to Fort Scott, Kansas, and subsequently to Carthage, Missouri. 
Later he was in the Indian Territory and in July. 1859, he made his way 
to the present site of the city of Denver. He began mining in Grand 
Gulch. He spent about eight months in Colorado and in the spring of 
i860 came to New Mexico, making- his way to Taos and afterward to Fort 
LJnion, assisting in building the present fort. After about four months 
there passed he went to Rayado, where he was in charge of government 
mules and horses belonging to Fort Union that had been brought from 
California in 1862. There he met many historic characters, including Kit 
Carson, Abreu, Maxwell. Zan Hichland, and John Boggs, also Richard 
Hunton and Mr. Moore, who conducted the sutler's store at Fort Union, 
the only store in that part of the Territory. After remaining in New 
Mexico for nine years, Mr. Wolford returned to Colorado on what was 
known as the picket wire and in that state engaged in farming for a short 
time but was driven away by the Indians. He then returned to Rayado, 
New Mexico, and shortly afterward moved to a ranch at the head of Dry 
Cimarron, where he remained for two years, or until 1877, when he went 
to Fort Rascom and was employed in the government secret service. 
Previous to that time he had gone with Kit Carson into the Navajo coun- 
try and helped to bring out the first Navajo Indians that were ever at 
Fort Sumner. He also made two trips to Independence, Kansas, before 
the advent of railroads into that state. He saw Independence and Piatt 
City destroyed by fires kindled by Ouantrell on his raid. 

Mr. Wolford witnessed many stirring events connected with the early 
history of New Mexico and adjoining territories, after which he settled, 
in 1880, on the Paenes in Mora county. New Mexico. The name of the 
place, however, has since been changed to Colfax and LJnion counties. His 
place of settlement was thirty-five miles south of Clayton. He owns some 
good city property in the town. He also has a flock of sheep of nineteen 
thousand head and is one of the heaviest producers of wool in northeastern 
New Mexico. He was for a time engaged in the cattle business on an 
extensive scale and is well informed concerning the early history of the 
cattle industry of the southwest. For six years he was captain of the 
range, which was at that time an important position, but he at length re- 
signed because of the arduous duty and service imposed thereby. He came 
empty-handed to the southwest and has made his way unaided, advancing 

i~6~> 7(l4£jf~+cL 


steaclilv upward until he occupies a foremost position among the substan- 
tial residents of the Territory. In 1870 he met with reverses and lost all 
that he had, but with unfaltering spirit and determined energy he set to 
work to retrieve his lost possessions and has forged to the front until he 
is again numbered among the successful and wealthy residents of the Ter- 

Mr. Wolford was married in Rayado, New Mexico, December 17, 
1862, to Miss Margaret Moras, a native of the Territory. Seventeen 
children were born to them, of whom thirteen are living, and there are 
also forty-three grandchildren and one great-grandchild. All but six of 
the grandchildren reside in New Mexico and those are living at Pagosa 
Springs, Colorado. 

In his political views Mr. Wolford is a stalwart Republican, active in 
the affairs and work of the party, and at the present writing, in 1906, is 
serving as collector and treasurer of Union county, to which office he was 
elected in January. 1905, for a two years' term. In i860 he surveyed the 
Maxwell grant for Messrs. Maxwell and Beaubien. since which time no 
change has been made. During the survey they were harassed consider- 
ably by the Apache Indians, who, however, were held in check by a body 
of soldiers known as the home guard. Mr. Wolford also subdivided most 
of Colfax county and all of Union county and located all the big stock 
ranches in the latter. He was an eye-witness of the fight at Albuquerque 
between the southern and northern forces and also witnessed the destruc- 
tion of the commissary at Santa Fe and saw the battle at Pigeon Ranch in 
the canyon, which was fought between the northern and southern forces. 
Mr. Wolford has seen the great transformation that has taken place in the 
southwest, particularly in Texas, New Mexico and Colorado. He is a 
Knight Templar Mason and is a -man of enterprising and resolute spirit, as 
manifest in his business career and in all life's relations. He certainly 
deserves mention in this history, for he belongs to that class of representa- 
tive pioneer men who have aided in carrying civilization into the southwest 
and in promoting its development and progress. He has displayed splen- 
did business ability in the control of his private interests and at the same 
time has manifested a keen recognition of the possibilities of the territory 
and most effective labor in the substantial development of this part of 
the country. 

Charles A. English, now residing at Folsom, Union county, came 
to New Mexico in April, 1895, and settled on Johnson's mesa. On the 10th 
of August of the same year he located a claim of one hundred and sixty 
acres in Colfax county, upon which he made his home until 1906, building 
thereon a good residence in 1901. There he was engaged in general 
farming, raising a variety of crops, including oats, wheat and barley, and 
keeping on an average of twenty head of cattle and horses. From that 
place he removed to his present residence, where he is also carrying on 
general agricultural pursuits. 

Mr. English is a native of Pennsylvania. He was born in Clarion 
county, that state, October 1, 1836, of Scotch-Irish parentage, and remained 
there until he was twenty. Then he went to Iowa, landing in that state 
October 13. 1856, and from that date until the spring of 1895 was engaged 
in farming there, in Scott, Clinton and Greene counties. On account of 
ill health he sought a change of climate. He had been in New Mexico only 


a few weeks when the improvement in his condition was such as to influ- 
ence him to locate here permanently, and now, after a residence of ten 
years in this mild climate, he does not regret the decision then made. 

Politically Mr. English has always been a Republican. He is a mem- 
ber of the school board in district No. 21, and takes an active interest in 
both educational and religious matters in his locality. He was one of the 
principal organizers of St. John's Methodist Episcopal church on the mesa 
and gave material help toward the erection of their house of worship in 
1897. While a resident of Iowa he was initiated into the mysteries of the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows at Churdan. 

In August. 1863, Mr. English married Miss Mary A. Williams. Of 
their children we record that the eldest. Edward Newton, resides in Chur- 
dan, Iowa; Lulu T. is the wife of John Utton; Gertrude is the wife of 
Edward C. Elston, of Waverly. Washington ; Thomas M. and H. Bruce 
are with their parents ; Clyde lives in Churdan, Iowa ; and Elizabeth, wife 
of John Floyd, resides on Johnson's mesa, Colfax county. 

Ruins of Ancient Spanish Fort, Grant County 



Grant is the extreme southwestern county of New Mexico, and has 
Socorro to the north, and Sierra and Luna counties to the east. In size it 
is only exceeded by Socorro and Chaves, having an area of 9,327 square 
miles, or 22 square miles larger than New Hampshire. It has a population 
of 12,883, i ts principal center being Silver City, with 3,000 people. 

Creation of the County. — The county of Grant was created by legisla- 
tive enactment January 30, 1868, and Central City was named as the seat 
of government ; but Pinos Altos was then the leading town, with a popu- 
lation of about six hundred people, was a busy silver mining center, had 
a number of good hotels and stores, substantial bridges gave access to the 
place, and it was in every way better adapted for the county seat. By an 
act approved January 8 of the following year Pinos Altos therefore became 
the official custodian of the county records, and provided such accommoda- 
tions as it could for the sittings of the territorial courts. 

Pinos Altos' Gay and Only Term of Court.— S. M. Ashenfelter tells 
of this remarkable historic event, in the Silver City Independent of Au- 
gust 19, 1902: "In those days the Federal judges for the Territories were 
selected almost without exception from the decayed, or decaying, politicians 
of the east, and more than one of such appointees, after venturing into the 
country as far as the Mesilla valley and hearing of our Indian troubles in 
Grant county, took early return coach for home. The consequence was that 
for the years 1869 and 1870 this Third Judicial District was without courts, 
except for two brief terms held at Mesilla. 

"But in 1871 a term of court was held at Pinos Altos, and that term 
was probably one of the 'loudest' ever held in the Rocky Mountain region. 
The incumbent on the bench was D. B. Johnson, then recently appointed 
from the east, and it was his first and only term. Partly to distinguish him 
from Old Blue Johnson, who presided in the Second district, and partly 
•because of his character and the suggestive arrangement of his initials, 
our man was called 'Dead Beat Johnson.' Bill Reid and his Canuta were 
the moving spirits of that term — and a Mexican band furnished the music. 
With one exception, bar and court were highly hilarious throughout the 
entire sitting. 

"Judge Johnson evidently thought these Romans did things that way, 
and he must do likewise — if he would be popular, and equip himself to 
grasp the senatorial plum still so tempting to Federal judges who came 
from the states to administer the law in New Mexico. By day it was loud, 
and by night it was louder: and the vision of the court shorn of its judicial 
ermine and robed out in the scantiest of night attire, dancing the can-can 
to the twanging of the festive guitar, the wild shrieking of an untuned 
violin and the discordant gutterals of a base viol, while about him circled 


in the dance a crew of half drunken, shouting attorneys, gamblers and mid- 
night sportsmen — that vision was one which will never fade from memory. 
And there live in Grant county a number of sedate citizens who partici- 
pated in those revels, and in other equally striking incidents which marked 
the first and only term of court held in Pinas Altos. Judge Johnson left 
the country never to return, and the next legislature changed the county 
seat to Silver City." 

County Officials. — Silver City has been the county seat of Grant 
county continuously since 1874, the first official records being dated from 
Pinos Altos June 5, 1868. As shown by them, the list of county officials 
has been as below : 

1868 : — Probate Judge. John K. Houston ; clerk, Alexander Brand ; treasurer, 
John A. Miller (appointed by Judge Houston, Aug. 10. 1868. to succeed Hugh Mc- 
Bride, resigned: Sept. 9 appointment rescinded, as found to be made in error). 

1869: — Judge. John K. Houston, and clerks, Alexander Brand and Albert Juch ; 
judge, Richard Hudson, and clerks William M. Milby and George C. Spears (ap- 
pointed March I, 1870, to succeed Milby, resigned). 

1870: — Judge, John K. Houston; clerk, George C. Spears; sheriff, James G. Crit- 

1871 : — Judge, Richard Hudson; clerk, George C. Spears; sheriff, James G. Crit- 

1872:— Judge, Richard Hudson; clerk, George C. Spears; sheriff, James G. Crit- 

1873:— Judge. Richard Hudson— C. Bennett from Nov. 1; clerk, George C. Spears; 
sheriff, Charles Mcintosh. 

1874:— Judge, Cornelius Bennett; clerk, George C. Spears; sheriff, Charles Mc- 

1875 :— Judges, Cornelius Bennett. John A. Ketchum and J. F. Bennett ; clerks, 
George C. Spears : sheriff, H. H. Whitehill ; treasurer. J. R. Adair. 

1876 :— Judge. J. F. Bennett ; clerk, J. A. Ketcham ; sheriff. H. H. Whitehill. The 
first regular meeting of County Commissioners was on April 2nd of this year. 

1877:— Judge. George W. Holt: clerk. James Mullen; treasurer. J. R. Adair; 
sheriff, Harvey H. Whitehill; commissioners, Isaac N. Cohen (chairman), J. S. Card- 
well, John R. Magruder. 

^78 :— Judge, George W. Holt; clerk, James Mullen— also, R. V. Newsham ; 
sheriff, Harvey H. Whitehill. 

1879-80:— Judge. John M. Ginn ; clerk, R. V. Newsham; treasurer. J. B. Morrill; 
sheriff. H. H. Whitehill. 

1881-82:— Commissioners, J. D. Bail (chairman), and William H. Newcomb 
(chairman), George O. Smith. W. A. Craig; clerk, Edward Edmond Stine ; treasurer, 
W. A. Wilson : sheriff, H. H. Whitehill. 

1883-4:— Judge. James Corbin ; clerk, Edmond Stine: treasurer, Samuel H. 
Eckles; sheriff, James B. Woods: commissioners, Hamilton C. McComas (chairman) 
and M. W. Bremen (chairman), Charles S. Welles, J. L. Vaughn. 

1S85-6 :— Judge. F. M. Prescott ; clerk, Edmond Stine; assessor, Richard Hudson; 
treasurer, C H. Dane; sheriff, James B. Woods; commissioners, Angus Campbell 
(chairman). G. N. Wood. J. H. Clossen. 

18S7-8 -—Commissioners. Thomas W. Cobb (chairman). John H. Bragaw. Sam- 
uel P. Carpenter; clerk, A. H. Morehead ; assessor, E. G. Payne: treasurer. H. M. 
Meredith; sheriff, A. B. Laird. _ 

1889-00:— Commissioners, Samuel P. Carpenter (chairman). John H. Bragaw, 
Thomas W. Cobb, Joseph E. Sheridan (succeeded Cobb in 1800); judge W G. 
Holman; clerk. A. H. Morehead; sheriff, H. H. Whitehill; treasurer, W. H. Neff; 
assessor, H. Clossen. „ „ 

1891-2 :— Commissioners, Angus Campbell (chairman) and James N. Upton 
(chairman), Robert Black (succeeded Campbell), Carl F. W. Schmidle; judge, W. 
G. Holman; clerk, E. M. Young; treasurer, C. C. Shoemaker; sheriff, James A. 
Lockhart. . 

1893-4 :— Commissioners, Stanton S. Brannin (chairman), Baylor bnannon, 


Thomas Foster; judge, M. W. Porterfield ; clerk, E. M. Young; sheriff, A. B. I.aird ; 
sessor, E. J. Swarts; treasurer, John W. Fleming. 

1895-6: — Commissioners, Stanton S. Brannin (chairman), Thomas Foster, A. 
J. Clark; judge, R. V. Newsham ; clerk, E. M. Young; sheriff, Baylor Shannon-, 
collector, A. B. Laird; assessor, T. N. Childers; treasurer. N. A. Bolich. 

1897-8:— Commissioners, A. J. Clark (chairman), Martin Maher, H. J. Hicks; 
judge, R. V. Newsham; clerk. E. M. Young: sheriff. William G. McAfee; collector, 
John L. Burnside; assessor, John H. Gillett ; treasurer, J. S. Carter. 

1899-1900: — Commissioners, W. R. Merrill (chairman), T. F. Farnsworth, W. M. 
Taylor; judge, R. G. Landrum ; clerk, S. H. McAninch ; sheriff, James K. Blair; 
assessor, G. W. M. Carvil ; treasurer, John L. Burnside. 

1901-2: — Commissi, mers, \Y. D. Murray (chairman), W. M. Taylor, Seaman 
Field; judge. Edward Baker; clerk, S. H. McAninch ; sheriff, Arthur S. Goodell; 
assessor, John H. Gillett; treasurer, Adolph Wetzel. 

1903-4: — Commissioners. W. D. Murray (chairman), John C. Cureton, Hiram 
G. Shafer; judge. L. H. Rowlee : clerk. W. B. Walton ; sheriff. James K. Blair; as- 
sessor, E. J. Swarts; treasurer, John W. Fleming. 

1005-6: — Commissioners, John C. Cureton (chairman), B. T. Link, B. B. Owaiby ; 
judge, Cornelius Bennett; clerk, W. B. Walton; sheriff, Charles A. Farnsworth; 
assessor, Samuel H. McAninch (McAninch died and Governor Otero appointed A. 
B. Laird to succeed him) ; treasurer, Arthur S. Goodell. 

Ralston and Shakespeare. — The genesis of some of the earliest settle- 
ments in Grant county is traced to the Ralston mining camp of 1870, which 
comprised the present site of the town of Shakespeare and which was 
founded on the collapse of one of the greatest speculations in the history 
of the Southwest. In the late '60s a party of government surveyors were 
running their lines through southern Mexico, being engaged in laying out 
the proposed overland route, which was to follow the thirty-second parallel 
of latitude. W. D. Brown and a companion, who seemed to have held 
some irresponsible positions with the party, deserted the expedition and 
struck across country toward the old Santa Fe trail. Brown secured some 
fine specimens of silver, and at or near the present town of Shakespeare 
discovered bold and extensive outcroppings of ore rocks. But as the 
Apaches were then on the warpath, he made all possible haste for San 
Francisco, loaded with specimens and accurate information as to the locality 
of the most promising surface indications. 

Brown had his specimens assayed and the finest of these indicated 
12.000 ounces of silver to the ton. He then attempted to interest capital 
and organize an expedition to develop his discovery, but as "a promoter" 
he seems to have been a failure, and left San Francisco in disgust. In the 
summer of 1869 the mining firm of Harpending & Company, of that city, 
of which President Ralston, of the Bank of California, was the leading 
spirit, decided to extend the scope of their investigations from Arizona 
into the district boomed by Brown. After extensively advertising for him. 
Brown was finally rediscovered and engaged as a guide, a man by the name 
of Arnold being the leader of the entire expedition. 

The party" reached the district in September, 1870, and, understanding 
from Ralston (who was in desperate financial straits) that a big mining 
company must be organized, Arnold and Brown gathered many choice 
silver specimens, made an accurate outline and descriptive plat of the prin- 
cipal ledges and spurs, together with a fair map of the country from the 
Burros to the Lower Gila, posted up a general claim to the entire district, 
and hastily returned to San Francisco, leaving behind a few of the expedi- 
tion to protect the property. The press, the telegraphs and the mails of the 


country were soon flooded with advertisements and astounding stories of 
the riches of the new silver district, and Ralston's agents were sent to 
London, Paris and other European centers to interest foreign capital. 

Harpending & Company at once organized and dispatched a second 
expedition, but before it reached Tucson (in February, 1870) the New 
Mexico Mining Company had been organized in London with a capital of 
£6,000,000 (£1,000,000 working capital), and £500,000 of stock had actually 
been sold at par in the world's metropolis. The prospectus of the new com- 
pany set forth the building of a railroad to the Gila river ( said to be twenty 
miles distant), and upon its completion the prompt erection of 300 stamps 
for the treatment of the ores. 

LJpon their arrival at Tucson, Harpending's second party learned that 
the men of the first expedition who had been left as a guard, with perhaps 
new arrivals, were rapidly taking the best claims in the district. The fur- 
ther history, the complications with the territorial laws, which had been 
ignored by the great New Mexico Mining Company, and the final collapse 
of what was little more substantial than a bubble, are included in the fol- 
lowing graphic account from the pen of S. M. Ashenfelter, published in 
the Silver City Enterprise: 

"The outline and descriptive plat was brought into requisition, and 
with its aid- Arnold proceeded to locate what was regarded as the most 
promising ground, and these locations were made according to the local 
rules and regulations prescribed in the Virginia Mining District of Nevada, 
which were adopted as governing this new district in New Mexico. And 
all this was done at Tucson, in Arizona, where these locations are said to 
have been recorded. Then the expedition pushed forward, arriving at its 
destination February 12. 1870. They found just four men on the ground 
and but few locations made. 

"Upon arrival they immediately organized the town of Ralston, had 
a regular survey made, laid out streets, divided the various blocks into 
town lots and offered the latter for sale. The district was christened the 
Virginia Mining District, and the rules and regulations heretofore referred 
to were then on the ground formally adopted, a miners' meeting being called 
tor that purpose. Then our adventurers proceeded to reach out for the 
mineral wealth spread upon all sides. They had located about twenty 
thousand feet upon their map, at Tucson, and now on the ground they 
took up about seventeen thousand feet of additional claims. Unfortunately 
for themselves, or, rather, for those whom they represented, they paid 
no attention to the requirements of territorial law or to the provisions of 
the United States statutes. They complied with their own local laws — 
the laws of the Virginia Mining District — and this they held to be suffi- 

"Intelligence of the discovery had spread, and soon miners were com- 
ing in from all directions. The company pressed its lots upon the market, 
stating that a patent had been applied for and would certainly issue, and 
that those who now refused to buy would certainly be ejected and would 
be denied all further privilege the moment the title was perfected under 
the patent application, while those who bought would be the recipients of 
especial favor. Influenced by the threat and promise, most of the new- 
comers purchased lots and were careful in locating claims to avoid those 
ledges already covered by claims of the company. And the company, upon 


terms very favorable to the miners, took bonds upon some twenty-five thou- 
sand feet of additional ground. 

"This state of affairs continued until the nth of June, at which time 
another meeting of miners was called and held, the latest comers being 
largely in the majority. The laws of the district were radically revised, 
and all mere paper locations and those not in strict compliance with the 
Federal and territorial laws were declared void. Thereupon the miners, 
knowing that of the persons in whose names the company locations stood 
but four had ever been upon the ground, and believing that failure to com- 
ply with territorial law invalidated all their claims, commenced to place 
locations upon what had theretofore been regarded and treated as com- 
pany ground. And in the bitter controversy which followed it was pointed 
out that the company practiced deception in the matter of its town lots, 
as there was no United States law under which it could, as a company, 
obtain a townsite patent, and the controversy waxed warm. The com- 
pany had its hired fighters, but the miners were determined, and at one 
time it appeared as though an armed conflict was unavoidable. But wise 
counsels finally prevailed, and both parties agreed, somewhat vaguely, to 
await the test and developments of time. By the end of July there were 
three hundred men in camp, although under the Fabian policy which had 
been inaugurated but very little work was being done. Another company 
was organized, with a capital of $5,000,000. taking the name San Diego 
and Arizona Mining Company. Both sides held on until the fall, when the 
facts as stated were published at Santa Fe, then connected with the east 
by military telegraph wire. At once dispatches were forwarded to New 
York which gave the death blow to the entire Harpending-Ralston enter- 
prise. Then the collapse came. The London shares of the New Mexico 
Mining Company went down to unfathomable depths. Ralston committed 
suicide and the camp which bore his name did something very similar. 
All gradually came to realize that this was not a poor man's camp. The 
managers for the Company and its employes one after another disappeared, 
and the miners, driven by dire necessity, were also compelled to leave. Some 
clung to their claims tenaciously, but by the late '70s nearly everything 
was open and free to the grasp of burly John Boyle, who struck the final 
blow in depriving the camp of its historic name. 

"But while it is true that there never was at Shakespeare the bodies 
of high-grade ore which Harpending represented, it is also true that there 
are probably no larger bodies of low-grade ore anywhere on the continent, 
and it is also true that values steadily improve with depth. To a large 
extent copper now appears to predominate in many of the leads, and de- 
velopment work, although not nushed upon an extensive scale, is leading 
to satisfactory results. Indeed, judeing from present conditions, it looks 
as though Harpending's company, if it had not been interfered with and 
had been given full swing with its immense capital, might have success- 
fully built up in southern Grant county one of the biggest mining camps 
the world has ever seen, and have paid fair dividends, even upon such 
enormous capitalization." 

Pinos Altos. — Although old Mexican residents claim that before the 
Mexican war their people had washed gold in Santa Domingo gulch, the 
practical mining results and the continuous history of Pinos Altos dates 
from the spring of i860, when Messrs. Birch, Snively and Hicks discov- 


ered the precious metal at this point. The camp which sprung up around 
their claims was first called Birchville, and the name was afterward changed 
to Pino Alto and Pinos Altos. 

By the fall of i860 there were some seven hundred men in the settle- 
ment, but only a few remained during the Civil war period on account of the 
almost constant attacks of the Apaches and because the manhood of the 
country was needed in die east. In 1861 the Pinos Altos Hotel was con- 
ducted by Buhl & Gross, who advertised in the Mesilla Times that they 
would supply "bread and meals." Samuel G. and Roy Bean, on Main 
street, were dealers in merchandise, liquors, and had "a fine billard table." 
Colonel Thomas J. Mastin was "pushing ahead his work of grinding quartz 
and doing well, although constantly annoyed by Indians." It seems that 
two hundred quartz miners were wanted at Pinos Altos at from $1 to $2 
per day with board. 

The first murder in which white men were engaged occurred in the 
winter of 1860-61, William Dike shooting Dan Taylor in a dance hall and 
making good his escape ; but, in view of the constant killing of white set- 
tlers by Apaches, it created comparatively little excitement. In the fall 
of the latter year the Indians made one of their fiercest onslaughts upon 
the camp, but were driven off with a loss of fifteen warriors and three 
miners killed and seven wounded. Colonel Thomas J. Mastin, the com- 
mander of the whites, was wounded and died of blood poisoning the sev- 
enth day after the fight. A party of twenty-five men went to Mesilla for a 
doctor, but before their return in five days the trouble had advanced too 
far to be checked. The deceased was very popular and a leader among 
the American miners in every way. The result was that at his death many 
deserted the camp and left a small minority to deal with the hated Mexi- 
cans. During the later years of the Civil war various detachments of cav- 
alry and infantry, attached to the California Volunteers, were engaged in 
constant warfare with marauding bands of Apaches, not a few of the at- 
tacks of the Indians being made at Pinos Altos. Among the members of 
Captain Whitlock's company of the Fifth California Infantry, which did 
such good work in 1864, were Lieutenant John Lambert, Sergeant R. V. 
Newsham, Corporal James L. Crittenden (afterward sheriff of Grant coun- 
ty), Richard Mawson and David Stitsel. 

After the war the Navajos joined the Apaches in their war against 
the whites, and by the summer of 1867 they had become so destructive to 
human life and were creating such havoc to the live stock interests of the 
district that the settlers determined upon a retaliation which would be long 
remembered. At the time mentioned. Governor Mitchell and General Carle- 
ton, the latter in command of the military district embracing southern New 
Mexico, visited the camp at Pinos Altos and found the citizens greatly ex- 
cited over recent outrages. 

As both the civil executive and military commander encouraged the 
settlers in their plan to organize a retaliatorv expedition, the men of Pinos 
Altos, some of whom had served among the California Volunteers, or- 
ganized a company of forty or fifty and elected Richard Hudson captain. 
General Carleton gave an order on the Fort Bayard quartermaster for five 
government pack mules; Captain Hudson contributed five more from his 
freighting outfit, and Governor Mitchell issued a formal commission to the 
latter. Supplies were furnished promptly and in abundance, and the com- 


mand started, reinforced by half a dozen cavalrymen of the regular army, 
furnished by General Carleton. About half the volunteers were Mexicans. 
Among the soldiers were Henry Barton, Lanklain Butin, E. C. Hartford, 
Tom Graves, Dan Dimond, Juan Garcia, Juan Arroyas (a well-known gov- 
ernment guide) and one Riley, who was afterward murdered at Finos 
Altos. Dan Dimond was hung the same year by a band of vigilantes for 
the murder of a Finos Altos butcher, whom he shot in a jealous rage over 
a Mexican woman. 

About one hundred miles from Pinos Altos, in the deep canyons of the 
Mogollons, the little determined band of whites came upon Jose Largo's 
band of Navajos. In the short, sharp fight which ensued thirteen Indians 
were killed and seven captured, the latter being promptly sent to their 
hunting grounds of the beyond. Although this expedition had a salutary 
effect, it did not entirely check the Indian outrages ; as will be seen here- 
after, their cessation was caused by entirely different means. 

In 1867 a regular survey of the town was made, it being laid out and 
platted by the Pinos Altos Town Company, of which Samuel J. Jones was 
the leader. The town site covered 320 acres. During the following year 
four bridges were built over Bear creek and several wells were sunk close 
to the bed of the creek to insure a good supply of water for drinking pur- 
poses. The principal merchants then were Raynolds & Griggs, Vigil Mas- 
tin, John A. Miller, Carlos Norero and W. Lee Thompson. 

Mastin had one of the largest stores in Pinos Altos, was extensively 
interested in mining and was altogether one of the big men of the place. 
He was killed by Navajo Indians on the road south of Pinos Altos in 1868. 
A fortnight later Richard Hudson was shot through both arms at the foot 
of the hill near the camp. In fact, single individuals or small parties 
venturing half a mile beyond the outskirts ran serious risks, and the stories 
of narrow escapes would fill volumes. 

Finally the settlers determined to enter into a compact with the Indians 
for the cessation of hostilities. It was agreed that a large cross should be 
placed on the summit of the hill just north of the town, and that as long 
as it was left there no killing should be done. "This compact was strictly 
adhered to," says the Pinos Altos Enterprise of November 23, 1882, "and 
from 1868 to the present time no resident of Pinos Altos has been killed by 
an Indian." 

Notwithstanding this assurance of security, Pinos Altos appears to 
have reached the flood tide of its prosperitv at about 1868, and when it lost 
the county seat in 1874 it was overshadowed by the growth of its younger 
and more vigorous rival, Silver City. 

Silver City. — Founded upon a favorite camping ground and watering 
place of both the Navajos and Apaches, it is little wonder that Silver City 
was the focus of their hostilities. During the first few years of its set- 
tlement both miner and ranchman lived a life of constant anxiety. The 
roads were unsafe in all directions, and stock left to graze even at the 
very edge of town, was ran off into the foothills or mountains, and either 
killed or permanently appropriated. Even between Silver City and the 
neighboring post of Fort Bayard the road was ttnsafe. 

In spite of this insecurity Silver City grew from half a dozen perma- 
nent settlers in 1870 to a place of some eighty buildings in February of 
the following year. Among the founders of the place may be mentioned 


L. B. Maxwell, who started the first ore mill (operated later by Messrs. 
E. E. Burlingame, James Shelby and Charles Thayer) ; Harvey H. White- 
hill, William Chamberlain, James Corbin, S. M. Ashenfelter; Col. Richard 
Hudson, formerly of Pinos Altos; Col. J. F. Bennett, who was in business 
in Las Cruces for some time, but operated a stamp mill here ; Judge Hack- 
ney, who in earl} times owned a newspaper at Globe, Ariz., where he died, 
and Brad Dailey, who teamed into Silver City from Las Cruces. 

No man of those days, however, was more generally honored than 
John Bullard, who bravely met his death at the hands of a treacherous 
Apache while leading a Silver City expedition against the Indians of that 
tribe, near the San Francisco river, about twenty miles above the present 
site of Clifton, Ariz. It was in February, 1871, and Captain Bullard, who 
had brought his command of thirty citizen-soldiery to this point, had 
sighted a band of Apaches. He divided his command, and, after detailing 
a guard for his pack train, gave the command to move forward and strike 
the enemy both from the north and the south. The sad tragedy which fol- 
lowed is "best told in the words of S. M. Ashenfelter, his friend : "Captain 
Bullard and a companion suddenly ran upon an outlying Apache, who was 
running in evident effort to reach and give the alarm to his people. The 
companion fired, wounding the Apache in the thigh. Then Bullard fired, 
his bullet piercing the bod}" of his foe. who sank slowly to the ground. 
The two rushed forward, when the (lying Indian, in His last agony, slowly 
raised a revolver with both hands, aiming at Bullard, whom he evidently 
recognized as a leader. The latter saw and fully realized his danger. He 
had failed to throw a fresh charge into his own rifle, and he called to his 
companion to fire. The latter pulled rifle to shoulder, and two shots rang 
out almost simultaneously. The Indian fell back with the entire top of his 
head blown away, while Captain Bullard reeled and fell into a half recum- 
bent posture. He tore open his shirt, gazed a moment at his bleeding 
wound, and, without a word or a groan, fell back dead. The ball had 
pierced his heart. Speedy vengeance followed. Within a few minutes four- 
teen Apaches lav dead upon the ground, while the rest of the band was 
scattered among the huge boulders close at hand, many being badly 
wounded, as was afterwards learned from the Camp Grant reservation, 
where they took refuge. The attacking party suffered no further loss, and 
an Apache boy was captured and brought to Silver City. He was taken 
in charge by "General" Wardwell, who afterwards surrendered him to his 
tribe. The remains of Captain Bullard were brought back to Silver City, 
and the interment took place in the cemetery which then occupied the slope 
to the south and west of Professor Light's present residence. Major Kelly 
brought over a company of troops from Fort Bayard, and military honors 
were accorded the dead. The remains were afterwards removed to the 
cemetery east of town and to the southward of the Fort Bayard road. 
where they now rest. The loss of John Bullard was deeply felt. He had 
been a recognized leader ; one of the principal streets of the town bore 
his name, and to this day a shade of regret colors the old timer's mention 
of the man's name. A public meeting was held, and resolutions were 
adopted expressive of the general grief. It was by a remarkable coinci- 
dence that Major Kelly and his command had just returned to Fort Bayard 
from a raid among the hostiles, in which they also had succeeded in kill- 
ing fourteen braves. The effect of the two blows was most salutary. For 


years afterwards Silver City enjoyed comparative peace, in so far as the 
immediate surroundings of the town were concerned. Almost coincident 
with these tragic events, others of the Warm Spring Apaches made their 
presence felt near the Mexican border to the south of us. Kearl & Miller's 
train was moving northward laden with freight for Fort Bayard. Charles 
Kearl and his wife, accompanied by six men, had ridden out several miles 
in advance of the train. They were attacked and but two escaped, one 
of these badly wounded ami dying a day or two later. The bodies were 
horribly mutilated, especially that of Mrs. Kearl, then but recently a bride. 
Besides the Kearls, the dead were Gus. Hepner, Charles DeLard and three 
men named Sutherland, Bellhouse and Burnliam." 

But money was plenty, the new discoveries were "panning out" into 
substantial profits, the community was buoyant with hope and confidence, 
and a constant stream of new settlers added to the population, notwith- 
standing the hovering bands of hostile Indians. Substantial buildings 
were also being erected on all sides, and M. W. Bremen's saw-mill, in the 
heavy timber some five miles above town, could scarcely keep pace with 
the demand for lumber. In the spring of 1871, although there were three 
stores in town, the main points for supplies, including mining tools, were 
Las Cruces and Mesilla. The freight was $1.25 per hundred pounds; bull 
teams did the hauling and about a week was consumed in the trip. The 
stage fare from Las Cruces was $25, from Santa Fe $100. In addition 
to the three stores mentioned. Silver City had, in 1871, one livery stable, 
one boarding house, two blacksmith shops, one shoe shop, one paint shop 
and a large lumber yard. 

A Shot at Congress. — The early settlers of Silver City never forgave 
the Apaches for the untimely death of John Bullard, and shortly after the 
tragedy a measure was introduced in congress providing for an appropria- 
tion of $30,000 to defray the expenses of gathering their enemies upon 
permanent reservations. The people of Silver City thereupon held a mass 
meeting, at which Richard Yeomans presided and William H. Eckles 
acted as secretary. With I. J. Stevens, James Bullard and E. M. Pearce, 
they formed a committee of resolutions, who, after calling the attention of 
congress to the fact that the proposed action was a misappropriation of 
public moneys, concluded with the following, which was unanimously and 
enthusiastically adopted: "Resolved: That by the expenditure of $30,000 
among volunteers, the Indians can be gathered upon reservations where 
the}- will stay forever." 

Incorporation of the City. — Silver City is the first incorporated town 
in \\\v Mexico that has continued its government under the charter 
granted by the legislature. It was incorporated by special act, February 
15, 1878, and its limits were described as "an area of two square miles con- 
forming to the points of the compass, north, east, south and west, measur- 
ing from the point intersecting at right angles Broadway and Main streets, 
which point shall be the center of the corporate limits." This charter 
was amended by act of the legislature March 19, 1884, and again Febru- 
ary 8, 1889, providing that a city councilman must be an owner of real 
estate in town. 

Residents of 1882.— In this year the professional and business men 
of Silver City were as follows : 


Clergymen : — H. L. Gamble, rector of Episcopal Church ; C. L. Allen, pastor of 
M. E. Church; Peter Bourgade, priest in charge of Catholic Church. 

Attorneys : — Frank J. Wright, John D. Bail, H. C. McComas, Andrew Sloan, 
John M. Ginn, Edward V. Price, Elisha M. Sanford. 

R. C. Anderson was an M. D.. and G. W. Bailey, the druggist. 

Merchants: — Derbyshire Brothers (M. E. and S. S.), furniture dealers; C. P. 
Crawford, general merchandise (also bankerl : D. H. Gilbert, general merchandise; 
Marritt & Company, general merchandise; R. R. Higbee, wholesale and retail grocer; 
Abraham Brothers, clothing; W. C. Jasper & Company (A. H. Morehead), groceries ; 
D. P. Neff, hardware ; William Walker, merchant tailor : Martin Maher, bakery. 

Bankers: — C. P. Crawford, successor to Porter & Crawford — H. Booth, cashier; 
Newton Bradley, manager of Grant County Bank. 

Hotel Keepers : — A. M. Connor, proprietor of the "Southern Hotel," corner of 
Broadway and Hudson streets; Louie Timmer. proprietor of the "Exchange Hotel," 
"The Delmonico of the West," and "the most stately edifice in New Mexico ;" Peter 
Ott, proprietor of the "Tremont House," on Main street (now an arroyo). 

It is also learned that at this time Kennedy & Thobro were dealers in 
drugs at Georgetown, C. H. Dane was a forwarding and commission mer- 
chant at Deming, and Richard Hudson was proprietor of Hot Springs, 
twenty-rive miles southeast of Silver City. 

Municipal Officers. — As stated, Silver City was incorporated in Febru- 
ary, 1878. Its first officers assumed their positions on May 1st of that year. 
Following is the list: 

1878 : — Mayor, Robert Black ; clerk. J. Porter ; councilmen, John Morril, C. P. 
Crawford, William Chamberlain, Robert V. Newsham. 

1879:— Mayor, Martin W. Bremen; clerk, H. W. Sherry. 

1880: — Mayor, Martin W. Bremen; clerks, H. W. Sherry, O. L. Scott, Henry 
Fenton, A. C. Downey. 

1881 : — Mayor, Eugene Cosgrove ; clerk, Henry Fenton. 

1882: — Mayor, Cornelius Bennett; clerk, Henry Fenton; treasurer, H. B. Ailman. 

1883: — Mayor, Robert Black; clerk, Henry Fenton. 

1884: — Mayor, Martin W. Bremen, clerk, E. Cosgrove; treasurer, H. B. Ailman. 

1885 : — Mayor, J. W. Fleming ; clerk. E. Cosgrove ; treasurer, Max Schutz. 

1886 : — Mayor, Cornelius Bennett ; clerk, John A. Apperson. 

1887 :— Mayor, John D. Bail ; clerk. William H. Allen ; treasurer. G. D. Goldman. 

1888: — Mayor, J. W. Fleming; clerk, H. W. Lucas; treasurer, George D. Gold- 

1889: — Mayor, J. W. Fleming; clerk, H. W. Lucas; treasurer, J. W. Carter. 

1890 : — Mayor, J. W. Fleming ; clerk, H. W. Lucas ; treasurer, J. W. Carter. 

i8gi : — Mayor, J. W. Fleming; clerk, W. F. Lorenz ; treasurer, J. W. Carter. 

1892-6: — Mayor, J. W. Fleming: clerk, William F. Lorenz. 

1897-1906: — Mayor, J. W. Fleming; clerk. H. H. Betts ; treasurer Hyman Abra- 

Mowry City. — Mowry City, formerly quite a brisk place in Grant 
county, is thus described by S. M. Ashenfelter in one of his reminiscences 
contributed to the Silver City Independent, the picture being drawn for 

"At Mowry City, on the Mimbres (now Whitehill s ranch), there was 
a considerable population. R. V. Newsham and M. St. John had large 
stocks of general merchandise. A. Voorhees ran a hotel, which afterwards 
came into the hands of "Old Man" Porter, father of Frank and Harry 
Porter, well known in later years. Kimberlan & Company had a flouring 
mill, and Dick Mawson and "Hairtrigger John' : Gibson did the black- 
smithing for the countryside. The main mail line west from Mesilla to 
Tucson passed through Mowry City. It was run by J. F. Bennett & Co., 


the company being Henry Lesinsky and Con Cosgrove. It was the old 
Southern Overland route," coming up by the way of Rough and Ready, 
Slocum's ranch. Fort Cummins and Cook's Canyon; and it crossed the 
Mimbres at Mowry City. In the spring of 1871 the branch line to Fort 
Bayard, Silver City and'Pinos Altos was run by W. H. Wiley & Company. 
Slocum's was as famous in its day as Fort Cummins, and John D. Slocum 
was a man of recognized eminence on this frontier." 

Mines Throughout the County. — The mines at Lone Mountain were 
discovered in February, 1871, and quite a number of Silver City pioneers 
moved over to the new camp. Much work was done there, and some 
very rich ore was taken out, but it was never found in sufficient quanti- 
ties to make mining operations profitable in a permanent way. 

Santa Rita was one of the oldest mining camps in the Territory. It 
was worked by the Mexicans centuries ago, who dug out the rich copper 
ore. smelted it and carried it to their country on burros. In 1882 the 
Santa Rita Copper & Iron Company (capital $5,000,000) owned this an- 
cient mine, which was managed by T. E. Swarz. 

San Jose, a mining camp revived in the early eighties, was also oper- 
ated in the olden times by the natives of Mexico. It was at first under 
the management of B. S. Loney. 

The town of Paschal, sixteen miles southwest of Silver City, was 
named in honor of Paschal R. Smith, manager of the Valverde Mining and 
Smelting Company. It was the first camp in the Burro mountains, and for 
years was one of the leading copper mines in New Mexico. Especially rich 
discoveries were made in 1881, at which time the St. Louis mine was the 
most developed. The Clara Clarita mines, five miles southeast of Paschal, 
were then in the possossion of P. R. Smith, Asa Kilbourne and Hosiah 

In 1870 mineral was first discovered at Pyramid, or Leitendorf, nine 
miles southwest of Lordsburg. Col. Amos Green, a prominent developer of 
early railroad properties, was president of the company which worked the 
Viola and Penelope mines and erected the first large mill in the region. In 
the early eighties perhaps the best developed mine in the Leitendorf district 
was the Last Chance, owned by an Evansville company and in charge of 
W. J. Crosby. There were also the Ormus Company, of Hamburg, Ger- 
many, and New Orleans, La. ; Silver Belle, Messrs. Enoch Warrington 
and F. Gilchrist being its proprietors; and such mine owners as Frank- 
Reno, Sherrer & Butnuh, George Martin, J. E. Long, John Farrell, J. T. 
Ustick and A. J. Hughes. 

In the Victoria mining district the following owners were operating 
in 1882: William Kent, William Hyters and Joseph L. Dougherty, who 
located their camp in 1880: Higgin, Head & Hearst; Grodhaus, Fuller & 
Cusack; and the Victoria Mining & Smelting Company, Joseph W. Branc 
being president. 

In the group known as the Hanover mines at this time were : Copper 
Pan, owned by Captain Eakridge ; Convention, Lloyd Magruder; Crabtree, 
Crabtree. Willis & Company; Buckeye, Mr. Bur'gerott ; Jim Fair. Jack 
Shanley and H. J. Hutchinson: Virginia, J. C. Winter; Philadelphia, Mr. 
Harper; Lucky Chance, Jack Shanley; other owners being Charles Nack 
& Brother, William Chamberlain. Judge Potter and J. M. Lacy. 

In 1866 the camp of Georgetown was first struck bv Messrs. Butine 

Vol. II. 14 


and Streeter, George Duncan, Andy Johnson and others. No work was 
done for two years later, when operations were commenced by E. Weeks 
and J. Fresh, on what is known as the McNulty. In 1872 the wealth 
of the camp became apparent, and the district is still productive. 

Central City is -nine miles from Silver City, and is situated on a table 
leading down from the mountain, in which are located the Hanover and 
SantaRita copper mines. The entire table is checked with gold and silver 
bearing leads, and the numerous ravines cutting through the flat furnish 
an unfailing supply of the purest mountain water. 

Lordsburg. in the western part of the county, on the Southern Pacific 
line, is also the center of a flourishing gold and silver district, in which 
are Pyramid and Shakespeare, already mentioned. 

Physical Geography and Natural Wealth. — The general appearance 
and contour of Grant county is anomalous. The great divide comes down 
near its western line, trending southwest. It divides the county into two 
very unequal portions, the larger of which, or Mimbres basin, has no 
ocean drainage, but its waters flow toward Palcmas lake, the sink of this 
great region. The Gila drains the northwest of the county into the gulf of 

The country abounds in mountain ranges, in which mines are being 
developed, or, more correctly speaking, in mountain clusters, rising to alti- 
tudes not exceeding 1,000 feet above the level of the plains, and elevated 
from the undulating plains, representing the former islands, when, during 
the cretaceous period, the waters of the sea still covered the country. A 
multitude of evidences in the shape of ruins, ancient pottery and remnants 
of implements conclusively prove that this country, in prehistoric ages, has 
been inhabited by a human race or races who, comparatively, occupied a 
high scale of civilization. 

The Mimbres rises in the mountains of the same name, taking its head 
waters within a mile or so of some of the principal feeders of the Gila, but 
on the gulf side of the mountains. During its upper course it takes up the 
waters of many large springs and small water courses, and supplies water 
for over one hundred farms ranging from two hundred to about ten acres 
in extent. The apples and hardy fruits, together with fine vegetables raised 
in the upper valley of the Mimbres, are of a very superior quality. 

Below the mountains the Mimbres takes the form of what is usually 
termed a "lost river. - ' About thirty miles north of Deming it debouches 
upon a plateau of the Sierra Madre, a large plain of deep alluvial soil. 
Little or no water is in sight except in the flood seasons ; but it may always 
be had at moderate depths below the surface. For sixty miles south of the 
Mexican line, and for a similar distance east and west, the same condition 
prevails. The rivers rise in the mountains, drain a considerable water-shed 
and then disappear into the earth. The importance of this underflow may 
be judged by the numerous lakes which appear in old Mexico, just south 
of the line. Palomas lake is the principal. It is five or six miles long, 
three-quarters to two miles wide and fed by hundreds of springs. Some 
of these are so strong that their disturbance of the water can be plainly 
seen on the surface of the lake. 

Harvey Howard Whitehill is a pioneer of Xew Mexico of the '60s. 
We of the early part of the twentieth century cannot realize the conditions 
which met the pioneer of even twenty-five years ago, and little less dream 


of the environments which surrounded the early settler, whose residence 
here has covered three, four or five decades. Mr. Whitehall's memory hears 
the impress of the early historic annals of the Territory, and he has been a 
participant in many epochal events. He now lives in Silver City and is 
engaged in developing the natural resources of the Territory, especially 
in the line of silver mining. 

A native of Ohio, Mr. Whitehill was born in Bellefontaine, September 
2, 1837. In earlv life he followed railroad engineering in the middle west 
and in 1858, when a young man of twenty-one years, went to Colorado, 
spending most of his time in that state in Denver, Leadville and other 
mining districts, engaged in mining and prospecting. He devoted one 
year to mining in the Russell gulch and was sergeant-at-arms of the first 
provincial government of the Territory in 1859-60. He afterward returned 
to his mining and took out about twelve thousand dollars. He then re- 
turned to the San Juan country and spent the winter of 1860-1. Formerly 
Mr. Whitehill had been engaged in freighting in the west before the advent 
of railroads, and during the Civil war had enlisted at Fort Union, where 
he was in active duty for about a year. He belonged to the company under 
command of Captain Joseph Simpson and First Lieutenant H. H. Halford. 
He was sworn in by Colonel Chatman of the regular army, commanding 
officer at Fort Union at that time, and afterward by Major Paul of the 
regular army. Lieutenant Halford was murdered at Elizabethtown in 
1872. Mr. Whitehill continued to serve until honorably discharged in 
1862. All of the members of the command furnished their own horses. 
Following his military service he became a government contractor for 
grain at Fort Union. 

On the 19th of December, 1865, in Denver, Colorado, Mr. Whitehill 
was married to Harriet M. Stevens and about 1866 or 1867 they came to 
New Mexico, locating in Elizabethtown during the days of the first gold 
excitement there. Mr. Whitehill gave his attention to placer mining and 
continued in that vicinity until 1870, when he removed to Silver City, 
where he has since been engaged in silver mining. He is familiar with all 
kinds of mining machinerv and has done much work along that line here. 
He is also interested in cattle to some extent and has thus been closely asso- 
ciated with two of the most imporatnt sources of income to the Terri- 
tory — the development of its rich mineral resources and the raising of 
live stock. 

In his political affiliation Mr. Whitehill is a stalwart Democrat, active 
in the work of the party and having considerable influence in its local 
councils. He has filled various local offices and about 1880 was elected to 
the legislature. He is also prominent in the local Masonic lodge and is a 
man of genuine personal w T orth,' commanding and enjoving the esteem and 
confidence of those who know him. His life history, if written in detail, 
would present a characteristic picture of pioneer experiences during the 
days of Indian outbreaks, added to the hardships, privations and difficul- 
ties which are always encountered upon the frontier. On various occa- 
sions he has had trouble with the Indians and has narrowlv escaped with 
his life. One of his most exciting adventures occurred at Mogollon. 

In 1894 Mr. Whitehill was called upon to mourn the loss of his wife, 
with whom he had traveled life's journey happilv for almost thirty years. 
They were the parents of nine children : Harry V., who is engaged in the 


cattle business on the Mimbres ; Emma, the widow of W. H. Kilburn, of 
Silver City; Wayne W., who is interested in mining and makes his home 
at Silver City; Cornelius Cosgrove, who is engaged in the insurance bus- 
iness : Tosie. the wife of Herbert H. Bishop, of San Francisco ; Hattie. the 
wife of H. L. Dodson, of the Mimbres ; Ollie, the wife of Robert Bell, of 
Silver City; and Carrie and Mary, who are at home with their father. 

Cornelius C. Whitehill of this family was born in Silver City. Novem- 
ber 8, 1873. and was reared under the parental roof, acquiring his education 
in the public schools. During the earlier vears of his manhood he gave 
his attention principally to cattle ranching, but is now engaged in the real 
estate and insurance business and in both departments has a large clientage, 
being one of the representative and enterprising young business men of 
this part of the Territory. He was married on the 10th of June. 1895, to 
Miss May Biggs and their children are Cornelius O. and Clarice. Cornelius 
C. Whitehill is a member of the Elks lodge and also of the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows. 

Colonel Howard H. Betts. filling the position of city clerk at Silver 
Citv, New Mexico, is a native of New England, his birth having occurred 
in Danbury. Connecticut, December 1. 1855. He was reared, however, in 
New York citv and he has been a resident of Silver City, New 'Mexico, 
since December, 1886. In that year he entered the employ of the firm 
of Morril & Company, with whom he remained for a year, when he em- 
barked in business on his own account, conducting his store successfully 
until 1891. He then disposed of his stock of groceries and, in partnership 
with W. H. Newcomb, organized the Silver City, Pinos Altos & Mogollon 
Narrow Gauge Railroad Company for the building of a line, but the repeal 
of the Sherman act caused the financial ruin of the firm after the work of 
grading for a distance of nine miles from Silver City had been completed. 

Various official honors have been conferred upon Mr. Betts and he 
has made a creditable record in different offices he has filled. He was 
appointed a member of the board of penitentiary commissioners and for 
two years acted as its president. In 1897 he was chosen to the office of 
citv clerk of Silver Citv and has since acted in this capacity, covering a 
period of nine vears. He was appointed assessor of Grant county in 1899 
and 1900. Opposed to misrule in all municipal or county offices, his course 
has been characterized by unfaltering devotion to the public good through 
the faithful performance of the duties entrusted to him. 

On the 9th of December, 1809. ^ r - Betts was married to Miss Annie 
A. Newcomb. He is a member of Silver Citv Lodge No. 413. B. P. O. E., 
and is its secretary, and membership relations connect him with Silver 
City lodge, K. P. February 24, 1906, Governor Hagerman appointed him 
colonel on his staff. 

Arthur S. Goodell. of Silver City, wholesale and retail dealer in hay, 
grain and feed, who is also filling the office of countv treasurer, was born 
in Lvme, Grafton county. New Hampshire, in 1858. He has been a resident 
of New Mexico since 1883. He was reared in his native city and after 
acquiring- his early education there became a student in the academy at 
Thedford Hill, Vermont. He arrived in New Mexico when about twenty- 
five years of age. locating in Grant county upon a ranch on the Gila river. 
There he remained for about seven years and in 1801 he established a 
livery stable in Silver City, which he conducted successfully until 190=;. In 


the meantime, in 1903, he purchased an interest in his present business and 
since June, 1905, has been alone in the ownership of his wholesale and 
retail hay, grain anc j f eec i s tore in Silver City, with a good patronage, which 
annually returns to him a gratifying income. His business interests are 
capably managed and from a humble position he has worked his way up- 
ward to the plane of affluence. 

In 1896 Mr. Goodell was married to Miss May Gaddis, a native of 
Louisiana, who was a teacher in the public and normal schools. They have 
one child, May. Fraternally Mr. Goodell is a Mason, having been initi- 
ated into the order in Silver City lodge in 1892. He also belongs to Silver 
City Chapter, R. A. M., to Malta Commandery, K. T.. of Silver City, and 
to the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. Aside from his business, 
however, his chief attention is given to his official duties. He is an active 
and stalwart Republican and upon the party ticket was elected sheriff in 
1901, serving for a term of two years. He has been mayor of the city 
since the spring of 1904 and county treasurer since the fall of that year, 
and in both offices he gives a public spirited and progressive administra- 
tion, characterized by reform and improvement. 

Theodore W. Carter, prominently known in mining circles, arrived in 
the Territory in April, 1897, and became identified with copper mining in 
Grant county. In iqoo he leased property from the Southwestern Copper 
Company. Up to that time the propertv had remained idle for twenty 
years and had produced very little. Mr. Carter continued to operate under 
the lease until 1903. when the Burro Mountain Copper Company was 
formed and he took over the property and purchased ground covering 
about a mile square. The work of Mr. Carter under the lease was what 
led to the great development now being carried on. Today the property 
is among the most promising and paying in New Mexico, this camp be- 
ing the largest in the Territory. Nothing was being done when Mr. 
Carter took up his abode there and the growth and development of this 
locality is attributable directly to his efforts and enterprise. He organized 
the Burro Mountain Copper Company, was connected therewith as man- 
ager until a recent date and is now acting - as managing director, with 
offices in Silver City. He now has a mill on the grounds at Leopold and 
its capacity is two hundred and twentv-five tons per day. When he be- 
gan operations Mr. Carter had three Mexicans to assist him and hauled 
the ore to the smelter at Silver City. He shipped under that lease over one 
hundred thousand dollars' worth of ore. gross. 

Mr. Carter is a native of Iowa and spent two and a half years in Colo- 
rado before coming to New Mexico. He is an architect by profession and 
followed that calling to some extent at Denver and Cripple Creek, but 
went into the mines at the latter place and there first received his min- 
ing experience. Coming to New Mexico, he realized the opportunities here 
presented and has carried on the development work along modern lines, 
resulting in great benefit to the district and proving at the same time a 
source of individual profit. 

Orange Scott Warren, deceased, who was a respected and representa- 
tive citizen of Silver City, was born in Maiden, Massachusetts, August 15, 
1847, and was a descendant of the old Warren family, prominent in that 
state. Diiring his boyhood days his parents removed to Lawrence. Kansas, 
where he was educated, being graduated from the schools there. He after- 


ward entered the Union army as private secretary to a colonel command- 
ing a regiment. About the close of the war he returned east to New Jersey 
for a short time, and afterward went to Seattle. Washington, where he 
was cashier in a bank for two years. Subsequently he again went to New 
Jersey and afterward spent two years in the banking business at Little 
Rock, Arkansas. In 1876 he made his way to San Francisco and to Port- 
land, Oregon, remaining on the coast until 1882. In that year he came 
direct to Silver City and spent his remaining days in the insurance and 
real estate business here, being one of the representative men of this part 
of the Territory. He was not only active in business life, but also con- 
tributed in substantial measure to public improvement, and was a co-oper- 
ant factor in measures which had direct bearing upon public interests. He 
was the first county superintendent of schools in Grant county, and the 
cause of public education found in him a warm and earnest friend, while 
other beneficial public measures received his endorsement and co-opera- 
tion. He died on the eve of his nomination for county commissioner on 
the 6th of October, 1885. His public spirit and progressive citizenship 
made his services much sought in connection with affairs of general mo- 
ment. He was a well educated man, a good conversationalist and fluent 
talker, and was recognized as a strong and influential Republican, whose 
opinions were frequently a decisive force in the local councils of his party. 

Mr. Warren was married in New Jersey in 1874 to Miss Elizabeth 
Von Wachenhusen, a native of Brooklyn, New York, and a daughter of 
Baron Frederick Yon Wachenhusen, of Mecklenburg, who served as lieu- 
tenant in the German army in the revolution of 1848, and because of this 
had to leave his native country, which he did in company with the re- 
nowned Carl Schurz. Of the children of this family one son, Frederick, is 
now deceased. Joan is the widow of E. B. Moorman, of Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, and a son, Eugene, is now in St. Louis, Missouri, where he occu- 
pies a prominent position with the Citizens' Insurance Company. He was 
formerly a resident of Silver City and was Republican candidate for the 
New Mexico legislature at the Thirty-fifth session. Since her husband's 
death Mrs. Warren has continued to reside in Silver City, and has charge 
of the business which he established. He was a man of splendid qualities, 
as displayed in his business, political and social relations, and his death 
came as a personal bereavement to his many friends as well as to his im- 
mediate family. 

Robert Black, a contractor and builder of Silver City, came to this 
place March 2, 1872. He was born and reared in Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts, and in 1859 entered Harvard College, so that in his youth he enjoyed 
splendid educational privileges. He resided at Cambridge until twenty- 
seven years of age. On leaving Boston he spent one year in Denver, Colo- 
rado, and was induced to come to Silver City from that place to construct 
a quartz mill. From that time to the present he has been closely asso- 
ciated with the material progress, the intellectual development and the up- 
building of the city along those lines which contribute to civic virtue and 
civic pride. He was engaged as a contractor and builder until 1883. when 
he was called to public office and later he resumed operations in that di- 
rection and has erected nearly all of the important buildings in the city 
and county in many years. He put in the first wood working machinery 


ever installed in the territory, building the first complete planing mill, 
which was shipped in sections from Boston, Massachusetts. 

On the ist of May, 1883, the railroad was completed to Silver City, and 
Mr. Black, as mayor here, had the honor of driving the silver spike. The 
town had been incorporated in May, 1878, and in April of that year Mr. 
Black had been elected its first mayor, in which capacity he served for 
two terms. In 1880 he was elected a member of the territorial legislature 
as the representative for the five southern counties and filled that position 
for two years. He has been the champion of many feasible movements for 
public good and while in the legislature was the author and introduced 
the first public school bill. The cause of education has ever found in him a 
stalwart friend, and he has been president of the school board of Silver 
City for the past twenty-one years. He was instrumental in securing the 
establishment of the normal university here, and for eight years has been a 
member of the Board of Trustees of the Agricultural College. He is also 
a member of the New Mexico Pioneer Society, which includes all men who 
became residents of the Territory prior to 1880. He served on the Board 
of County Commissioners for one term of two years, and in various posi- 
tions to which he has been called he has shown himself abundantly worthy 
of the trust and confidence reposed in him. 

Mr. Black is a member of Silver City Lodge No. 8, A. F. & A. M., 
and has taken the degrees of the Commandery and of the Mystic Shrine at 
Albuquerque. He also belongs to the Eastern Star, and is the oldest 
Knight of Pythias in the Territory, but has not identified himself with a 
local lodge of that organization. His affiliation with the Masonic craft 
covers a period of more than forty years, during which time he has been a 
worthy exemplar of the beneficent spirit of the order, which promotes 
mutual helpfulness, brotherly kindness and charity among its followers. 

James A. Shipley, residing at Silver City, is deputy clerk of the third 
judicial district, also deputy sheriff, deputy treasurer and collector. He 
was born in Bonaparte, Van Buren county, Iowa. June 16, 1871, and pur- 
sued his education in the public schools of Indianapolis. He arrived in 
New Mexico, January 9, 1891, representing the Wells-Fargo Express Com- 
pany at Albuquerque until 1894. In the spring of the latter year he came to 
Silver City and occupied a clerical position in the assessor's office until 
December of that year. Through the succeeding ten years he was clerk in 
the probate clerk's office and also deputy clerk of the third judicial dis- 
trict of New Mexico. He has discharged the combined duties of his pres- 
ent positions, being deputy clerk of the third judicial district, deputy sheriff 
and deputy treasurer and collector. In politics he is an earnest and unfalter- 
ing Republican, doing all in his power to promote the growth and insure 
the success of his party, and in 1901 he was candidate for the office of pro- 
bate clerk, but was defeated. 

Mr. Shipley was married. March 5. 1802. to Miss Ina E. Whitehill, 
a daughter of P. P. Whitehill, and their children are Frederick G. and 
Addison P., aged respectively ten and four years. Mr. Shipley is a char- 
ter member of Silver City Lodge, No. 413, B. P. O. E., of which he is a 
past exalted ruler. 

Andrew B. Laird, of Silver City, filling the position of county assessor 
of Grant county, is a pioneer of 188 1. He was born in Crawfordsville, 
Indiana, July 3, 1854, and pursued his education in the schools of that 


state. In 1876 he went to Kansas, making his home in Sterling, where he 
engaged in business as a builder and contractor until 1881, when he went to 
Las Vegas. There he engaged in building operations for eight months, 
and afterward went to Bernalillo. In February, 1883, he went to Deming, 
where he did the greater part of the building until 1893. While there he 
was elected sheriff of Grant county in 1886 and served for one term. He 
was re-elected to the office in 1892, and in 1894 was chosen by popular 
suffrage to the position of treasurer and collector. Since 1893 he has made 
Silver City his home, and in addition to county offices has filled some local 
positions, acting as town marshal for three years. He was appointed as- 
sessor in January, 1904, to fill a vacancy, and is the present incumbent in 
the position. In politics he has always been a stalwart Republican, and 
was the first representative of the party to be elected sheriff of Grant 

Mr. Laird has not only proved an efficient and capable officer, but also 
an enterprising business man, and during the past four years has been 
closely connected with building operations at Fort Bayard. He has had 
some military experience, being captain of the only militia company in 
the field ordered out in the campaign against the noted Indian chief, 
Geronimo, in 1885, commanding Troop H of the Second Cavalry. Mr. 
Laird was made a Mason in Kansas, and he assisted in organizing and 
became the first master of Lodge No. II, A. F. & A. M., at Deming. He 
was also senior grand warden of the grand lodge in 1884. He is also 
an Elk. 

Mr. Laird married Flora A. Haight, a native of Owego, New York. 

James Corbin, who is engaged in the insurance and real estate busi- 
ness in Silver City, where he is also notary public and where he formerly 
served as probate judge, was born in Newport, New Hampshire, March 
24, 1838. He is a brother of Austin Corbin and a son of Austin and Mary 
(Chase) Corbin, the former a native of Somers, Connecticut, and the latter 
of Claremcnt, New Hampshire. 

James Corbin acquired his earlv education in Newport, New Hamp- 
shire, and afterward attended the South Woodstock (Vermont) College. 
He made an early trip to Iowa in 1856, his brother Austin being at that 
time a lawyer and banker of Davenport. He afterward returned to New 
York, and in 1864 came to New Mexico on account of his health. In 
1859 he had started for Pike's Peak, but did not reach his destination and 
returned to Davenport, Iowa. At the time of the outbreak of the Civil 
war he was in Chicago, Illinois. Because of his health he afterward re- 
turned to the east, where he read law, and following his arrival in New 
Mexico he was admitted to the bar. 

Locating in Santa Fe, Mr. Corbin became a clerk in the law office of 
Samuel P. Cleaver and of Merrill Ashurst. He was later engrossing clerk 
in the territorial legislature, and in the succeeding summer started for 
Mexico or California, but instead stopped at Fort Craig, where he en- 
gaged in clerking for United States until fall. He thence went to Fort 
Selden, where he did clerical work. He was next at Fort Cummings, and 
a year later, in 1866, went to Fort Bayard, where he spent most of his 
time until coming to Silver City in 1870. He has made his home con- 
tinuously in Grant county since 1865, and has been engaged to a greater 
or less extent in independent mining ventures, and still owns valuable 


mining property. He has also conducted a real estate business for several 
years, negotiating important realty transfers. It was Judge Corbin and 
associates who discovered the celebrated chloride mines in Grant county, 
one of which produced silver to the value of over a million dollars. 

In his political views and affiliations Judge Corbin is a stalwart Demo- 
crat. He was elected and served as probate judge of Grant county and has 
also been mayor of Silver City. He was married in 1885 to Mrs. Emma I. 
(Cross) Adams. 

Charles A. Farnsworth, of Silver City, filling the office of sheriff of 
Grant county, is a native of La Salle county, Illinois, his birth having oc- 
curred in Redding on the 5th of April, 1868. In 1885 he came to New 
Mexico with his parents, Thomas F. and Nannah (Wright) Farnsworth, 
both of whom were of English ancestry, and the father is now deceased. 
In 1878 they left Illinois and for seven years thereafter were residents of 
Nepesta, Colorado, so that Charles A. Farnsworth, who was but ten years 
of age at the time of the removal from Illinois, acquired his education by 
studying successively in the schools of his native state, Colorado and New 
Mexico. In early life he herded cattle for four months and was after- 
ward connected with a grocery business at Lake Valley for two years. 
Subsequently he conducted a store for one year for W. C. Hadley Company 
at Hadley, now Luna, Grant county. In connection with his brother he 
became owner of a large cattle ranch on Bear creek and was identified with 
its management for nine years, at the end of which time he sold out, in 
1900, and in connection with his brothers, T. F. and William S. Farnsworth, 
opened a grocery store and meat market in Silver City, which they still 
conduct, having a well appointed store, which has secured a liberal patron- 
age and, therefore, returns to them a good income. 

Mr. Farnsworth votes with the Republican party and is a loyal ad- 
vocate of its principles. He was nominated upon the Republican ticket 
for the office of sheriff in October, 1902, but was defeated in that year. In 
1904 he was again nominated and won the election by a majority of one 
hundred and twenty-five in a county which has a large normal Democratic 
strength. Fraternally he is connected with the Elks, with the Knights of 
Pythias and with the A. O. U. W. He is now discharging the duties of his 
office in a fearless, capable manner, and at the same time is connected with 
mercantile interests in Silver Citv. 

W. D. Murray, residing at Central, New Mexico, has been a pro- 
moter of many important business enterprises of this section of the Ter- 
ritory and his labors have been of direct benefit and far-reaching effect in 
the work of growth, progress and development here. He is president of 
the Silver City ±\ T ational Bank, is interested in the wholesale firm of Jones, 
Downes & Company, of Silver City, also in the firms of Murray & Layne 
and M. F. Downes & Company, and in many other mercantile and cor- 
porate enterprises. He came to New Mexico in 1880 with his parents, 
the family home being established at Fort Selden. He was a student in 
St. Michael's College and in the Christian Brothers' School at St. Louis, 
Missouri, and in 1886 he went to Fort Bavard, his father being in the 
federal service at the old Fort Bavard, a government post. While in St. 
Louis he was fitting himself for telegraphic work, and after his graduation 
he acted as operator for a short time at Fort Bavard, also serving as clerk 
in the government trading post there, the store being conducted by B. W. 


Maginn. Following the sale of the store by Mr. Maginn to H. Booth, 
Air. Murray continued as clerk and remained there until 1892, when the 
government discontinued the commissioning of post traders, and Mr. Mur- 
ray removed to Central. Here he opened a store for his former employer, 
Mr. Booth, in January, 1893. and the following' year purchased an interest 
in the business, the firm of Booth & Murray being then established. This 
relation was maintained until 1897, when Mr. Murray became sole proprie- 
tor, conducting the business alone until 1900, when the firm of Murray 
Brothers was established, with W. D. and J. T. Murray as partners. This 
has been a leading place of business in Central since that time, and a num- 
ber of branch houses have been established at various places in Grant 
county. In Hanover the business is conducted under the name of the 
Hanover Mercantile Company. 

Mr. Murray is interested in the Alley Canyon Lumber Company. In 
April, 1904, he accepted the presidency of the Silver City National Bank. 
He is also a director and heavy stockholder in the Silver City Savings 
Bank, also pratically owns the Silver Valley Waterworks., which supplies 
the town with water ; is a stockholder and director in the recently organized 
life insurance company known as the Occidental Life Insurance Company, 
doing business in New Mexico and Arizona. In 1900, in connection with 
J. W. Bibb, of Hanover, he organized the Grant County Telephone Com- 
pany, of which he is president, with Mr. Bibb as vice-president. They now 
have 'phones over the greater part of Grant county, and this enterprise has 
been of material benefit in the advancement of business interests and con- 
ditions in this portion of the Territory. The firm of Murray Brothers owns 
a half interest in the Mimbres Hot Springs, located twenty miles east of 
Santa Rita. Mr. Murray is a man of keen business discernment, recog- 
nizing the difficulties as well as the possibilities of a business situation, 
and planning to overcome the former and to utilize the latter. He has la- 
bored with good results, making- the most of his opportunities and steadily 
progressing toward the goal of prosperity. At the same time his business 
career has been of a character that has contributed to general progress as 
well as to individual success. 

In politics Mr. Murray is a Republican, and upon the party ticket was 
elected in 1900 to the office of county commissioner and served as chair- 
man of the board for four years. 

At the Republican convention held at Las Vegas in 1906 he was nom- 
inated for the council from the tenth district, embracing the counties of 
Grant, Luna and Dona Ana. In the November election he was the only 
Republican who was elected in the county of Grant, the balance of the 
ticket being defeated. His majority in Grant county was 223. his majority 
in Doiia Ana county was 523. and he lost Luna county by 95 ; hence the 
total majority was 651. He carried his own precinct. Central, by 129 out 
of 144 votes. 

He is likewise a school director at Central and he belongs to the Elks 
Lodge, No. 413. at Silver City, and to the Knights of Pythias Lodge there. 
He was married in 1893 to Mattie Jones, Silver City. They have two 
girls, Lyda and Hazel, and one boy, Harry B. Murray. 

Owen L. Scott, who is president and manager of Redstone Company, 
engaged in the operation of a sawmill eighteen miles northeast of Silver 
City j making his home at the mill, was born in Virginia, December 11, 


1840, and in October, 1866, came to New Mexico, landing at Santa Fe. 
In 1842 his father had removed with the family to Wyandot county, Ohio, 
where he followed farming in pioneer days. In June, i860, Owen L. Scott 
left Ohio ana went to Colorado, arriving in Denver on the 1 6th of August 
of that year. In August, 1864, he enlisted at first sergeant in Company 11 
of the Third Colorado Cavalry and served under Colonel George L. Shoup 
within the state of Colorado, engaged in Indian fighting. He was for 
one hundred days in the army. He had been in business in Colorado, and 
following his removal to Santa Fe he soon started to other parts of the 
Territory upon a prospecting trip. He located at Fort Selden, on the Rio 
Grande, in Dona Ana county, in 1864, and was there in the employ of 
George Blake, post trader, selling goods, until 1869. He also acted later 
as clerk in the quartermaster's department. He afterward returned east on 
a visit and in the summer of 1870 was engaged in mining in Colorado. 
In the fall of 1 87 1 he came to Silver City, and in 1872 established the first 
newspaper in Grant county, called Mining Life, the first issue being given 
to the public in May of that year. He continued its publication until the 
spring of 1875. The following year he accepted the position of book- 
keeper for M. W. Bremen, the pioneer miner and the most successful rep- 
resentative of that business ever in the Territory. Mr. Scott continued as 
bookkeeper until 1883, when he was appointed postmaster by President 
Arthur and served for four years. In 1888 he joined the Hastings Lumber 
and Manufacturing Company, and thus became connected with the lum- 
ber business. In 1891 he organized the Black-Scott Lumber Company, 
and as secretary and manager operated the sawmill, which is situated 
eighteen miles northeast of Silver City, until January 1, 1901, when the 
Redstone Company was incorporated, with himself as president and mana- 
ger, and has continued in the lumber trade to the present time, with a 
large and constantly growing patronage. 

Mr. Scott was married at Fort Selden, March 4. 1872, to Miss Mary 
Tane Hannum, a native of Ohio. He is a charter member of San Vicente 
Lodge, No. 5, I. O. O. F. 

E. M. Young came to Silver Citv. April 15, 1882, from Deming, mak- 
ing the trip on a six-horse stage. This was then a small adobe town, the 
population being mostly the Mexican element and depending entirely upon 
mining as a source of income. He there accepted a position as bookkeeper 
with I. N. Cohen, in whose employ he remained for several years, after 
which he became postmaster, filling that position from January 6, 1887, un- 
til 1891, under appointment of Grover Cleveland. Air. Young is a stal- 
wart Democrat in his political affiliation, and has taken deep interest in 
political affairs for a number of years. In 1890 he was elected probate 
clerk, and by re-election served for four consecutive terms. In 1891 he 
was appointed a member of the board of regents of the New Mexico Nor- 
mal School, at which time he was made secretary and treasurer, and is still 
serving in that capacity. 

Upon his retirement from the office of probate clerk Air. Young en- 
tered the grocery business and has since continued in the trade, being rec- 
ognized as one of the prominent and substantial residents of Silver Citv. 
where his commercial and official activity have been of such a character as 
to render him one of the leading men here. 

W. A. Tenney. a freight contractor of Silver City, has been a resi- 


dent of New Mexico since 1873, when, at the age of thirteen years, he 
went to Valencia county with his father, N. C. tenney, and entered the 
cattle business thirty-five miles southeast of Fort Wingate, in Little Onion. 
He was born and reared in Utah until the removal of the family to New 
Mexico. The father engaged in the cattle business until 1878, when, 
with his father, he went to St. John's, Arizona, and there he was killed 
while acting as peacemaker between the cowboys and the Mexicans in the 
great bull fight at that place. 

W. A. Tenney was connected with his father in his cattle interests 
until 1878, when he secured a government contract for freighting from 
Albuquerque and Las Vegas to Fort Wingfate, following that pursuit for 
four or five years, or until the Santa Fe Railroad was built to Needles. He 
has since engaged in freighting in New Mexico, Arizona and Old Mexico, 
making his headquarters in Silver City since June, 1903. His family, 
however, resides in, St. John's, Arizona. Mr. Tenney is a member of Sil- 
ver City Lodge No. 13, I. O. O. F., and Silver City Lodge No. 7, A. O. 
U. W. He came to this section of the country in pioneer times, when the 
seeds of civilization had hardly been planted, and through almost thirty 
years has been an interested witness of the progress that has been made and 
the changes which have occurred, bringing about a wonderful transforma- 
tion in business conditions and in the settlement of the country. 

Major O. G. Myhre, connected with the drug trade at Silver City 
and prominent in military circles of New Mexico as a member of the Na- 
tional Guard, was born at Beloit, Wisconsin, June 27, 1865. In the fall 
of the same year his parents removed to Iowa, locating at Estherville, 
Emmet county. The father, Andrew Myhre, a pioneer of Wisconsin, fol- 
lowed merchandising in various places in that state and in Iowa and left 
the latter state when Major Myhre was about eight years of age, removing 
to Lyle, Minnesota, where he again engaged in merchandising. The son 
was reared in Lyle, pursuing his education in the public schools, and after- 
ward in the institute at Decorah, Iowa, and a business college at La Crosse, 
Wisconsin. At Lyle he entered a drug store and learned the business. In 
1887 he went to Chicago and pursued a course of study in the Chicago 
College of Ophthalmology. On the completion of the course he returned to 
Lyle, where he engaged in the drug and optical business. On the 29th of 
March, 1889, he was appointed postmaster of that place by President Harri- 
son, and in 1890 was elected mayor of the town. The following year the 
town was largely destroyed by fire, but Mr. Myhre reopened his drug store 
and continued in business there until the spring of 1892, when he came to 
New Mexico. He arrived at Carlsbad on the 30th of June, 1892, and 
conducted a drug store there for three years, when he returned to Chi- 
cago and went upon the road as a traveling salesman. In March, 1897, 
he came to Silver City and has been connected with the Porterfield 
Drug Company since that time, also conducting an optical business. 

On the 19th of September, 1901. Mr. Myhre was commissioned cap- 
tain of Company D, of the First Regiment of Infantry of the New Mexico 
National Guard. In September, 1902, he was appointed by Governor Otero 
as major in the First Regiment and was assigned to command the Third 
Battalion. On the 23rd of March. 1005, he was appointed by Governor 
Otero as a member of the board of ophtometry and elected secretary. In 
community affairs he has also been deeply and helpfully interested, and 


since 1899 nas served as chief of the Silver City fire department, while in 
1905 he was chosen a member of the board of education and is now acting 
as its secretary. Fraternally he is connected with Silver City Lodge No. 
413, B. P. O. E., and also a member of Silver City Lodge No. 12, K. of P., 
of which he is a past chancellor. 

George H. Bell, owning and controlling a ranch near Silver City, was 
born in Dayton, Ohio, October 4, 1858, and spent his boyhood days there 
and in London, Ohio. He came to New Mexico in 1880, and for a time 
conducted a saloon in Silver City, but about seven years ago purchased a 
cattle ranch and now has one of the finest ranching properties in this part 
of the country. It is stocked with a high grade of cattle and his annual 
sales reach a large figure. Moreover, he has contributed to the substan- 
tial improvement of Silver City through the, erection of two large business 
blocks, and he has been interested in mining to a greater or less extent dur- 
ing the entire period of his residence here. 

Mr. Bell served as a member of the militia during the troubles with the 
Apache Indians. He has also taken an interest in politics as an advocate of 
the Democracy, and he belongs to Silver City Lodge No. 413. B. P. O. E. 

Albert Dano, of Silver City, who has mining interests in the Burro 
mountains and is engaged in general development work, has resided in 
New Mexico for twenty-five years. He was born in Baraboo, Wisconsin, 
May 16, 1857, a son of William H. and Margaret Dano. His early life 
was spent in his native city, his education acquired in the public schools 
there, and he entered upon his business career as a drug clerk in Baraboo. 
In 1880, at the age of twenty-three years, he came to New Mexico and 
lived at different times in Socorro, Santa Fe and Albuquerque, but de- 
voted much of the time to business interests in Santa Fe. He also mined in 
various places. About ten years ago he came to Silver City, where he 
has since engaged in business. He now has good copper mining properties 
in the Burro mountains, which he is operating independently, and he is 
also engaged in general development work, his labors proving of direct and 
immediate benefit in the upbuilding and progress of this part of the Terri- 
tory. His co-operation can always be counted upon as a factor in the fur- 
therance of any movement for the nublic good. 

Nick Hughes, Sr., well known as a cattleman of Lordsburg, is fa- 
miliar with the history of the Southwest from the early period in its pioneer 
development, for he came to New Mexico in 1856 at the age of fifteen 
years as a member of the United States cavalry engaged in active service 
against the Navajo Indians. He was born in Ireland. Entering the army 
in early manhood, he served for five terms, which covered the period of 
the Civil war, and also brought him into contact with military experiences 
upon the frontier in the subjugation of the red race, who took advantage 
of every available opportunity in a manifestation of the hostile spirit which 
made life such a hazardous thing to the frontier settlers. After retiring 
from the army he located in Puerto de Luna and embarked in the cattle 
business, the wide, open country giving an excellent range. About 1870 or 
1871 he removed to Sension, in Chihuahua, Mexico, where he engaged in 
trade, largely dealing in cattle, horses and other stock. He was thus en- 
gaged until 1878, when he removed to the Sang Somone valley in Arizona. 
In 1887 he removed to the ranch a mile and a half northeast of Lordsburc-. 


where he is now engaged in the cattle business. He has large herds and is 
constantly breeding up the stock to better strains. 

None of the usual experiences of life on the frontier when the settlers 
were constantly exposed to the clangers of Indian attack are unknown to 
Mr. Hughes. He has had many encounters with the red men and various 
narrow escapes, and his life history, if written in detail, would be a most 
thrilling story of the varied experiences when his life was endangered 
and his escape seemed almost miraculous. On one occasion, between Chi- 
huahua, Mexico, and Silver Citv, while carrying a big bag of silver and 
gold which he had received in payment for a thousand head of cattle, he 
was attacked by rustlers, but escaped. L.ater he was jumped by a band 
of Indians, but again escaped, on each occasion owing to the fact that 
he rode a splendid horse, which outdistanced his pursuers. He has watched 
with interest the changes that have come as the tide of emigration has 
steadily flowed to this region, the white race having reclaimed the district 
for the uses of civilization, churches and schools being planted upon the 
frontier, business interests established and the development of the natural 
resources of the country carried on until, in point of business activity and 
sources of culture. New Mexico is not behind the older cities and long set- 
tled districts of the east. 

Mr. Hughes was married in New Mexico in 1863 to Miss Josefa 
Armijo, and to them have been born four children : James, deceased ; 
John, who was killed in Old Mexico ; Mary, the wife of John Robson ; and 
Nick, Jr., who was born December 25, 1870, in Bernalillo county. He was 
reared to the stock business and had the reputation of being the best 
broncho rider in the Territory. He owns a ranch one mile east of Lords- 
burg, where he is engaged in raising cattle and horses, and he is also 
engaged in farming to some extent, having about twenty acres under irri- 
gation. He has a wife and four sons in the Territory. In politics he is 
an active Democrat, which is also the political faith of the father, who has 
always been an advocate of the principles of that party. 

J. P. Ownby. deceased, who for many years was recognized as one of 
the prominent cattlemen of New Mexico and belonged to that class of 
citizens who have extended the frontier by planting the seeds of civilization 
in a hitherto new and undeveloped region, came to Lordsburg in No- 
vember. 1880. His youth was passed in Memphis, Tennessee, his native 
city, and in 1852 he went to California. He was prominent in communit 
affairs in the southern section of the state, serving as sheriff of Los Angeles 
county and also marshal of the city of Los Angeles for six years. In 
other ways he was an influential factor in the community. In November. 
1880, he came to Lordsburg, where he was soon afterward joined by his 
children. Here he engaged in the cattle business, and in partnership with 
his son, B. B. Ownby, he began raising and dealing in stock, becoming 
one of the well known cattlemen of this part of the Territory. With ready 
adaptation of his interests to the condition of a new country, he conducted 
his business affairs with undaunted energy and enterprise, resulting in 
profit. In politics he was very active, giving his allegiance to the Dem- 
ocracv. In his family were two sons and a daughter. 

B. B. Ownby. his son and partner, was born and reared in Los 
Angeles. California, where he acquired his education, and he was con- 
tinuously engaged in the cattle business in New Mexico since coming to the 


Territory in 1880. He has a ranch one mile north of Lordsburg and is 
here running large herds of cattle, representing a considerable investment 
and yielding him gratifying profit as the result of his annual sales. In- 
terested in public affairs to the extent of giving hearty support and co- 
operation to many progressive movements, Mr. Ownby is now serving as 
one of the commissioners of Grant county- He was county deputy sheriff 
of Grant county for twelve years, deputy United States marshal for four 
years and city marshal of Lordsburg, and the record of his public service 
has been characterized by unfaltering fidelity to duty. 

Don: H. Kedzie. editor of the Lordsburg Liberal, became a resident 
of Lordsburg in 1887, and in partnership with S. D. Dye founded the 
Western Liberal. A year later the paper passed into the hands of Mr. 
Kedzie, who has conducted it alone continuously since. 

Born in Clinton, Michigan, Mr. Kedzie supplemented his early educa- 
tional privileges by study in the State Agricultural College, from which in- 
stitution he was graduated. He learned the printer's trade at St. Joseph, 
Michigan, and afterward assisted his father, A. S. Kedzie, in conducting 
the Grand Haven (Michigan) Herald. While there he became ill with 
consumption and for the benefit of his health removed to New Mexico. 
He found in the climatic conditions here the needed restoratives, and, en- 
tering business life, has since been allied with the interests of the Ter- 
ritory. He served as postmaster of Lordsburg during the administration 
of Benjamin Harrison, was reappointed under the first administration of 
President McKinley. and is still acting in the position. He is a very loyal 
and ardent advocate of Republican principles, and publishes his paper in 
the interests of the party. He is also engaged in the insurance business and 
is a director of several mining companies. 

Mr. Kedzie is a charter member and assisted in the organization, on 
the 4th of July. 1896, of Pyramid Lodge No. 23, Knights of Pythias, and he 
is a past chancellor and member of the grand lodge of the Knights of 
Pythias. In addition to the office of postmaster he has served as notary 
public, and is an enterprising business man and citizen, whose outlook rec- 
ognizes opportunities and whose efforts in behalf of public service have 
been far reaching and beneficial. 

William H. Small, a representative of commercial interests of Lords- 
burg, was born and reared in the gas belt of Indiana, his birth having oc- 
curred March 21. 1858, and came to New Mexico on the 1st of January, 
1883, on which date he arrived in Lordsburg. Here he entered business 
life as a dealer in stationery, subsequently opening and conducting a drug 
store, and later embarked in general merchandise, carrying 011 that line of 
business from 1897 until the present time. The Eagle drug store was 
founded in 1885 by W. II. Small and was merged with the business of 
the Eagle Drue Mercantile Company in March. 1S07, at which time it was 
incorporated with W. H. Small as the chief stockholder, while John T. and 
James P. McCabe and S. M. Chase were also incorporators. Air. Small 
has conducted his commercial interests along lines of modern business 
activity, recognizing that the field of opportunity is limitless and that strong 
determination and carefully formed and executed plans are a sure and safe 
basis upon which to build the superstructure of success. Mr. Small be- 
longs to Deming Lodge No. 23. A. F. & A. M., and to Lordsburg Lodge 
No. 23, K. P., and is in hearty sympathy with the teachings and tenets of 


these organizations. His efforts have heen of direct and permanent benefit 
in the establishment of the commercial status and the development of bus- 
iness conditions in Lordsburg, where for twenty-three years he has made 
his home. Mr. Small was married at Fort Worth. Texas, in 1884, to Miss 
Sadie A. Oliver, a native of Indiana. 

H. L. Gammon, a millwright and mechanic conducting a contracting 
business in Lordsburg. is a native of Maine, born November 30, 1850. His 
youth was passed in the Pine Tree state and he learned the millwright's 
trade in Comstock, Nevada, where he also gained practical knowledge of 
mining in its various departments and operation. He came to New Mexico 
in 1882, locating at Leitendorf as a millwright and subsequently became 
master mechanic for the Detroit Mining Company at Morenci, Arizona. 
However, he spent one year at Lake Valley, New Mexico, before going 
to Arizona, and after two years passed in the latter territory he returned 
to Lordsburg and erected a mill at Leitendorf. He has, however, made his 
headquarters at Lordsburg continuously since and is actively engaged in 
putting up and operating mining machinery. In this way he has con- 
tributed in practical manner to the development of the country, which finds 
one of its chief sources of income in its mineral deposits. 

Mr. Gammon married Miss Isabella Bartlett, of Texas, in 1887. Their 
children are : N. A., attending military school at Roswell ; Mabel, Lottie, 
and Malcolm. 

M. W. McGrath, who has been closely connected with the material, 
intellectual progress and substantial development of Lordsburg along many 
lines, was born on Prince Edward Island, Canada, and acquired his early 
education there. When twenty years of age he went to California by way 
of the Isthmus of Panama and in 1881 he arrived in Deming. He was in 
the employ of the Southern Pacific Railroad Company and after a year and 
a half there passed he removed to Lordsburg. where he worked for four 
years as a master mechanic of the Arizona and New Mexico Railroad. 
Subsequently he entered the livery and feed business and later turned his 
attention to merchandising. He also conducted a butcher shop, and in 1900 
erected a hotel and business block. He has also put up other buildings in 
the town and has thus contributed in substantial measure to the improve- 
ment of the city. He is now proprietor of the Vendome Hotel and has 
conducted the varied business interests above mentioned in partnership with 
his two sons, with whom he divided his entire business after they became 
of age. A man of resourceful ability, readily recognizing and improving 
opportunities, he has, through his marked enterprise, keen discernment and 
unflagging diligence, won for himself a place among the substantial resi- 
dents of Lordsburg and at the same time his efforts have been a valued 
factor in the material development and improvement of the city. 

Mr. McGrath was married in Prince Edward Island, Canada, and has 
two sons, Lemuel C. and Herbert J., who manage and carry on the bus- 
iness. In community affairs Mr. McGrath has been deeply interested and 
his labors have been of direct benefit in lines of intellectual, social and pol- 
itical progress. He raised the first money and paid the first teacher who 
held school in Lordsburg, and was the first school director. In fact, he is 
regarded as the father of the system of public instruction here and he has 
ever done all in his power to further the work of public education. He has 
been justice of the peace of Lordsburg for the past fourteen years and is 


very active in Democratic politics, being- an earnest champion of the prin- 
ciples of the party and doing all in his power to promote its growth and 
extend its influence. He is a charter member of Pyramid Lodge No. 23, 
K. P., of which he has been past chancellor. 

O. R. Smyth, now living retired in Lordsburg, is one of the honored 
pioneers of New Mexico who have aided in reclaiming this region from 
the domain of the savage and converted it to the use of modern civiliza- 
tion. He was born and reared in Plempstead, New York, and came to the 
west on the second train that reached Pueblo, Colorado, over the Santa 
Fe Railroad. He prospected in that state and became familiar with min- 
ing processes and methods there. He also followed coal mining in Mis- 
souri. In 1876 he arrived in the Territory of New Mexico, locating in 
Santa Fe, where he spent a few months, after which he took charge of 
the overland stage at Silver City, conducting the stage business between 
the two railroads, the Santa Fc and the Southern Pacific. Those were 
troublous times, when the Indians were frequently upon the war-path and 
resented the encroachments of the white race upon their hunting grounds. 
They stopped not at any atrocity nor depredation and constantly waged 
warfare upon the white people. There were nineteen men in the employ of 
Mr. Smyth who were killed by the Indians during the time that he had 
charge of the overland stage route. He is familiar with almost every chap- 
ter of the history of the early pioneer days here and from actual experiences 
can relate incidents of far more thrilling interest than man}' a tale of fic- 
tion. Since his retirement from the stage business in 1881 he has devoted 
his time and energies to mining, freighting and merchandising, but at this 
writing is practically living retired, having in the course of an active, busy 
and useful life accumulated a competence that now enables him to put aside 
all business cares. In 1902 he was elected to the office of county commis- 
sioner of Grant county and discharged the duties of the position with the 
same fidelity and promptness that have ever marked the discharge of his 
business obligations and the care of his private interests. He belongs to 
Pyramid Lodge No. 23, K. P., of Lordsburg. and is one of the prominent 
and honored citizens of this locality to whom the Territory owes a debt of 
gratitude for what he has accomplished in reclaiming this district for the 
uses of the white race. 

Robert H. Boulware, a commission man of Silver City, New Mexico, 
who is also engaged in the liven' business, was born in Bowling Green, 
Virginia, and from the age of nineteen years has been in the west, identi- 
fied with the great movement of progress and improvement which has led 
to the rapid and substantial upbuilding of this section of the country. In 
1885 he located in Fairview, New Mexico, and for six years was there en- 
gaged in raising and dealing in horses and cattle. In 1891 he made his 
way to Link Bar zinc ranch on Diamond creek, where he spent four years 
as foreman, and he was also foreman for four years on the ranch of Black 
Canyon. Removing to Silver City he established a livery barn, which he 
has since conducted, and he is also interested in the commission business, 
buying and selling horses, cattle and ranches. He is a man of executive 
force and enterprise, improving each opportunity as it arises, and has 
made a creditable record as a successful business man. He is also inter- 
ested in mining, having invested in different properties. 

Mr. Boulware was married June 14, 1905, to Miss Blanch Casey. He 

Vol. II. 15 


is a member of Silver City Lodge No. 8, A. F. & A. M., and has attained 
the Knight Templar degree of Masonry. He likewise belongs to Silver 
City Lodge Xo. 14, B. P. O. E., and to Silver City Lodge, A. O. U. W. 
He served as deputy sheriff of Sierra county for four years and has had 
many experiences with the Indians, especially while living at Fairview, 
so that he became a participant in events which form the history of the 
most picturesque epoch in the development of the southwest. 

J. B. Gilchrist, secretary and treasurer of the G. O. S. Cattle Com- 
pany, has been and is a valued factor in the development of the Territory 
through his active connection with railroad building and through the ef- 
fective efforts he lias put forth in securing the investment of capital in 
this portion of the country. He came to Xew Mexico in 1891 as chief en- 
gineer of the Silver City & Northern Railroad Company and superintended 
and engineered the building of the road from Whitewater to Hanover. 
T. G. Condon, of Xew York city, was vice-president of the company and 
the prime factor in interesting capital in the road, and to him is due much 
credit for the establishment of the line. The line was completed in Sep- 
tember, 1891, the purpose of its construction being to take out the iron 
ore for the gold and silver smelters to be used as a flux. This ore was 
shipped to Socorro and El Paso and utilized for flux in the smelters there. 
The railroad was operated for this purpose until 1896, when the track was 
washed out, and in i8<;8 the Santa Fe Company bought the road, repairing 
it to Santa Rita. When the Colorado Fuel & Iron Company began opera- 
tions here the}- made arrangements with the Santa Fe Company to con- 
tinue the road to Fierro, since which time the company has been mining 
for iron ore and converting the same into steel, making shipments over the 
railroad. Following the original completion of the road in 1891 Mr. Gil- 
christ had charge of the line and was also superintendent of the iron mines 
in this vicinity. He continued in that capacity until 1805 anc ^ ' m '896 he 
was engaged in mining operations in old Mexico and in 1897 at Cripple 
Creek, Colorado. In 1898 he returned to Grant county and in 1899 me 
firm of Gilchrist & Dawson was established. For a year previous Mr. Gil- 
christ had been engaged in leasing mining properties from the Santa Rita 
Copper & Iron Company at Santa Rita, and Mr. Gilchrist mined for 
copper on their properties. The firm of Gilchrist & Dawson being organ- 
ized in April, 1899. they continued in the same line of work and in the 
same locality, opening up property which had been idle since 1884, but 
which has been in active operation since they assumed charge. The firm 
of Gilchrist & Dawson, however, discontinued mining at Santa Rita in 
1899. The firm then began mining at Fierro, leasing from the Colorado 
Fuel & Iron Company, and so continued until August, 1902. A mercantile 
enterprise was conducted in conjunction with the other interests of this 
company, and at the present time Mr. Gilchrist is conducting a success- 
ful mercantile business at Fierro. He is the president of the firm of Gil- 
christ & Dawson, which firm owns the Copper Rose mine east of Santa 
Rita and now leases to other parties. Mr. Gilchrist has also extended his 
efforts to other lines, being now secretary and treasurer of the G. O. S. 
Cattle Company, with headquarters on the Sapoello. This company is in- 
corporated with Victor Culberson as president and manager, J. B. Gil- 
christ, secretary and treasurer, and R. F. Herndon, of Colorado, as vice- 
president. This company bought out the Mountain Range Cattle Com- 

J. W. Bible 


pany. also the stock interests of Mrs. ( ). C. Carpenter and of the old G. O. S. 
Company and merged all these under the name of the G. O. S. Cattle 

J. W. Bible, president of the Hanover Mercantile Company at Han- 
over, New Mexico, came to Grant county in the Territory in 1891 in the 
interests of the Southwestern Coal & Iron Company, Hanover Improve- 
ment Company and the Silver City & Northern Railroad Company. When 
the Silver City & Northern Railroad was acquired by the Atchison, Tope- 
ka & Santa Fe Railroad Company in 1891, Mr. Bible took a lease on the 
Hanover Improvement & Southwestern Coal & Iron Companies' proper- 
ties and also leased individual holdings. About 1900 the Empire Mines 
Company was formed by Mr. Bible and this company purchased proper- 
ties in this district, including the Ivanhoe mine. Later, however, this 
company sold all of its holdings to the Rio Grande Copper Company and 
Mr. Bible continued as general manager for this company. In 1904 the 
Hermosa Copper Company acquired these holdings and Mr. Bible con- 
tinued as general superintendent for the last mentioned companv. In 1900 
he was the organizer of the Grant County Telephone Company and is now 
its vice-president. He has been the promoter of business progress and im- 
provement along various lines here and in 1898 organized the firm of Mur- 
ray & Bible, general merchants, at Hanover, predecessors to the Hanover 
Mercantile Company, of which Mr. Bible is now president. He is one 
of the most far-sighted and energetic business men of this locality, and has 
made a success of every enterprise in which he has been connected. As 
a mining man he is one of the most practical and thoroughly informed 
men in the southwest. In 1900 he was appointed a member of the Ter- 
ritorial Immigration Board by Governor Otero and is now serving as 
treasurer of the board. He is also a member of the American Institute of 
Mining Engineers. 

J. A. Wolford, of Central, the pioneer fruit-raiser in Santa Clara 
valley, now devoting his energies to horticultural pursuits and to stock- 
raising, came to the Territory in 1874 and has since been a resident of 
Grant county. He was born in Germany and in 1839 came to America. 
At the time of the Civil war he responded to the country's call for troops, 
enlisting- in 1861 at the three months' call. He was at that time a resident 
of Cumberland county, Illinois. He joined the armv as a private, and after 
the expiration of his first term he re-enlisted in 1862 as a member of Com- 
pany G, One Hundred and Twenty-third Illinois Infantry. He came from 
Kansas to New r Mexico and located near Lone Mountain. 

F. J. Davidson, senior partner of the firm of F. J. Davidson & Com- 
pany, general merchants at Pinos Altos, is a native of Nova Scotia and 
came from Halifax, that country, to New Mexico in October, 1883. his des- 
tination being Silver City, where he remained until March. 1884. He then 
went to Pinos Altos and entered the emplov of the Pinos Altos Gold and 
Silver Mining Company, one of the pioneer companies operating in this 
localitv, and practically the first company to build a quartz mill here. At 
that time V. C. Place was manager and Mr. Davidson was engaged as 
bookkeeper and manager of the companv's store, which was conducted in 
the building which he now occupies. He was with the original company 
for two years, when thev sold out to the Hearst people and the property 
now belongs to the Comanche Mining and Smelting Companv. In 1886 


Mr. Davidson began business on his own account in Pinos Altos, success- 
fully conducting his enterprise until 1890, when he suffered a severe loss 
through fire. He was then out of business for nearly a year, when he re- 
sumed operations in trade, and in February, 1903, he again suffered heavily 
by fire. He reopened his store, however, in the building which he now 
occupies, and is at the head of the firm of F. J. Davidson & Company, 
dealers in general merchandise. They carry a well selected line of goods 
and have a liberal patronage, which is constantly growing. Mr. David- 
son has also been engaged in mining in Pinos Altos at different times, 
although not interested now in the development of the mineral resources 
of this section of the country. In politics he is a Democrat and fraternally 
is connected with the Elks at Silver City. 

Walter Brandis, identified with mining operations in the vicinity of 
Pinos Altos, was born in Sherman, Texas, in 1874, and has been a resi- 
dent of New Mexico since 1879, tne journey being made by wagon to 
Silver City. In 1891 he came to Pinos Altos and began learning the trade 
of a mill hand, working in the quartz mills in this camp. In 1902 the 
firm of Brandis & Company leased the mammoth mill at Pinos Altos from 
the Golden Giant Mining Company, and as head of the present firm Mr. 
Brandis has since been conducting this industrial enterprise, operating a 
ten-stamp mill. He also leased the Kept Woman mine, located above Pinos 
Altos, and controls its output. It has now been in his possession for about 
three months, and when he has it opened up will furnish thirty tons every 
twenty-four hours. Aside from its output he mills the output of other 
mines in this camp and is thus closely associated with the mining interests 
of this portion of the Territory. 



Lincoln county lies nearly in the center of the Territory, being bounded 
north by Torrance and Guadalupe counties, east by Roosevelt and Chaves, 
south by Chaves, Otero and Dona Ana counties and west by Socorro. It 
contains nearly 5,000 square miles and about the same population ; that is, 
it averages one person to every square mile of territory. Its county seat is 
Lincoln, a town of 1,000 population. 

Originally Lincoln county occupied the entire southeastern portion of 
the Territory, and much of the choicest grazing land in New Mexico. From 
1876 to 1879 ^ was tne scene of what was known as "the Lincoln county 
war," between rival cattle owners. The entire population of its 30,000 
square miles was compelled to take sides in this conflict, and partisanship 
of the most bitter character was engendered. More than a score of men 
were killed during the contest, which was practically for the control of 
the range on the government land in that section. Each side employed 
desperadoes as cowboys, and battles and sieges succeeded each other as in 
a regular war. 

By legislative act of 1889, Chaves and Eddy counties were separated 
from Lincoln, and in 1899 Otero was carved from its territory, which then 
assumed its present area. 

Physical and Industrial Features. — The average elevation of Lincoln 
county is from 4,000 to 5,000 feet above sea level. The Sierra Blanca, 
Capitan, Nogal and Carrizo ranges, in its central and southern portions, 
are well forested with pine pinyon, juniper, oak and cottonwood, which 
afford excellent material for fuel and building. Loftier mountain ranges 
run north and south in Socorro county, but so near the western boundary 
of Lincoln as to form a complete watershed. Around White Oaks and 
the Nogal and Capitan mountains are valuable mines of copper and lead. 

The face of the country is varied, the northern half of the county being 
chiefly composed of vast plateaus, interspersed with valleys, mountains and 
tablelands. The character of the soil also varies, the larger portion being 
a sandy loam, with frequent and considerable areas of chocolate and black 
soil, similar to the prairie lands of the more distant eastern states. The 
central parts of the county are well watered by running streams, the prin- 
cipal of which is the Rio Hondo, a deep, swift stream, draining the Sierra 
Blanca and Capitan mountains. Besides this are the Felix, Ruidoso, Bonito, 
Eagle, Upper and Lower Penyasco and Nogal creeks. In the northern 
portions springs break out on the wide plateaus and afford abundance of 
water for stock. 

Grapes and currants in their native state grow in great abundance, 
while cultivated vines, as well as apples, peaches and pears, yield splendid 
harvests. All the grains of the temperate zone grow well, vegetables of 


every variety maturing into wonderful proportions. Beans are an espe- 
cially reliable crop, and the forage grasses and fertilizers develop to per- 
fection. Alfalfa yields from four to five cuttings annually, and the crop 
will average from five to eight tons per acre. 

For pasturage and a stock country Lincoln county has few equals. 
Stock of all descriptions subsist en the range alone and keep in fine condi- 
tion, winter and summer. Frudent managers think that two per cent is 
a liberal estimate of loss from all causes while the cattle or sheep are on the 
range. The profit on cattle is estimated to be at least fifty cents monthly 
per head from the time they are calved, while the profit on sheep is not less 
than fifty per cent. 

County Officers. — Lincoln county was organized in 1869, but, like 
many other counties in New Mexico, many of the records have disap- 
peared. It is impossible to give anything like a complete list of the county 

Towns. — Lincoln, the county seat, is in the southeastern part of the 
county, on the Rio Bonito. It is a place of about 1,000 people, its nearest 
railroad station being Capitan, on the El Paso & Northeastern line, about 
ten miles to the west. 

White Oaks, forty-one miles northwest of Lincoln and nearly in the 
center of the county, is the most important point. It is surrounded' by 
good gold mines and mills and is altogether a thriving town. The adjacent 
mountains are also rich in coal and iron and covered with pine, cedar and 
pinyon timber. Even before White Oaks secured railroad connections 
through the El Paso & Northeastern system it was a remarkably pros- 
perous place. For years it has been the seat of most successful gold min- 
ing. The first lode located in the White Oaks camp was South Home- 
stake, by John E. Wilson, in November, 1879. A few days later John V. 
Winters located the North Homestake. A little later were staked out Old 
Abe (the deepest dry mine in the United States), Rip Van Winkle, Corn- 
stock, Little Mack and Henry Clay, and during the winter of 1879-80 Large 
Hopes, Little Hell and Blacksmith. The camp's real "boom" commenced 
in March, 1880. with the discovery of unusually rich ore in the North 

The military post of Fort Stanton is located in a beautiful valley seven 
miles from Lincoln. It is about forty miles north of the Mescalero Apache 
Indian agency, and was established in the late '50s to keep the Mescalero 
Apaches in check. 

John W. Owen, sheriff of Lincoln county, was born and reared in 
Sedalia. Missouri, where he became familiar with the occupation of farm- 
ing. He arrived in White Oaks, New Mexico, in 1885, and began raising 
and dealing in cattle and horses. He is yet interested in that industry 
in the vicinity of White Oaks, having a ranch thirty-five miles north of 
the town. He raises cattle on quite an extensive scale and the business is 
a profitable one. Called to public office, he was elected sheriff in 1902 and 
served for seven months. In 190.S he was re-elected and removed with his 
family to Lincoln. He had previously served as constable and as deputy 
sheriff of White Oaks, and has proved a capable officer, prompt and faith- 
ful in the discharge of his duties. He is a member of Excelsior Lodge 
No. 5. I. O. O. F. 

J. J. and Manuel Aragon, proprietors of a leading mercantile estab- 


lishment in Lincoln, are natives of Valencia county, New Mexico, and both 
acquired their early education in this Territory. ' J. J. Aragon afterward 
became a student in Nelson Business College at Springfield, Ohio, and, 
returning to the Territory, he engaged in merchandising with his brother 
at Monticello, Sierra county, where he remained for a few years. He 
then sold out and removed to El Paso, where he engaged in merchandis- 
ing for about three years. He afterward spent two years in Alamogordo, 
New Mexico, as proprietor of a drug store, and in August, 1901, came to 
Lincoln, where he established a general mercantile store, which he has 
since successfully conducted. He has always been in partnership with his 
brother Manuel, the business relations between them being mutually pleas- 
ant and profitable. In 1886 J. J. Aragon was engaged in the real estate 
business in Kansas City. He has been somewhat prominent in public affairs 
in the Territorv, especiallv as the supporter of the Republican party. He 
was superintendent of schools in Sierra county about 1896, and the cause of 
education found in him a warm and stalwart friend. He is ever alive to 
the best interests of count}- and Territory, and his labors have been of 
direct and permanent good in promoting the general improvement of the 

George B. Barber, engaged in the practice of law at Lincoln, is a 
native of Virginia, and when a youth accompanied his parents on their 
removal to what was then the northwest territorv, the family locating in 
the city of Milwaukee. Wisconsin. Coming to the Southwest, Mr. Barber 
took up his abode in Lincoln in December, 1877, and studied law in the office 
of Judge Ira E. Leonard. Following his preliminary reading, he was ad- 
mitted to the bar at Lincoln in 1882, and at once opened an office for prac- 
tice. He has since been an active representative of the profession here, 
and for three years served as district attorney for the counties of Lincoln, 
Chaves and Eddy. He is a close and discriminating student of the law, 
prepares his cases with great thorouehness and care, and is strong in 
argument, so that he has won many notable forensic victories, having a 
clientage that connects him with the most important litigation tried in the 
courts of the district. He is very active in Republican politics, recognized 
as one of the leaders of the partv in this section of the Territory. 

J. W. Prude, licensed trader with the Indians at Mescalero Apache 
Indian agency and also supplying the mess hall ranchers and others in 
the locality, was born and reared in Texas and has spent his entire life on 
the frontier. He was the son of a pioneer cattleman, John Prude, of Ala- 
bama, who went to Texas in 1852, while the mother, Mrs. John Prude, 
became a resident of the Lone Star state in 1847. '" his youth J. W. Prude 
became a cowboy and is familiar with all of the thrilling experiences as 
well as the routine work of that occupation. Since the fall of 1887 he has 
been in New Mexico, and since 1889 has resided in Lincoln county, de- 
voting his attention to merchandising. He has been agency trader for four 
years, and for seven years previous to that time conducted an independent 
mercantile business. He has many Indian curios. The Apaches not only 
make blankets, but also moccasins, pappoose boxes and water jugs, the last 
being made from amole or soap plant, covered with wax. 

Mr. Prude was married in Miss Mattie Bennett, a daughter of Captain 
John T. Bennett, who won his title by service with a Texas regiment in 
the Mexican war. Mr. and Mrs. Prude have three daughters and two sons, 


namely: Andrew B., Maggie, William, Ruth and Myra. Mr. Prude is a 
Mason, belonging to the blue lodge at Alamogordo. 

P. L. Krouse, who is engaged in mining at Alto, became a resident of 
Lincoln county, New Mexico, in 1887. In 1883 he had settled near Seven 
Rivers, where he took up a ranch and engaged in cattle-raising until 1887, 
when he came to Lincoln county and secured government contracts for 
building and repairing. When his work in that" direction was completed 
he turned his attention to mining interests at Parsons and Eagle Creek, 
developed the Hopewell mine and other properties, carrying on business for 
the White Mountain Mining Company. He has now for a number of years 
been actively associated with the development of the mineral resources of 
New Mexico and his practice, experience and knowledge well qualify him 
for this task. 

Mr. Krouse made a creditable record as a soldier of the federal army 
in the Civil war, serving as captain of Company E, Fourth Kentucky Cav- 
alry. He took part in Morgan's raid and in the battles of Fort Donelson, 
Fort Henry, Pittsburg Landing, Lookout Mountain and other important 
and sanguinary engagements, and was three times wounded. In matters 
of citizenship he has ever been loyal and progressive, and in business has 
displayed keen insight into conditions and a thorough understanding of 
possibilities that have led him to recognize the advantages that New 
Mexico affords and to ally his interests with the work of development and 
upbuilding here. 

William M. Riley, a cattleman of Capitan, New Mexico, came to the 
Territory in 1890 from Louisiana. He settled at Lincoln and entered the 
cattle business, in which he has since continued, being closely associated 
with this enterprise, which is one of the most important sources of revenue 
of the Territory. In 1894 he removed to Capitan, where he entered a 
homestead claim, covering a part of the town site. He is now proprietor 
of the Capitan Hotel and also conducts a meat market, his varied business 
interests being a good source of revenue and winning for him a place 
among the substantial residents of this part of the Territory. 

While living in Lincoln county Mr. Riley was called to various public 
offices. He served as deputy sheriff, was collector of the county for one 
term after his arrival and in 1897-98 filled the office of assessor of the 
county. He also had charge of the district clerk's office in Roswell under 
George Curray, and his devotion to all public duties is one of the strong 
and salient characteristics in his life record. His social relations connect 
him with Coalora Lodge, I. O. O. F. 

S. T. Gray, conducting a livery business at Capitan. has been the 
promoter of business interests that have been of far-reaching and bene- 
ficial effect in advancing the material progress and welfare of the commu- 
nity. He was born in Coosa county, Alabama, and was reared in Louis- 
iana. On coming first to New Mexico he located on the Angus V. V. 
ranch, twelve miles south of Capitan, where in partnership with Pat Gar- 
rett, he engaged in the cattle business from 1884 until 1887. In the latter 
year he located on a ranch comprising the town site of Capitan and con- 
tinued as a dealer in cattle. In 1897 he opened the first store on the ranch 
and was instrumental in securing the establishment of a postoffice, which 
was called Gray. Later he was instrumental in securing the building of 
the railroad into the coal fields — a source of profit and income to the town — 


and in many other ways he has contributed in substantial measure to the 
upbuilding and progress of the community. In 1890 Mr. Gray embarked 
in the livery business, in which he has continued and he is also interested 
in mining, being engaged in the development of an iron field. Active as a 
supporter of the Democratic party he does all in his power to advance its 
interests and served for a time as cattle inspector and is a member of the 
Southeastern Stock Growers' Association. 

Jones Taliaferro, a prominent representative of commercial pursuits 
at White Oaks, also interested in mining, came to this place in May, 1880, 
and during the first year of his residence here was engaged in prospecting. 
He also did a contract business in mining supplies and in 1884 he was 
elected clerk of Lincoln county, in which position he served through the 
four succeeding years. In 1885 he purchased the mercantile business of 
the firm of Robson, Young & Bogard, which had been established in 
1880. He has since conducted this enterprise, removing from Lincoln to 
White Oaks in 1888. The store is a large and well appointed establish- 
ment, in which a good line of general merchandise is carried and its neat 
and tasteful arrangement together with reasonable prices and earnest de- 
sire to please his patrons have secured to the proprietor an extensive and 
growing trade. He belongs to Baxter Lodge No. 9, K. P.. at White Oaks. 

John A. Brown, a representative of mercantile interests in White Oaks, 
where he is also filling the position of postmaster, is a native of Daviess 
count). Kentucky, and was reared to the occupation of farming, early be- 
coming familiar with the duties and labors incident to the care of the 
fields. At the time of the Civil war he espoused the Union cause, enlisting 
as a member of Company E, Twelfth Kentucky Cavalry, with which he 
served until the close of the war in the capacity of corporal. He was in 
active dutv in the eastern Tennessee and Georgia campaigns, and Stone- 
man's raids through West Virginia, South Carolina, North Carolina and 
Georgia, his regiment participating in many hotly contested engagements. 
While in the army he was wounded and still suffers from the injuries sus- 
tained in defense of his country. 

Mr. Brown came to White Oaks on the nth of September. 1883, and 
has since made his home in New Mexico. For two years he was engaged 
in prospecting and then turned his attention to merchandising and to the 
commission business, conducting his store here since 1885. He belongs 
to Golden Rule Lodge No. 16, I. O. O. F., of White Oaks and maintains 
pleasant relations with his old army comrades through his memhership in 
Kearny Post No. 10, G. A. R. He is as true and loyal to his country and 
her interests as when he followed the stars and stripes upon the battle- 
fields of the south. 

Henry Lutz. who is engaged in sheep raising, his home being near 
Ancho, New Mexico, was born and reared in Bavaria, and at the age of 
seventeen years became a resident of Trinidad, Colorado. He arrived in 
New Mexico in 1883, making his way to Santa Fe, where he entered the 
employ of Spiegelhurg & Companv. Subsequently he went to Albuquerque, 
where he was an employe of E. J. Post & Company, and in 1886 he came 
to Lincoln, where he embarked in merchandising as a member of the firm 
of R. Michaelis & Company. In 1889 Mr. Lutz made a trip to Europe and 
remained abroad for two vears, returning in 1891. He then became a part- 
ner in the Lincoln Trading Company, with which he was associated for 


four and a half years, and subsequently he turned his attention to the sheep 
raising industry in Ancho, where he has since remained. He has made a 
close and discriminating study of the needs of sheep and what best pro- 
motes the business of sheep raising, and he is today a well-known and 
successful representative of this industry. 

Mr. Lutz is very active and prominent in Republican politics, being an 
unfaltering supporter of the party and its principles and a recognized leader 
in its ranks in Lincoln county. He has served as treasurer and collector 
of the county for two terms. Fraternally he is connected with Lincoln 
Lodge, Knight of Pythias. 

Charles A. Spence, extensively engaged in the raising of sheep and 
cattle at White Oaks, Xew Mexico, is a native of Iowa and came to New 
Mexico in 1882. Here he became actively interested in the stock industry, 
establishing a large cattle ranch and also opened a store at Finos Wells. 
Through his efforts a postoffice was opened there and the village became 
an important business center and distributing point for the surrounding 
ranches. Mr. Spence has lived in White Oaks since 1901 and is engaged 
in sheep raising on a large scale, being one of the leading representatives 
of this business in his section of New Mexico. He has done much to im- 
prove the grade of sheep raised by the introduction of good breeds and 
has thus contributed in keeping the price up to a high standard. 



Sierra is one of the southern counties of New Mexico, and boldly ex- 
tends into Socorro county, being bounded by Luna and Doha Ana counties 
on the south, and a corner of Grant county and Socorro on the west. It is 
one of the smallest counties in the Territory, having an area of only 3,129 
square miles and a population of 3.158 people. Its county seat. Hillsboro, 
in the southern part of the county, has a population of about 600, and is 
one of the important mining camps in this section of the Territory. 

Sierra county was formed by legislative act. in 1883, from parts of 
Socorro, Doha Ana and Grant counties, the impelling cause being the de- 
sire of the miners in the vicinity of Lake Valley, Hillsboro and Kingston, 
to govern themselves, and their belief that their interests would be bene- 
fitted by having one count)' in which mining would be the leading in- 
dustry, rather than live on the borders of three large counties in none of 
which could they have a controlling influence. Although, as will be seen, 
it has very considerable grazing and agricultural interests in the valley of 
the Rio Granda. with its tributaries, its great industry is that of mining, 
as it probably always will be. 

Physical Features. — Large plains occupy the extreme eastern portion 
of the county; then come a system of mountain ranges (Sierra Cabello), 
running north and south, along the eastern hank of the Rio Grande, around 
whose southern extremitv that river makes a bold eastern sweep in its 
exit from the county, leaving about one-third of the area to the east ; to 
the westward, interrupted here and there by peaks of only moderate height, 
the plains extend to the foot hills of the Black Membre ranges, which form a 
lofty western barrier. With the exception of a few creeks in the extreme 
northwest corner, which flow into the Gila, all streams empty eastward into 
the Rio Grande. 

Agriculture and Mining. — The county is well divided into the valley, 
mesa and mountain lands, embracing a considerable section of the Rio 
Grande valley, where agriculture is followed ; wherever openings in the 
valleys of the different affluents afford room enough to do so, agricultural 
pursuits are followed. But the main interests of Sierra county are centered 
in the mines. The principal mining districts are: Apache, Black Range, 
Cuchillo Negro, Kingston, Hermosa, Animas, Hillsboro. Percha and Lake 

Mining History of the County. — To begin with the most famous of all 
the romances of mining, Lake Valley furnishes" the best story. Here 
abounds the highest-grade silver-ore. In the early days, when Yictorio, 
Loco and Nana made this valley unhealthy, two miners struck a gold pros- 
pect. They sold it for $100,000 to a Philadelphia syndicate, and two days 
after the lead ran into the "Bridal Chamber," the working of which yielded 


over $3,000,000. The expense was so trifling that one man offered the 
owners $200,000 for the privilege of entering the mine and taking the 
metal that he could knock down single-handed with his pick in one day ! 
This was an era of wild speculation, from which Lake Valley suffered a 
natural reaction; but the riches of the camp seem only touched as yet. 
Millions of dollars have been taken from its mines, but there is still rich 
ore. It lies in blanket form and quickly runs into pockets and chambers. 

The history of the discovery of these wonderful mines is interesting. In 
the year 1878 a miner named Lufkin, then living at Hillsboro, fifteen miles 
northwest of Lake Valley, or McEvers' ranch, as it was then called, in 
company with a companion, started out on a prospecting trip to the foot- 
hills of the southern extremity of the Black Range. They had no luck for 
some weeks ; but finally, at a point about two miles west of McEvers', they 
discovered a large body of black ore croppings extending over a hundred 
acres of territory, and indicating plainly the presence of mineral of some 
kind. The big, black bodies of ore, cropping out above the surface, showed 
that, whatever the nature of the mineral to be found, it was certainly in 
immense quantities. They sank several prospect holes, and soon satisfied 
themselves that they had "struck it rich" in silver; but as their "grub 
stake" was by this time exhausted, they returned to Hillsboro and obtained 
employment, one as a cook and the other as a miner, saved up their wages 
for several months, in order to have a "grub stake" when they should go 
again to work on their claim. 

In a few weeks the Indian war broke out upon the country, and min- 
ing operations in that section were suspended. Finally, however, through 
the assistance of J. A. Miller of Grant county, who was then the post 
trader at Fort Bayard, Lufkin and bis partner were enabled to develop their 
mines sufficiently to prove that they were first class : and then a rush began 
toward the new district. Claims were located on all sides and quite a min- 
ing camp sprang into existence. Ore running as high as $1,000 a ton was 
exposed, and Mr. Miller began to look around for means to better develop 
the mines. The result was that about 180,4 Miller sold the principal mines 
of the district to a syndicate for $225,000. 

This district was the scene of a great mining excitement more than 
twenty years ago, when the Apaches were removed from the adjacent 
reservation, but the difficulty and expense of transportation keep it in the 
background. Hillsboro and Kingston have both been famous in their days 
as enormous producers, one of gold and the other of silver. 

County Officials. — Since its organization, the officials of Sierra county 
have been as follows : 

Probate Judge?: — 1884-6. Jose Tafoys ; 1887-8. Jose Jesus Garcia; 1889-90, 
Doniciana Montoya ; 1891-2, Jose Apodaca : 1S9.V0, Francisco Apodaca : 1897-8. Julian 
Chaves; 1899-1900. Mersa Montoya; 1901-4, Procopino Torres: 1905-6, Esperidon 

Probate clerks :— 1884-92, J. M. Webster; 1893-1904. Thomas C. Hall; 1905-6, 
T. M Webster. 

Sheriffs:— 1884-6, Thomas Murphy: 1887-00, Alexander M. Story; 1S91-4. S. W. 
Sanders; 1895-6. Max L. Kahler ; 1897-8, August Reinsjardt : 1890-1000. Max L. 
Kahler: 1901-2, J. D. Chandler: 1903-4, Max L. Kahler; 1905-6. W. C. Kendall. 

Assessors :— 1884-94, James P. Parker; 1895-6, Alovs Preisser: 1S97-1906, Andrew 

Treasurers :— 1884-6. F. W. Taylor: 1S87-8. Norman C. Raff: 1889-94, William 
H. Bucher; 1895-1900, Will M. Robins; 1901-6, J. C. Plemmons. 


County Commissioners :— 1884-6, A. E. Pitkin, G. W. Gregg, Richard Winn; 
1887-8, Nathan Grayson, Frank Klines, James 1'. Armstrong; 1889-90, B. N. Greeley, 
Fred Lindauer, Frank H. Winston ; 1891-2, J. C. Stanley, Fred Lindauer, Jose Tofoya 
y Garcia; 1893-4, Doniciano Montoya, Isaac D. Hilty, James Dalglish; 1895-6, Jose 
M. Apodaca, August Reingardt, George R. Baucus ; 1897-8, Francisco Boyorquez, 
Robert West, John E. Wheeler; 1899-1900, Thomas T. Lee, James Dalglish, Crespin 
Aragon ; 1901-2, Marcelino Duran, James Reay, Crespin Aragon ; 1903-4, Thomas 
Murphy, Vilcaldo G. Trujillo; 1905-6, Urbano P. Arrey, Thomas Murphy, Viliado 
G. Trujillo. 

Towns of the County. — Hillsboro, the county seat, is the center of the 
gold mining district. It has a handsome court house, good schools and hotels. 
The metal carrier in this district is quartz, impregnated with copper and 
iron pyrites, and containing precious metals in the proportion of one ounce 
of gold to five ounces of silver. Perhaps the most notable feature in the 
Hillsboro gold mines is the unbroken continuity of the ore veins. Founded 
in 1877, the success and prosperity -of the town were only obtained after 
years of persistent effort. The camp is an off-shoot of Georgetown, Grant 
county. In 1876 David Stetzel and Daniel Dugan left that place on a 
prospecting tour, and in May. 1877, discovered gold in the present Hills- 
boro camp. Nicholas Galles, then on the Mimbres, soon after appeared 
at the place, with eleven others, including W. II. Weeks, H. H. Elliott and 
Joe Yankie. Each of the. newcomers had a name for the new town. Finally 
one day in December, 1877, the names were all written on slips of paper 
and put in an old hat, and after an impartial drawing Hillsboro came to 
the surface. 

Kingston, in the southwestern part of the county, a few miles west 
of Hillsboro, is the nucleus of a rich silver district. It is situated in the 
valley of the Rio Percha, the ore belt stretching from the Trujillo to the 
North Percha. The ores are found in connection with quartz, iron, cop- 
per, zinc, galena and talc. Binoxide of manganese also prevails throughout 
the district. The town itself is well situated, has a public water service, 
churches and schools and a good class of settlers. The first rich mineral in 
the district of which Kingston is the center was found in what was known 
as the Solitaire mine and was discovered in August, 1882, by Jack Shedden, 
the discoverer of the famous Robinson mine in Colorado. R. J. Wilson had 
located the claim in 1881, but. not knowing this, Shedden took possession 
of the mine and bonded it to Tabor & "Wurtzebach for $100,000. For some 
time after the discovery of the Solitaire mine the town had a wonderful 
growth. On June 6, A. Barnaby set up a tent in the woods at a point 
which soon after became the center of the town, and opened a little store, 
which was the first habitation of any kind erected in Kingston. On the 
26th of August the first surveying for the town site was begun, and on 
the 1st of October the Kingston Town Company was organized and in- 
corporated. By the latter part of the fall the town had a population of about 
1,800 people, and city lots on Main street brought as high as five hun- 
dred dollars apiece. 

Lake Valley, already mentioned, is also the chief settlement in a pro- 
ductive silver district which lies to the south of Hillsboro and Kingston. 
In connection with Lake Valley is due a little more history, recalled by the 
burning of the famous Ingliss ranch house, three miles from that point, 
in the spring of 1906. The property was at one time owned by George 
Dalv, of Leadville, Colorado, who was the founder of Lake Vallev and was 


killed by Indians in 1881. His property included the famous Bridal 
Chamber, of horn silver, which at the time of his death had just been 
uncovered. He was one of the daring pioneers of that period, but death 
cut short the worldly fruition of his work. Tom Ingliss, from whom the 
ranch house was named, came later and had a remarkable history of .shoot- 
ing affairs and miraculous escapes. But the burning of the house probably 
marks the deterioration or absorption of the property, so that it will no 
longer be known as the Ingliss ranch. 

Thomas Murphy, county commissioner of Sierra county and a resident 
of Hillsboro, was born and reared in Portland. Maine, his natal day being 
November 22, 1848. His education was largely acquired through his own 
efforts in the school of experience, and in 1863, when not quite fifteen 
years of age, he responded to the country's call for troops, enlisting as a 
member of Company G, Second Regiment, Volunteer Infantry, in the 
District of Columbia, with which he served throughout the Civil war, being 
honorably discharged at Alexandria. Virginia, September 12. 1865. He 
participated in the campaign against General Mosby in the Shenandoah 
valley and participated in the battle of Fort Stevens, which was witnessed 
by President Lincoln. Following the need for volunteer troops, Mr. Mur- 
phy jointed the United States regular army on the 25th of October, 1865, 
in the Third Battalion, joining the Seventeenth Regiment, which after- 
ward became the Thirty-fifth Regular Infantry. He continued in active mili- 
tary service until 1878, when he was discharged as first sergeant of Com- 
pany G. Fifteenth Regular Infantry, having served through four terms of 
enlistment. Following the Civil war his military duty lay largely in 
Texas and New Mexico, mostly in suppressing the Indian outbreaks and in 
quelling the rustlers. He served at all the old forts in the southern part 
of New Mexico and thus gained broad and comprehensive knowledge of 
the Territory. 

In 1878 Mr. Murphy became clerk in suiter's store at Fort Craig, where 
he remained until April, 1879. He was then transferred to Fort Bayard, 
where he continued until July, 1880. when he went to Lake Valley and took 
charge of the old McEvers ranch and mines for John A. Miller, who was 
then post trader for Fort Bayard. He acted as superintendent of his 
ranching and mining interests until 1882, when he took up his abode in 
Lake Valley, where he served for two terms as sheriff, being the first in- 
cumbent in that position in Sierra county. He was active and influential 
in every movement for the establishment of Sierra county, and after serving 
by appointment for one term as sheriff he was elected to the office for a 
term. He has likewise been school director and is now county commis- 
sioner. His interest in military affairs did not cease with his retirement 
from the regular arm}', for he acted as first lieutenant of Company H of 
the First Regiment of the New Mexico Militia during the time of the 
Apache Indian raids. 

Mr. Murphy was married in 1893 to Miss Nellie Thurston, of El Paso, 
Texas. He belongs to Kingston Lodge No. 16, A. F. & A. M. ; to Percha 
Lodge No. 9, I. O. O. F., and to Sierra Lodge No. 19, K. P. The same 
loyalty which marked his service as a volunteer and his course as a mem- 
ber of the regular army has also been manifest in political offices to which 
he has been called, and he stands as a typical representative of the South- 



west, interested in its development and lending active and hearty co- 
operation to many movements for the public good. 

Andrew Kelley, who till recently filled the office of assessor of Sierra 
county, came to New Mexico as a member of Company B, Fifteenth Regi- 
ment of United States regulars. He had enlisted in the army in 1867 at 
Cleveland, Ohio, and was stationed at Fort McRae. He served for three 
years at that point, and after his retirement from military service he was 
employed in the Indian department from 1870 until 1882. Turning his at- 
tention to private business interests, he followed ranching on Canada creek 
for three years and became connected with mining in Shandon district. He 
has been interested in mining to a greater or less extent since leaving the 
Indian department, but is now giving Ids attention more largely to ranch- 
ing, having taken up a homestead below Elephant Butte dam, where his 
farming and stock-raising interests are being carefully managed and are 
resulting in the acquirement of a gratifying success. In 1896 Mr. Kelley 
was elected to the office of county assessor, and by re-election was con- 
tinued in the position for ten years. He has resigned the office of assessor 
of Sierra count}-, and is at present residing in Paraje, Socorro county, en- 
gaged in the mercantile business. He belongs to Kingston Lodge No. 16, 
A. F. & A. M., has attained the thirty-second degree of the Scottish Rite 
and is a member of the Mystic Shrine at Albuquerque. 

Harvey A. Ringer, a cattleman of Hillsboro, was born in St. Francis 
county, Missouri, and, although deprived of the opportunity of attending 
school in his youth, he has learned many valuable lessons in the school of 
experience, continually broadening his knowledge by contact with men, by 
reading and by observation. He came to New Mexico in 1882 from south- 
eastern Missouri, locating in Fairview, where he became connected with 
the cattle business. He removed to his home ranch on the S. L. C. ranch, 
four miles south of Hillsboro, and is today the owner of several valuable 
ranches. In fact, he is recognized as one of the prominent cattlemen of 
the Territory, his holdings in this direction being extensive. He raises 
high-grade cattle and is continually breeding valuable stock. His business 
in this direction is notable, even in a district where cattle-raising is carried 
on on a most extensive scale, and his prosperity has resulted entirely from 
his own well-directed efforts, judicious investment and capable manage- 
ment. He is now a member of the American Cattle-Growers' Association. 

Mr. Ringer was married in Kingston, New Mexico, January 31, 1897, 
to Miss Mabel Bright, and has three daughters. He is a thirty-second 
degree Mason, holding membership in Kingston Lodge No. 16, A. F. & 
A. M., in Denver consistory and in Albuquerque temple of the Mystic 

A. J. Hirsch. interested in a number of mining claims and superin- 
tendent of the Treasury mines, makes his home in Hillsboro. He was 
born at Point Pleasant, Ohio, April 29, 1861, in the house where the birth 
of General Grant occurred. His education was there acquired and he aft- 
erward learned the trade of blacksmithing, which he followed in Ohio until 
his removal to Arizona about 1886. He spent a year in that territory, 
after which he came to Hillsboro in 1887 and established a blacksmith shop, 
which he conducted for two years. He afterward worked in the Snake 
mine for about three and a half years, and subsequently took a lease on 
the mine for thirty days, paying a high price therefor. He has been in- 


terested in a number of mining claims, working- on leases mostly, and was 
superintendent of the South Percha Mining and Milling Company, and is 
now superintendent of the Treasury mines, operating his leases along well- 
defined lines of labor, in keeping with modern methods and process. He 
is meeting with success in his undertaking and is well known as a repre- 
sentative of mining interests of this part of New Mexico. 

Air. Hirsch was married at Point Pleasant, Ohio, to Miss Lola May 
Bushman, and they have two sons and a daughter. Fraternally he is con- 
nected with Kingston Lodge No. 16, A. F. & A. M., and with Sierra Lodge 
No. 9, K. P. 

George T. Miller, who is engaged in the conduct of a drug store in 
Hillsboro, where he is also filling the position of postmaster, spent his 
youth in Chicago, Illinois, his native city, where he was born August 16, 
1866. He came to New Mexico in 1893 from Minneapolis, Minn., where 
he lived from 1879 to 1893, and for two years thereafter was connected 
with mining interests in the vicinity of Hillsboro, where he has con- 
tinuously made his home to the present time. He was afterward engaged 
in bookkeeping for the firm of Keller, Miller & Company, and when he re- 
tired from that position embarked in the drug business on his own ac- 
count, and afterward bought out the rival store of C. C. Miller. He has 
continued successfully in the drug business to the present, and has a well- 
appointed establishment and receives a large patronage from the town and 
surrounding district, his success resulting from his laudable ambition, in- 
defatigable energy and close application. In 1898 he was appointed post- 
master of Hillsboro, which office he has since filled. 

John C. Plemmons, county treasurer of Sierra county and a resident 
of Hillsboro, has made his home in the Territory since 1876, and has been 
identified with ranching and mining operations, two of the important 
sources of income of this part of the country. He was born in Dalton, 
Georgia, on the 25th of November, 1859, and on account of conditions 
brought about by the Civil war he received no educational privileges save 
those afforded by the school of experience. He was left an orphan when 
only nine years of age, and in his vouth was employed as a cabin boy on a 
Mississippi steamboat for two years. He afterward spent a year as a 
scout in the employ of the United States government, being with the troops 
stationed on the frontier to suppress the uprisings of the Apache Indians. 
He came to New Mexico in 1876, located on the Dry Cimarron and became 
a cowboy in the employ of Hall Brothers, with whom he continued about 
five years. In 1880 he went to what has since become known as Chloride, 
and was with the first outfit that went into the Black Range. Becoming 
connected with mining interests, he located the Colossal mine, which he 
afterward sold. Later he built the first house at Hermosa and established 
a. mercantile enterprise at that point, which he conducted from 1883 until 
1900, successfully carrying on business for a period of seventeen years. 
At the same time he was interested in the cattle business and yet owns a 
cattle ranch at that place. He has continued to own mining properties, 
having claims at Hermosa, and is producing ore from Polomas Chief mine, 
carrying copper, silver and a small quantity of gold. The business has been 
incorporated under the name of Polomas Chief Mining Company and the 
mine is now being profitably worked. 

In 1900 Mr. Plemmons was elected treasurer of Sierra county and is 




now serving for the third term, having been three times chosen to the 
office as the candidate of the Democratic party. Watchful of opportunities, 
he has promoted his business interests along lines leading to success, and 
he is also a representative of that class of citizens who, while promoting 
individual prosperity, also advance general progress and improvement. lie 
is a member of the Ancient Order of United Workmen, belonging to Hills- 
boro Lodge No. 12. He is a master Mason of Kingston Lodge No. 16, 
A. F. & A. M., and belongs to the Lodge of Perfection at Santa Fe, the 
Denver consistory, in which he lias attained the thirty-second degree, and 
Albuquerque temple of the Mystic Shrine. He was married in May. 1898, 
to Miss Edith Curtis, a native of Xew Mexico, and they have three children : 
Lillian ( i., Alice M. and Sylvie. 

John M. Webster, a mine operator living in Hillsboro, Sierra county, 
was born and reared in New Hampshire and arrived in the Territory of 
New Mexico in July, 1882, at which time he located in Kingston, being one 
of its first settlers. He was identified with many operations there until 
1885. when he came to Hillsboro and has since been interested in mining 
in this part of the Territory. He had previously been identified with min- 
ing operations in Arizona from 1875 until coming to New Mexico seven 
years later. He is an expert in his estimate of the value of mine proper- 
ties and the best methods of development, and occupies a foremost place 
among the respresentatives of the business in the Territory. 

Prominent in public life. John M. Webster was chosen as first clerk 
of the probate court of Sierra county, holding the office from 1884 until 
1892. He was again elected in 1904, and is filling the position at the pres- 
ent writing, in 1906. He was also United States commissioner of New 
Mexico to the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. Fraternally he 
is connected with Kingston Lodge No. 16, A. F. & A. M., and has at- 
tained the thirty-second degree of th^ Scottish Rite in Masonry. He also 
belongs to Sierra Lodge No. 8, K. P. During a residence of almost a quar- 
ter of a century in the Territory he has witnessed its wonderful develop- 
ment and has contributed to its progress along lines of business and political 
advancement, resulting in bringing about its present condition of improve- 
ment and progress. 

James H. Latham, a leading representative of stock-raising interests 
in New Mexico, having a large ranch on which he is extensively engaged 
in raising sheep and goats near Lake Valley, dates his residence in the 
Territory from 1885. He was born and reared in Live Oak county, Texas. 
After coming to New Mexico he spent one year at Anthony in the cattle 
business, and in 1886 came to Lake Valley, where he began working in the 
mines, being identified with that pursuit for seven years. All during that 
period he owned a few cattle and also has some at the present time, but 
his chief interest at this writing is sheep. From 1887 until 1900 he was 
engaged largely in raising goats, starting in with only a herd of sixty- 
seven head, which he has increased to twelve hundred head. These are 
good Angora goats, which earn about fifteen hundred dollars a year. How- 
ever, he is now more largely giving his attention to the sheep-raising in- 
dustry, in which he began operations in 1900 on a small scale. He has 
increased his flocks until at the present time he has about eight thousand 
head, and in the year 1905 he realized sixty per cent profit on the money 
invested, and the average profit is about forty per cent. He considers Sierra 


county as a very good district for this line of business from the fact that sheep 
are not affected here with disease to any extent. They shear a little 
light because of the alkali dust, but stand the drouth better than any other 
animal. He shipped the best bunch of lambs for weight (twenty-three hun- 
dred head averaging seventy-three and a fifth pounds per head) ever sent 
out of New Mexico, and from these cut one and a half per cent. 

Mr. Latham is a member of the Knights of Pythias fraternity, be- 
longing to Deming Lodge No. 30, and he also belongs to the lodge of the 
Ancient Order of United Workmen at Hillsboro. He has been very suc- 
cessful in business since coming to New Mexico, gradually working his 
way upward and extending the field of his operations until he is today rec- 
ognized as one of the large and successful sheep-raisers. 

B. F. Parks, who is engaged in raising sheep near Lake Valley, is a 
native of Shelby county, Illinois, where he was reared and educated. His 
youth was spent upon a farm and he later dealt in live stock, so that it was 
with considerable practical experience that he entered upon his work as a 
sheep-raiser in New Mexico. In the interval, however, he became a prac- 
tical miner, gaining a knowledge of the business in Colorado from actual 
experience. He went to that state in 1877 and spent five years there in 
the mines. In 1882 he came to Lake Valley and here began mining, locating 
and developing claims and prospecting until 1894. He then entered the 
sheep business, one of the first to engage in sheep-raising in Sierra county. 
He has given his attention to this industry for the past twelve years, and, 
although he started in a small way with only about seven hundred head, he 
is now running between two and three thousand head. He keeps high-grade 
sheep and is continually improving the breed. The business yields a grati- 
fying financial income, and he is recognized as one of the enterprising 
and representative citizens of this part of the Territory. He served in 
the militia during the Indian troubles of 1885. holding the rank of second 
lieutenant. He is married, and with his wife and children makes his home 
near Lake Valley. 

E. H. Bickford, manager of the Lake Valley Mines Company and the 
Rio Mimbres Irrigation Company, his home being at Lake Valley, came to 
the Territory from Colorado in 1899 and took charge of the Snake and 
Opportunity mines at Hillsboro, being thus engaged for a vear and a half. 
In 1901 he took charge of the property of the Lake Valley Mines Company, 
the leading stockholder being L. G. Fisher, president of the Union Bag 
and Paper Company. He has charge of all the western works of Mr. 
Fisher, including the Rio Mimbres Irrigation Company. He is engaged 
in damming the Rio Mimbres, preparatory to irrigating several thousand 
acres of land above Deming, New Mexico. The last enterprise is the 
most important of which he has charge at present, and when completed will 
be of the utmost value and benefit to the district into which its water? will 
flow. He has also been prominent in developing mining interests in Sierra 
county, and at present is searching for a process for treating profitably the 
low-grade silver ore of the Lake Valley district. 

Mr. Bickford is a member of Hillsboro Lodge No. 16, A. F. & A. M., 
the Lodge of Perfection at Santa Fe and the Consistory at Denver, hav- 
ing thus attained the thirty-second degree of the Scottish Rite in Ma- 

D. S. Miller, a prominent representative of commercial and industrial 


interests in the Territory, is conducting a profitable wholesale and retail 
general mercantile establishment at Lake Valley and is also largely inter- 
ested in valuable mining properties. A native of Virginia, he was born in 
Powhattan county in 1853 and was reared to farm life, early becoming 
familiar with the labors that fall to the lot of the agriculturist in connec- 
tion with the development of the fields. A young man of twenty-five years, 
he arrived in Grafton, New Mexico, and entered upon the work of mining, 
traveling through the country in that connection. Being pleased with the 
Territory and its future prospects, he decided to return, and did so in 
1880, reaching Grafton just about the time of the discovery of gold and 
silver in that locality. He built the second cabin in the town and was en- 
gaged in mining there from 1880 until 1884. He afterward spent six 
months in the mining regions of Idaho, and then returned to New Mexico, 
settling at Lake Valley, where he embarked in merchandising in partnership 
with S. F. Keller and Henry Herrin under the name of Herrin, Keller, 
Miller & Company. Three years later Isaac Knight purchased Mr. Her- 
rin's interest and the firm style was changed to Keller, Miller & Com- 
pany. They conducted stores at Lake Valley, Hillsboro and Kingston for 
a number of years, but in i8q2 the Kinsston store was discontinued, and at 
the present tmie they are representatives of commercial interests in Lake 
Valley and Hillsbcro. They conduct general mercantile establishments, 
carrying on both wholesale and retail trade, and their annual sales reach 
a large figure, for they supply an extensive surrounding territory. For a 
short time Mr. Miller gave up mining altogther, but returned to it, be- 
lieving that this district has splendid ore supplies. He has invested ex- 
tensively and is now heavily interested in zinc and lead mines in the Car- 
penter district, which will undoubtedly prove a very profitable field, having 
rich veins of mineral deposits. He developed the Log Cabin mine, which is 
now producing light-grade ore in immense quantities, while high-grade ore 
in large quantities is being taken out 'of the Sierra Blanca mine. 

Mr. Miller organized the Pioneer Association of Black Range of New 
Mexico. He is a member of Percha Lodge No. 16, K. P., and in his 
political affiliation is a stalwart Democrat. He served on the penitentiary 
commission from 1896 until 1901, but has not been an active politician in 
the sense of office-seeking, preferring to concentrate his time and en- 
ergies upon his business affairs and the development of mining proper- 

Henry J. Brown, the owner of a large ranch devoted to the raising 
of goats, and also interested in mining, makes his home in Kingston and 
his residence in New Mexico dates from 1886. He was born in Kendall 
county, Texas, November 9, 1857, and was there reared. His educational 
privileges were limited. He attended school for only three or four months 
and walked a distance of three or four miles to the schoolhouse with his 
rifle upon his shoulder, owing to the fear of Indian attacks. His home was 
in a frontier district and the story of Indian atrocities and depredations was 
a familiar one. He was about twenty-eight years of age when, in 1886, he 
came to New Mexico, locating near Crow Spring, ninety miles east of El 
Paso. Here he became connected with the cattle industry, having the first 
ranch in that part of the countv, but he lost a great number of cattle from 
drinking alkali water. They died off so rapidly that he removed to Tierra 
Blanca, where he remained for about three years, and then, on account of 


a mistake in the government survey, which cut off his homestead from a 
water supply, he was again forced to move. He took up his abode in 
Kingston, where he turned his attention to the dairy business, which he 
conducted for about a year. In 1892 he located upon his present ranch, a 
mile below Kingston, and was engaged in raising cattle until 1896, when 
he began raising Angora goats. He has since continued in this line of 
stock-raising with excellent success, and has become one of the prosperous 
representatives of stock farming in this section of the Territory. At the 
same time he has been interested to a greater or less extent in mining prop- 

Mr. Brown was married in Texas in 1880 to Miss Mary Gobble, and 
they have seven children. In his social relations he is an Odd Fellow, be- 
longing to Percha Lodge No. 9. He has a wide and favorable acquaintance 
in the Territory, where he has now lived for twenty years, and in the work 
of general improvement and progress he has borne a helpful part, while 
at the same time he has gradually advanced his individual business in- 

John Kasser, one of the most prominent representatives of mining in- 
terests in New Mexico, being manager of the Empire Gold Mining and 
Milling Company at Hillsboro, was born in Austria in 1865 and came to 
the United States when thirteen years of age. He began working in mines 
at Lead, South Dakota, where he was employed for twelve or thirteen 
years, during which time he became familiar with all the processes of de- 
veloping the mines. His capability gradually increasing, he was at length 
given charge of a mine at Lake City, Colorado, where he remained for 
about a year. He located the first mine at Cripple Creek, called the Prince 
Albert, and was superintendent of mines in that locality for about five 
years. He afterward went to Globe, Colorado, where he organized the 
Live Oak Copper Mining and Milling Company, continuing in business at 
that point for about five or six years, after which he came to New Mexico. 
The year of his arrival in Hillsboro was 1900. He accepted a position as 
superintendent of the Ready Pay mine, and in 1903 he purchased the 
Bonanza and Good Hope mines, and with others organized a company for 
their operation. He won a first prize at the World's Columbian Exposition 
at Chicago for the finest specimens of free gold. He has since 1900 been 
actively connected with the development of the rich mineral resources of 
this part of the country and is thoroughly familiar with the most modern 
processes for taking out the ore and separating it. thus transforming it 
into a marketable commodity. He erected a concentrating plant of ten 
stamps in 1904, and is now enlarging this by putting in ten more stamps, 
making a twenty-stamp mill. Mr. Kasser is manager of the business con- 
ducted under the name of the Empire Gold Mining and Milling Company 
and is one of its largest stockholders. He is a member of Kingston Lodge 
No. 16, A. F. & A. M., and expects soon "to take the thirty-second degree in 
Scottish Rite Masonry. 

Ellsworth F. Bloodgood. a well known cattle man living at Kingston, 
New Mexico, is a native of Schoharie county, New York, born July 11. 
1862. His education was acquired in Kansas and in 1879. when a youth 
of seventeen years, he went to Colorado with an emigrant train. He has 
since been identified with business interests upon the plains and the frontier. 
I I, came t" New Mexico in 1881, settling first at White Oaks, and in 1882 


removed to Kentucky, where he became identified with freighting. He 
hauled the first load of ore out of the camp and continued in the freight- 
ing business from 1882 until 1884, when, believing that the cattle industry 
would prove more profitable, he established a ranch on the Gila river, mak- 
ing his home, however, in Kingston, as he was prevented from moving to 
the ranch because of the warlike attitude of the Indians, who were con- 
tinually committing atrocities and depredations upon the white settlers of 
the frontier. Mr. Bloodgood has now for twenty-two years been actively 
engaged in the cattle business and at the same time has followed mining 
to a greater or less extent. He has developed the O. K. mine, from which 
he has taken considerable ore, but he ceased to work this after the demoni- 
tization of silver. He now has extensive herds of cattle upon his ranch 
and his annual sales and shipments are extensive, yielding him a good prof- 
it. He is thoroughly familiar with the history of development and progress 
here and his personal experiences in connection with the settlement of the 
frontier, if written in detail, would prove again the correctness of the old 
adage that "tnith is stranger than fiction." 

Mr. Bloodgood was married in Kansas to Miss Cora Longfellow and 
they have one son. In his fraternal relations he is a Mason, holding mem- 
bership in Kingston Lodge No. 16, A. F. & A. M. 



Eddy county lies in the fertile valley of the Pecos river, in the extreme 
southeastern portion of New Mexico. On the north it is bounded by 
Chaves county, and on the west by Otero and a corner of Chaves county. 
It has an area of 6,613 square miles, and a population of about 3,500. 

Although strictly speaking the valley of the Pecos is the entire coun- 
try drained by the river along its course of five hundred miles through 
New Mexico and Texas, in recent years the term has become restricted to 
the districts in the southeastern portion of this Territory which experts 
have pronounced capable of successful irrigation and in which works by 
the national government and private companies are well under way. The 
territory included substantially in Chaves county is known as the Upper 
Pecos valley ; that in Eddy county, as the Lower valley. 

Early Development of the County. — The early and much of the late 
development of Eddy county is due chiefly to Charles B. Eddy, Charles W. 
Green and J. J. Hagerman. 

Mr. Eddy first appeared in the region just below Seven Rivers, coming 
from Colorado and opening a ranch there in 1881. In the fall of 1887 he 
commenced to stake out a ditch on the east side of the Pecos river, eight 
miles above the present county seat, Carlsbad. After taking it about four 
miles down the river bank, he met Mr. Green, who had just come into the 
country, and the latter proposed to Mr. Eddy that he go east and organize 
an irrigation company, taking the water from a point about two miles 
below the ditch already constructed. Within the coming year G. B. Shaw, 
General Bradley, R. W. Tansill and others were interested, and the charter 
of the Pecos Irrigation and Investment Company was taken out. The capital 
stock of the company was $600,000, and the irrigation system included 
what is now known as the Southern canal in Eddy county and the reservoir 
of Lake Avalon, supplied from the Pecos river, as well as the Northern 
canal in Chaves county, whose waters were drawn from the Honda river 
and its tributaries. 

For a short time after its organization Mr. Green was manager of the 
company, but in the spring of 1880 Mr. Eddy succeeded him, and con- 
tinued in the position until April. 1894. During that period the canal was 
extended twenty-five miles down the river; about a mile down the eastern 
side, and there crossing in a flume and continuing down the western bank 
for the balance of the distance. A great many laterals were also built, 
and many thousands of acres irrigated and brought into the market as 
productive and valuable land. In fact, it may be said to the credit of Mr. 
Eddy, for whom the county was named at its birth in 1891, that he was 
the first man to really foresee the bright future of this section of the Pecos 
valley — a great agricultural and horticultural future, founded on the sci- 
entific and persistent extension of irrigation. Even in the early nineties 


most people (even settlers) were of the opinion that the country would 
never be adapted to anything but the live-stock business. But Mr. Eddy 
had unbounded faith in irrigation, and although his enterprises were con- 
sidered somewhat visionary by many, he had the ability to make money 
for himself out of these pioneer operations. He gave employment to many 
poor men, and was their acknowledged friend ; what profits he derived 
came from the pockets of investing- capitalists, many of whom in these later 
years are still reaping the benefits of his long foresight and sound judg- 

In 1889, soon after the company had begun the construction of the 
southern canal in Eddy county, J. J. Hagerman, of Colorado Springs, 
invested $40,000 in the enterprise, and shortly afterward visited Mr. Eddy 
at his ranch near the present town of Carlsbad. Being much pleased with 
the country and impressed with its possibilities, Mr. Hagerman increased 
his investment, as well as raised a large sum of money in the east for the 
extension of the irrigation system. During the same year (1889) he pro- 
cured the charter of the Pecos Valley Railway, with rights to build from 
Pecos City. Texas, to Roswell, now Chaves county. He raised all the 
money to build the railroad from Pecos to Eddy — a distance of ninety 
miles — in 1889, and the line was completed to the latter place in Janu- 
ary, 1900. 

Mr. Hagerman was president of the railroad company from the begin- 
ning, and became president of the irrigation company in 1890. The follow- 
ing year he went to Europe on business connected with the Pecos valley 
enterprises, and while in Geneva, Switzerland, met a number of capitalists 
of that country, who were looking for a good location in which to plant 
a colony of Swiss farmers. Their agent in the United States had already 
met Mr. Eddy and about the time of Mr. Hagerman's arrival was making 
a favorable report to his superiors of the bright outlook of the Pecos val- 
ley. The outcome of the matter was that, after the Swiss capitalists had 
sent an irrigation expert to make a further investigation and report, they 
invested $500,000 in the Pecos Irrigation and Improvement Company, which 
had succeeded the Pecos Irrigation and Investment Company. Of the new 
organization Mr. Hagerman was president and Mr. Eddy vice-president 
and general manager. 

In the fall of 1892 a colony, mainly of Swiss, with a few Italians, 
bought farms of about forty acres each in the country between Eddy and 
Black river. They had money enough to make the first payment on their 
land, build houses, buy stock and put in their first crops ; but, although the 
Swiss immigration agent had been cautioned not to send over any but prac- 
tical farmers, the Pecos valley colony proved to be largely composed of 
educated, well-intentioned young men, some of them of old, aristocratic 
families, and an overwhelming majority of them eminently impractical. 
Other immigrants came to the valley, both during this year and the pre- 
ceding, and it became necessary to extend .the irrigation svstem. 

It was therefore decided to construct what is now known as the Mc- 
Millan reservoir, eighteen miles north of Carlsbad, at a cost of about $300,- 
000. In March, 1893, Mr. Hagerman met a number of eastern capitalists 
at Eddy for the purpose of raising money to build the reservoir and extend 
the Pecos Valley road from that point to Roswell, as the first step in the 
systematic development of the Upper valley, with a subsequent extension 


northeast to Amarillo. About $2,500,000 was subscribed for these pur- 
poses, and then came a series of cumulative misfortunes. 

In August, 1893, the Lake Avalon dam was carried out by a flood, 
with a loss of $500,000, and the panic and hard times of that year are 
matters of stern history. But, though floods came and subscribers failed 
to pay, the road was opened to Roswell in October, 1894 — and there stopped. 
The period of financial depression which covered the country simply par- 
alyzed the Pecos valley. Capitalists were making no further investments, 
there was no demand for cattle, sheep or agricultural products and the farm- 
ers could not even pay water rent on their land. Being absolutely without 
incomes, both the irrigation company and the railroad company went into 

In 1896 the Pecos Valley Railroad went into the hands of a receiver, 
and was reorganized in 1897 under the name of the Pecos Valley and 
Northeastern Railway Company, with power under its charter to extend its 
line to Amarillo. The irrigation company failed in 1898. All the prop- 
erty of the old company in Eddy county was sold to the Pecos Irrigation 
Company, which now owns it, and all of its property in Chaves county, 
including the Northern canal and the water of the Hondo river and its 
tributaries, was sold to J. J. Hagerman. Within late years the development 
of the irrigation systems, as inaugurated by Messrs. Eddy and Hagerman, 
has been more pronounced in the Northern Pecos valley, with Roswell as 
its center. 

Charles W. Green, on being superseded as manager of the irrigation 
company by Mr. Eddy, undertook several quite extensive projects con- 
nected with the direct cultivation of the land. After interesting eastern 
capitalists, he bought a 640-acre tract three miles south of Carlsbad and 
converted it into a vineyard. Pie also improved another square mile west 
of that point, but later located at what is now known as the Greenfield 
farm, twenty miles southeast of Roswell. There he obtained irrigation 
from the Northern canal, and developed a large alfalfa project. Alto- 
gether Mr. Green did excellent work, and deserved much credit for dem- 
onstrating the practical possibilities of the valley in many different direc- 

County Officers. — Both Chaves and Eddy counties were portions of 
Lincoln, and were set off in 1889. Since 1891 the officers of Eddy county 
have been as follows : 

1891-2: — Probate judge, : clerk. Thomas Fennessey; sheriff, 

David L. Kemp ; treasurer, W. F. Cochran ; assessor, J. D. Walker ; county com- 
missioners, Daniel H. Lucas (chairman), Bart T. Whitaker (Harry S. Church ap- 
pointed to succeed Whitaker in May, 1S91), C. H. McLenathan. 

1893-4 : — Judge. James A. Tomlinson ; clerk, Thomas Fennessey ; sheriff, David 
L. Kemp; assessor, John D. Walker; treasurer, Harry P. Brown; commissoners, 
William A. Finley (chairman). Thomas Gardner, George W. Witt. 

1895-6: — Judge, Ananias Green; clerk, W. R. Owen; sheriff. J. D. Walker; 
assessor, W. F. Cochran; treasurer, S. T. Bitting; commissioners, R. S. Cameron 
(chairman; resigned in October. 1895). U. S. Bateman (appointed to succeed Cam- 
eron; elected chairman), Frank Reinholdt, George M. Monroe. 

1897-8: — Judge, Ananias Green; clerk, W. R. Owen; sheriff, J. L. Dow; as- 
sessor, W. F. Cochran; treasurer, S. T. Bitting; commissioners, N. Cunningham 
(chairman). Frank Reinholdt, George M. Monroe. 

1899-1900: — Judge. Ananias Green; clerk. W. R. Owen; sheriff, M. C. Stewart; 
assessor, W. F. Cochran : treasurer, John F. Matheson ; commissioners, N. Cunning- 
ham (chairman), George Wilcox, N. W. Weaver. 


igoi-2:— Judge, Ananias Green: clerk, W. R. Owen; sheriff, M. C. Stewart; 
assessor, Joseph T. Fanning; treasurer. J. D. Walker; commissioners, J. H. James 
(chairman), George Wilcox, N. W. Weaver. 

1903-4 :— Judge, Ananias Green; clerk, W. R. Owen; sheriff, N. C. Stewart; 
assessor, John O. McKeen ; treasurer, J. D. Walker; commissioners, J. H. James 
(chairman), George Wilcox, N. W. Weaver. 

1905-6:— Judge, Ananias Green; clerk, W. R. Owen; sheriff, M. C. Stewart, 
assessor, J. L. Emerson; treasurer, J. D. Walker; commissioners. Allen C. Heard 
(chairman), George Wilcox, N. W. Weaver. 

Towns. — The principal towns of the county lie in the rich valley of 
the Pecos, on the line of the Pecos Valley and Northeastern Railroad, 
and in the midst of a productive agricultural district. In fact, it is doubt- 
ful whether there is a finer agricultural country in the Territory than about 
Carlsbad (formerly Eddy), the county seat; Lake View, Dayton, Lake- 
wood and the valleys of Blacky Seven and Pefiasco rivers generally. 

Carlsbad is a well built and regulated town of about 1,500 people, its 
site being a rolling mesa. It contains substantial business blocks, graded 
streets, mile upon mile of shade trees and irrigation ditches, and a model 
court house, costing $30,000. When the town site company laid out the 
place the first pressing business was the location and building of school 
houses, and its several commodious structures devoted to the cause of 
public education indicate that practical interest in this municipal department 
has not flagged. Perhaps the greatest source of pride, after its irrigation 
and public school systems, is in the matter of shade trees. 

Seven Rivers, the oldest town in the county, was moved to McMillan, 
at the mouth of Seven rivers, in 1894. Later McMillan was rechristened 
Lakewood, which is also called the White Town. Among other attractions 
which it presents to visitors is a large artificial lake to the east, formed 
by damning the Pecos river, which abounds in fish, although its primary 
object is to irrigate the adjacent lands. 

About four miles from Lakewood is the old town and settlement of 
Seven Rivers, which was established in 1878. Seven Rivers is noted in 
the history of the Territory because of the Indian fights which occurred 
there in 1882-83, also of its connection with the notorious outlaw, "Billy 
the Kid." The raids of both parties were a great disturbance to the peace 
of this part of the country at that time. A militia company was formed for 
protection against them, and the ruins may yet be seen of the old adobe 
house which they used for a fort and for the storage of guns and ammuni- 
tion. Three members of the company still live in the vicinity of Lakewood. 

Eight miles south of Artesia, near the confluence of the Pefiasco with 
the Pecos and on the line of the railroad, is the rapidly growing little city 
of Dayton. Although it was only three years ago that J. C. Day filed 
upon the tract of government land which is now the town site, the place 
has two churches, a public school, a good hotel, a weekly newspaper, and 
all the business and social accessories of a flourishing community. It is 
in the artesian belt, but the surrounding farms are not dependent upon its 
wells for irrigation, as the waters of the Pefiasco are already "ditched" and 
systematically utilized. 

The name of John Richey is closely associated with the material prog- 
ress and substantial advancement of the town of Artesia. He came to the 
Territory in 1895 from Kansas and located at Roswell, and in May, 1896, 


he took a desert claim six miles from what is now Artesia, where he en- 
gaged in fanning until taking up his aboue in the new town. 

The first record of settlement here is that of a man of the name of J. T. 
Truitt, who was a Union soldier and had a homestead embracing the pres- 
ent town site. He proved up after a year's residence here and sold the 
property to Frank Rheinboldt, who afterward sold it to Mrs. Robert on the 
18th of January, 1900. In 1901 Messrs. Richey, Hamilton Maddox and J. 
Mack Smith purchased eighty acres from J. R. Ray and later laid out the 
town of Artesia in January, 1903. The land was platted and the work of 
building the town and securing immigration was begun. There was an 
old siding on the railroad called Miller and the postofnce, when estab- 
lished, was named Stegman, but the town was called Artesia and later all 
took the last name. Mr. Richey was president of the company, suggested 
the name and is called "the father of Artesia." The newly organized com- 
pany was known as the Artesia Town Site Company, with Mr. Richey 
as president, Harry Hamilton as treasurer and J. Mack Smith secretary. 
A short time after the organization of this company another company 
bought one hundred and sixty acres west of this property, operating under 
the name of the Artesia Improvement Company, the incorporators being 
E. A. Clayton, John Hodges, J. A. Cottingham and S. P. Denning. These 
two companies together drilled the first well of the town site, it being com- 
pleted in July, 1903. This gave life to the town, which has steadily grown 
from that time forward until there is now a population of about fourteen 
hundred. Drilling for water was purely an experiment at that time and 
has proved not only a great boon to Artesia, but to the surrounding country 
as well, showing that water could be obtained in that way in this district. 

A company known as the El Verde Grande Improvement Company, of 
which John Richey was president, had drilled a well in 1901 on Dr. 
Breman's land, seven miles northeast of Artesia. A large flow was obtained. 
A good portion of this flow was lost by losing the tools in the well. This 
well demonstrated that a large flow could be obtained in that portion of the 
valley. This well was nine hundred and seventy-two feet deep. 

The town of Artesia was incorporated in January, 1905, and the first 
town board elected was A. V. Logan, chairman, who later resigned and 
was succeeded by Mr. Richey ; J. C. Gage, George P. Cleveland and E. B. 
Kemp. This board was first appointed and in April, 1905, the election was 
held and the above named were chosen by regular ballot. The election of 
April, 1906, resulted in the choice of J. C. Beckham as chairman, while 
Messrs. Crandall, Enfield, McBride and Baskom became trustees. 

As has been indicated, Mr. Richey has been closely associated with 
the development and improvement of the town from its inception. He is 
president of the Pecos Valley Immigration Company, with offices in Artesia, 
which has done much for the building. of the town by setting forth the 
natural resources and advantages of the district and inducing immigrants 
to locate here. He has brought over twelve hundred people to the town 
on excursions since the fall of 1905 and is laboring earnestly and effectively 
toward making the country known, that settlers may be induced to locate 
here and develop its rich agricultural and horticultural resources and re- 
claim the once wild district for the uses of civilization. 

H. \Y. Hamilton was one of the owners of the original town site of 
Artesia of eighty acres, having individually thirty acres, while John Richey 


owned ten acres and J. Mack Smith forty acres. On the 15th of January, 
1903, these three gentlemen laid out the town of Artesia and before the 
plat had been completed they had sold lots to the value of one thousand 
dollars. Mr. Hamilton had previously been in Colorado as manager for 
the Carnegie Phipps works at Alamosa, where he spent nine years, and in 
1896 he made his way to Carlsbad, New Mexico, to look at the country and 
determine upon its attractiveness as a place of location and investment. 
He settled at Roswell on the Cunningham farm, which was later pur- 
chased by Ceorge M. Slaughter, and in 1897 he invested near the present 
site of Artesia on what was then known as the Miller switch. Ten men 
pooled interests and together sent to Giicago, purchasing a $3,500 well 
rig. They put down a well on Dr. Breeman's claim, got water, and after 
that the well rig continued to drill in the vicinity. Being assured of the 
artesian belt from indications already found, Mr. Hamilton and his associ- 
ates determined to build a town here and organized the Artesia Town Site 
Company, with Mr. Hamilton as its president, John Richey vice-president, 
and J. Mack Smith secretary and treasurer. The Artesia Town Site Com- 
pany combined with the Artesia Improvement Company, which owned all 
of the city west of Rose avenue, in putting down the town well in 1903, and 
together they organized the Artesia Water, Power and Light "Company. 
Mr. Hamilton acted as president of this company for some time, or until 
recently, when he sold his interest therein and became a leading stockholder 
in the Artesia Telephone Company, which was organized by the two town 
site companies and has the following officers: H. W. Hamilton, president; 
D. W. Runyan, vice-president ; and Floy Richey Hamilton, secretary and 
treasurer. The company has established a system throughout the city with 
one hundred and sixty 'phones and long distance connections with Carls- 
bad and Roswell. They also own a line to Hope, to be extended to Cloud- 
croft for El Paso connections. Mr. Hamilton was manager of the Slaughter 
ranch, near Roswell, for seven years, but since November, 1904, has re- 
sided in Artesia and has brought to bear the forces of an enterprising, 
progressive nature in the development of the town into which he and his 
associates are introducing every modern improvement and equipment, un- 
til the town vies in its conveniences and advantages with the old towns 
of the east. and. in fact, is in many respects superior to municipal- 
ities of long standing. 

Mr. Hamilton was married April 15, 1896, at Roswell to Miss Floy 
Richey, daughter of John Richey. Their children are : William R., Har- 
ry B., John C. and a baby. 

John R. Hodges, secretary and treasurer of the Artesia Improvement 
Company, has been an important factor in the work of general improve- 
ment and in Artesia and various localities are seen tangible evidences of 
his life of activity and the results of his business discernment and enterprise. 
In the fall of 1897 he came from Texas to New Mexico, settling at Ros- 
well, where he entered the employ of R. L. Moss, a druggist, with whom 
he continued for a year as a clerk, when he purchased the store and there 
developed a good business, which lie conducted until 1903, when he sold to 
Daniel Brothers. He was graduated from the University of Texas in the 
pharmaceutical department in 1896, and was thus well qualified for his 
mercantile operations. On selling his store he became connected with the 
Artesia Improvement Company, which was organized July 25, 1903, and 


incorporated under the laws of the Territory. This company purchased 
one hundred and sixty acres of land, constituting the former homestead of 
John F. Boyie, lying west of Ross avenue. After securing this land the 
company laid it off as a town site in conjunction with the similar work of 
the Artesia Town Site Company. They first subdivided forty acres into 
town lots, called the Clayton and Stegman addition, but the rapid growth 
of the town caused them soon to lay off the one hundred and twenty acres 
as the Artesia Improvement Company addition. The officers of this com- 
pany are: J. A. Cottingham, president; S. P. Denning, vice-president; 
John R. Hodges, secretary and treasurer; and E. A. Clayton, manager. 
They were all Roswell people, who came to Artesia when they saw the 
advantages of the country and recognized its possibilities for development. 
The two land companies in Artesia organized a company known as the 
Artesia Water, Power and Light Company and put down the town well, 
which was the second well put down in this part of the valley, which was 
a great boon to the entire countryside. There was little promise for rapid 
or substantial development in the town before water was struck, but this 
gave great impetus to its growth. People flocked in here in great num- 
bers and the town has enjoyed a rapid and substantial advancement. At 
the present time Mr. Hodges is engaged in developing Lake Arthur, a town 
nine miles north of Artesia. He went to that locality in the fall of 1904 
and was one of the organizers of the town. The Lake Arthur Town Site 
Company was formed by Mr. Hodges, C. L. Higday, E. C. Cook, J. S. 
Venable, J. R. Blair and H. H. Sigman ; the present members of the com- 
pany are H. H. Sigman, Elizabeth Hodges and John R. Hodges. The work 
has been carried on at Lake Arthur in the same manner as it was in Ar- 
tesia in the early days of this town. The company first put down a town 
well, going down ten hundred and twenty-four feet for water. The town 
site was the original desert entry of Tillman Furr. Mr. Hodges is now suc- 
cessfully engaged in disposing of town lots in Lake Arthur, and as a pro- 
moter has done effective and far-reaching work for the Territory. He is 
also the secretary, treasurer and manager of the Artesia Water, Power and 
Light Company, of which J. Mack Smith is president and S. P. Denning 
vice-president. Mr. Hodges has made a close study of town building, has 
thoroughly acquainted himself with the natural resources of the country 
and its possibilities and his efforts have been directed along practical lines, 
producing excellent results. 

George P. Cleveland, whose advent in the Territory dates from 1869, 
in that year drove to New Mexico a bunch of cattle from Blanco county, 
Texas, after which he returned to the Lone Star state. In 1893 he again 
came to the valley from Coleman countv, Texas, but found no sufficient 
water supply and so returned to Texas; but in 1900, after the artesian belt 
had been assured, he came again and located at Roswell. He was engaged 
in business in that vicinity until October 16, 1902, when he located at Arte- 
sia, one mile east of where the town now stands. He took up three hun- 
dred and twenty acres of land and began improvements there. In March, 
1903, he established a real estate business under the name of the Cleveland 
Land Agency, and has since devoted his energies to the purchase and sale 
of property, negotiating many important realty transfers. He has five 
hundred and sixty acres of land six miles south of Artesia, which he is 
actively engaged in improving, and has already transformed it into a pro- 

JdCkX£^£, % ffcrfc+Ay{^ 


ductive property, which is constantly appreciating in value. He has made 
a careful study of the artesian supply from a geological standpoint and has 
prepared an article showing the result of his studies, which is found on 
another page of this work. 

Among Artesia's residents is numbered J. A. Bruce, who came to the 
Territory in 1898, locating first at Roswell, but soon afterward he removed 
to his present place, two miles east of the town of Artesia. On the 1st 
of May, 1901, he began drilling a well and struck water on the 13th of Sep- 
tember, 1902. This was the first deep well in the Artesia country and was 
a visible demonstration to people of the fact that the artesian belt crossed 
this locality. After this well was found people began to flock in large 
numbers to the district and the country became thickly settled. When the 
well was struck there was only one little store and a house in Artesia, but 
now it is a thriving and rapidly growing town. Previous to that time Air. 
Bruce had used the surrounding country as a range for his cattle and he 
killed antelopes as late as 1899 on the town site of Artesia. His wife and 
mother-in-law also took up eight hundred acres of land, two miles east of 
Artesia, and the family still own all of this property. At the time the arte- 
sian well was demonstrated to be a success Mr. Bruce ceased to engage in 
stock-raising and turned his attention to farming. He has seventy acres 
in orchards and sixty acres in alfalfa, while altogether he has two hundred 
acres under cultivation. It required seventeen months to drill the well, 
but no other element has proven so valuable a factor in the settlement and 
upbuilding of this district, and Air. Bruce certainly deserves the gratitude 
of his fellow townsmen, proving that water could be obtained here and 
thus making possible the irrigation and fertilization of the arid soil. 

The many prosperous sites now found in the Pecos valley are the 
result of pioneering. Water was found beneath the surface in ample quan- 
tities, and then quickly followed a blossoming of the land with all the fruits 
of the clime. But the preliminary work involved sacrifice and toil, and 
the results of the present are the actual monuments commemorating what 
those still living labored hard to produce. It is of especial interest to find 
one of the so-called weaker sex among the hardy pioneer class. But in the 
history of the beginning and development of Artesia a singular record of 
tribute must be paid to Airs. Sallie L. Robert, who was one of the first to 
reside on the town site of Artesia. 

She is a daughter of James Chisum and the niece of John Chisum, 
names well known in the Territory and inseparably connected with its an- 
nals. The first settler upon the land which she later owned was John Truitt, 
a Federal soldier. He sold it to Frank Rheinboldt, who sold eighty acres 
to J. R. Ray and eighty acres to Airs. Sallie Robert on the 18th of January, 
1896. On January 30th, in 1890, she filed on the homestead, which is now 
within the corporation limits of Artesia. In the fall of 1890 Airs. Robert 
put down an artesian well one hundred and twenty-four feet deep. This 
was the second well in the entire valley and the first one in this part of the 
valley. She resided upon the place as her homestead property from 1890, 
and, as she prospered in her undertakings, bought much land in this vicin- 
ity. She was for some time engaged in entertaining travelers, as the old 
stage line from Carlsbad to Roswell passed by her home. In 1894 there 
was a cloudburst just west of her home and in a few moments her place 
was under water, the adobe house and all of its contents being destroyed. 


With great energy and determination — traits which have ever been char- 
acteristic of the Chisum family — she sent to Carlsbad for material and re- 
built her home on the same spot. In those days she had nothing to depend 
upon but her stock interests, but eventually she acquired property interests 
and is today disposing of her land in city lots and also selling farm prop- 
erty for one hundred and twenty-five dollars per acre, her realty interests 
having greatly appreciated in value, so that she is now reaping a very grat- 
ifying financial return as the reward of her earlier labors and close applica- 
tion. She has lived to see a good town spring up here and has benefited by 
the rapid development of the district. 

James Chisum, who is extensively engaged in raising goats, which 
has become one of the important industries of the southwest, is located at 
Artesia, Eddy county. He was born in Hardeman county, Tennessee, 
September 25, 1827, and for many years was closely connected with bus- 
iness interests with his brother, John S. Chisum, one of the distinguished 
pioneer settlers and stock-raisers of the Territory, now deceased. John S. 
Chisum, however, preceded his brother to Xew Mexico. James Chisum has 
devoted his entire life to farming and live-stock interests and in 1877 came 
to New Mexico at the request of his brother. He and his two sons re- 
mained on the ranch of John Chisum until the latter"s death and then con- 
tinued in charge of the ranch until 1892. In that year they disposed of 
the cattle raising interests and James Chisum turned his attention to sheep 
raising industry, from which he eventually worked into the business of 
raising goats, which has become an important business enterprise of the 
Territory in recent years. He has made his home continuously at Artesia, 
Eddy county, since 1892. and is regarded as one of the prominent and rep- 
resentative stock raisers and dealers in this part of the country. He has 
lived here from pioneer times and has not only been a witness but a partici- 
pant in many events which have had direct and important bearing upon the 
history of the Territory, its development and progress. His daughter, Mrs. 
Sallie E. Robert, now lives with him. 

James Chisum was married to Miss Ara Josephine WTight, who was 
born in Hardeman county. Tennessee, and with her parents came to New 
Mexico in the year which witnessed the arrival of the Chisums. Her father, 
Dr. Wright, was of a very prominent and wealthy family. Mrs. Chisum 
died March 11, 1875. The children of this marriage are: Mary Branch, 
who died in 1873; Sallie L.. who is the widow of William Robert and re- 
sides with her father; Walter P.. a farmer of Roswell : and William J., who 
is engaged in the real estate business at Roswell. 

Walter P. Chisum, the elder son, was born' in Denton county, Texas, 
September 25, 1861, and throughout his entire life has been engaged in 
ranching and farming, which pursuit has proved to be a profitable one. He 
came with his parents to Texas and for a number of years resided upon 
the ranch owned by his uncle, John Chisum. but now makes his home in 

On the 15th of November. 1887, Walter P. Chisum was married at 
Dodge City, Kansas, to Miss Inez V. Simpson, and their children are : 
Jamie W.. born February 28, 1889: and Ara B. and Oscar W., twins, born 
June 9, 1802. Walter Chisum is a stalwart Democrat, active and influential 
in the councils of his party, and has served as county commissioner of 
Chaves county. He is a prominent Mason, belonging to the Blue lodge, 


chapter and commandery at Roswell, to the Mystic Shrine at Albuquerque 
and to the Consistory of Wichita, Kansas, in which he has attained the 
thirty-second degree. His wife is prominent in the Eastern Star and for 
two years was matron of Roswell chapter, while from October, 1904, until 
October, 1905, she was grand matron of the grand chapter of New Mexico 
and was also a delegate to the general grand chapter at St. Louis, Missouri. 

William J. Chisum, the second son of James Chisum, is engaged in the 
real estate business in Roswell. He was born in Denton county, Texas, 
August 7. 1864, and is one of the most active of the second generation of 
pioneers in the Pecos valley, doing everything possible to develop the re- 
sources of the country and make the valley prosperous and a desirable place 
of residence as well. He belongs to that class who have followed those 
who have blazed the trail and have exploited the resources and riches of 
the district to its vast renown and their own profit, having the ability to 
plan and perform and to co-ordinate powers until success has been achieved 
and his position in real estate circles is one of prominence. 

On the 3rd of July, 1887, William J. Chisum was married in Dodge 
City, Kansas, to Lina Tucker, a daughter of Robert Tucker, now of Still- 
water, Oklahoma, who served in the Mexican war. They have one daughter, 
Josephine Branch, born July 25, 1889. 

J. C. Gage came to New Mexico in the spring of 1887, locating in the 
Sacramento mountains, with postoffice at lower Peiiasco. He came from 
Texas for the benefit of bis wife's health, but shortly afterward was put 
in charge of church work as a circuit rider, preaching from White Oaks to 
El Paso in various school houses and churches throughout the mountainous 
district. He has traveled altogether for fifteen years in the Territory. He 
spent four years at James Canyon, one year at Weed and in 1892 located 
at Hope, where he continued his ministerial labors as a preacher of the 
Methodist church for ten years. He has been a most valued and important 
factor in the moral growth and progress of the Territory, especially in its 
southern section, and has planted the seeds of truth in many a desolate dis- 
trict. In 1902 he purchased a farm seven miles south of Artesia and in 
1904 removed to the town. In 1905 he engaged in ministerial work there 
and at the same time became a factor in its business activity, purchasing the 
Artesia Hotel, which he conducted for some time. He was also one of the 
organizers of the Bank of Artesia, with a capital stock of thirty thousand 
dollars, and became its president. Whatever he undertakes he carries for- 
ward to successful completion, utilizing the means at hand and bringing to 
his labors untiring industry, enterprise and determination. 

Mr. Gage was elected one of the aldermen of Artesia on the organiza- 
tion of the town and held the office until April 19. 1906. He belongs to 
Artesia Lodge No. 21, A. F. & A. M.. also to Artesia Lodge No. 11. I. O. 
O. F.. of which he is vice grand. During the early vears of his residence 
in the Territory he devoted his time to preaching the gospel as a repre- 
sentative of the Methodist denomination throughout the eastern part of 
the Territory, and in later years has done effective service for his fellow men 
by planting the seeds of civilization and promoting progress in various 
localities. He is most highly respected and is loved by all who know him. 

David W. Runyan, of Artesia. was born in Indiana, left home when 
thirteen vears of age and went to Texas with buffalo hunters, undergoing 
the usual experiences of such a life on the plains. He came to the Terri- 


tory from Mason county. Texas, in the fall of 1885 with the firm of Shriner 
& Light, owners of large cattle interests. He drove cattle to New Mexico 
and continued with the company for several years. This was the first 
firm to locate on the Peiiasco, the date being the fall of 1886, at which 
time they filed the first land on this stream, where the town of Hope now 
stands. Prior to this period the Peiiasco did not flow through to the Pecos 
river, but since that year, 1886, because of the cattle tramping down the 
bed of the stream, the Peiiasco has flowed on until it has reached the larger 
body of water. About 1890 Air. Runyan engaged in the cattle business on 
his own account on the Peiiasco near Hope and has been thus engaged to 
the present time, covering a period of sixteen years. He located three and 
a half miles below the present town site of Artesia in 1895 and had cattle 
all over the country. He now makes his headquarters at Hope, twenty 
miles southwest of Artesia, and his old ranch, which cost him eighteen 
hundred dollars and which was located three and a half miles south of his 
present location, he sold for ten thousand dollars. He has today two hun- 
dred and eighty acres of land adjoining the town of Hope, which he owns 
in connection with J. C. Gage and which constitutes a splendidly improved 
farm. He is a very popular and prosperous stock man, thoroughly familiar 
with the development of his section of the Territory, and his business activ- 
ity and energy have been resultant factors in making him one of the pros- 
perous citizens of this locality. 

This is an era of town building in New Mexico and with marvelous 
rapidity the unsettled districts of a few years ago have been transformed 
into populous villages and cities and thriving agricultural or horticultural 
communities. With this work E. A. Clayton has been associated in recent 
years. He came to the Territory in 1899 and located at Roswell, whence 
he removed to Artesia, October 6, 1903. He then purchased one hundred 
and sixty acres from John Boyles, who had homesteaded and commuted 
from the government this land, all lying west of Rose avenue. It was first 
owned by Clayton & Company and later the Artesia Improvement Company- 
was organized with J. A.- Cottingham as president, S. P. Denning secretary 
and treasurer and E. A. Clayton as manager. The company first laid out 
forty acres in town lots and after the town well was completed people 
came in such large numbers that : the remainder of the tract was subdivided 
into lots. At this time Mr. Clayton is engaged in locating people on the 
government land around Artesia and the country is becoming rapidly set- 
tled, lie has a farm two miles south of Artesia, where he has one hun- 
dred acres planted to alfalfa and forty acres in orchards. He is president 
of the ITton Lake Town Site Company, developing a town fifty-five miles 
north of Roswell, the district having been platted and the town laid out. 
Mr. Clayton is a very successful and vigorous promoter, towns springing up 
under his guidance as the corn springs from the fields which have been cul- 
tivated by the farmer. His labors are of a most practical nature and al- 
ways accomplish results. Moreover he is a public-spirited citizen, and 
while promoting individual success also advances the general welfare. 

The town of Lakewood was originally known as McMillan. It was 
just a siding placed at the time the railroad was built through in 1894. At 
that time or shortly afterward a store was established by T. J. Scott. The 
next building was a saloon put up by L. W. Holt and G. M. Hogg. This 
was followed by a drug store, the property of Dr. Shedloski. The postoffice 


was removed from Seven Rivers to McMillan. In 1905 a town site com- 
pany was organized, purchased the land from J. M. Coburn and E. C. Cook, 
and the town was laid out, being called Lakewood. The discovery of arte- 
sian water here was the motive factor in laying out the town. 

D. H. Burditt came to the Territory iii 1884, located at Seven Rivers 
and was connected with business firms in that historic old town for two 
years. He then turned his attention to the stock business in this valley, in 
which he continued until 1904, when he located in Lakewood and engaged 
in the real estate business. He bought out and has since conducted the 
Seven Rivers Real Estate Company. He is engaged in immigration work 
from the middle states and has been largely instrumental in securing many 
families to establish homes in this part of the Territory, his efforts being 
not only a source of income to himself but of direct and permanent benefit 
to this section. In addition to his realty operations he is also engaged in 
the stock business. 

M. W. Fanning, who came to the Territory from Texas in October, 
1879, na d served for four years as a Texas ranger in the employ of the 
Lone Star state. In 1880, with Peter Corn, he located a place in the Seven 
Rivers country and started to improve property there. They began business 
together and both have since figured in the material development and prog- 
ress of this portion of the Territory. Mr. Fanning has six hundred and 
forty acres of good land near Lakewood, where he is engaged in the rais- 
ing of cattle, sheep and horses. He is one of the oldest of the pioneer set- 
tlers of the Pecos valley and has remained in the Seven Rivers country 
since coming to the Territory more than a quarter of a century ago. He is 
now well known as an extensive stockman of large and profitable business 

Peter Corn, of Lakewood, who came to the Territory in the fall of 
1879, located a place two and a half miles southwest of the old town of 
Seven Rivers in the spring of 1880, at which time there were but four 
families living there, and this was the only settlement between Roswell and 
the Texas line on the west side of the Pecos river. In 1882 Mr. Corn en- 
gaged in the sheep business, in which he continued until the spring of 1888, 
when he removed to Hope. There he resided until 1896 and was connected 
with stock-raising interests until 1903, when he began farming here. He 
has five hundred and sixty acres of rich and productive land and his labors 
are demonstrating the possibilities of the locality for successful farming 
operations. Mr. Corn is well known as a pioneer settler and one highly 

W. P. B. Willburn has been closely associated with the history of the 
Territory and deserves mention by reason of the fact that he and his 
brother. Frank Willburn, brought one of the first droves of cattle to this 
country in 1867. Mr. Willburn returned in 1872 and with his brother lo- 
cated on a ranch where the town of Roswell now stands. They had an 
old adobe dwelling, a storehouse and shops across from the present loca- 
tion of the court house and they remained here in the cattle business until 
1878. when the "Lincoln county war" was waged, when they left the Ter- 
ritory and returned to Texas. In the days of their early residence in the 
Territory there was not a ranch between Roswell and St. Angelo, Texas. 

In 1895 W. P. B. Willburn returned to the Territory from Texas and 
located near Hope, where he now lives, his place being about four miles 

Vol. II. 17 


east of the town. He has a good property, which he has brought under a 
high state of cultivation and improved with many modern equipments and 
good buildings. 

"Linn" J. C. Richards came to New Mexico in 1898 from Texas and 
located in Hope settlement below the town of Hope, where he engaged in 
the stock business. In 1903 he removed to his present place, a mile and a 
half west of Hope. Here he has an excellent farm property, owning alto- 
gether rive hundred and sixty acres of valuable land, which responds read- 
ily to cultivation. He has ninety acres devoted to various crops and in ad- 
dition fifteen acres is planted to alfalfa, while a fine orchard covers twenty- 
four acres. Mr. Richards, Mr. Riley and Mr. Read were the first men to 
ship apples by car-load from Hope, making the first shipment in 1904, and 
in 1905 the shipment reached fourteen car loads. Mr. Richards is doing 
much to demonstrate the possibilities of this locality as a fruit-producing 
center and is thus contributing to his own success and at the same time 
leading the way that others may follow and enjoy the benefits of horticult- 
ural development and progress in this part of the country. 

Joseph T. Fanning, one of the oldest and most substantial citizens of 
the Territory, now farming near Hope with a property embracing three 
hundred and twenty acres of land, came to New Mexico from Texas in 
1880 and located at Seven Rivers. He engaged in business there for about 
fifteen years and was also prominent and influential in community affairs. 
He was serving as deputy sheriff under Pat Garrett at the time when Billy 
the Kid was leading his band of lawless followers in many depredations, 
only to be ultimately apprehended by Garrett. 

In 1900 Mr. Fanning came to the Hope settlement and located at his 
present place, which he purchased of W. F. Daugherity. He has three 
hundred and twenty acres of land, which he is bringing under a high state 
of cultivation. While in Texas he served for two years as a Texas Ranger. 
He was county assessor of Eddy county in 1901-02, and is one of the oldest 
and most substantial citizens of the Territory, working toward those ends 
which are of permanent benefit in the Territory's development. 

W. P. Riley came to the Territory in the fall of 1887 and spent the 
winter at La Luz. In the fall of that year the Pefiasco went through to the 
Pecos, and in 1888 the first ditch was taken out of Pefiasco by John A. 
Beckett. It was also in the fall of 1888 that Mr. Riley filed on his present 
place, two and a quarter miles west of Hope. He has four hundred acres 
here, including a large orchard and fine fields of alfalfa. The orchard 
covers fifteen acres and he produces some excellent fruit. He has raised 
some pears weighing two pounds each. 

Afr. Riley is a very progressive citizen, constantly seeking out new- 
methods for improvement and advancement, and is one the prominent 
and influential men of the community. Recently he has established an 
automobile line from Artesia to Hope, with two machines. He is in touch 
with modern advancement and has conducted his interests along lines of 
improvement which make him a leader in the movements. 

Robert Weems Tansill, who was very active and prominent as a pro- 
moter of the Pecos valley, his business enterprise, capacity and diligence 
contributing in substantial measure to its development and settlement, made 
his home at Carlsbad, where he passed away December 29, 1902. He was 
born August 20, 1844. in Prince William county, Virginia, and was the 


only child of Robert and Fanny (Weems) Tansill. In the maternal line 
he was a direct descendant of Mason Lock Weems, a well-known historian 
of the Revolution and the author of the Life of Washington. It was he 
who wrote the hatchet story. He was also an Episcopalian clergyman, hav- 
ing charge of the church at Alexandria, Virginia, near Mount Vernon, of 
which General Washington was a communicant. 

Robert W. Tansill was educated at Alexandria, Virginia, and in 
Georgetown University, at Georgetown, District of Columbia. In the 
spring of 1861 he accompanied his maternal grandparents to Illinois, and 
shortly afterward went into business at Clayton, engaging in the confec- 
tionery trade and the jobbing of cigars. On the 1st of January, 1867, he 
was united in marriage to Miss Mary E. Motter, and in 1868 they removed 
to Chicago, where he continued successfully in business until the disastrous 
fire which swept over the city in October, 1871. He lost everything but 
his determination and enterprise, and he soon afterward resumed business, 
confining his attention exclusively to the cigar trade. Shortly afterward 
he originated the "Punch'' cigar, which won him fame and fortune. It 
proved to be a ready seller and the demand for it was so great that he had 
to increase his working forces in order to meet the call of the trade. He 
was the originator of the premium method of advertising. Through the 
conduct of his cigar business he accumulated a large fortune, but overwork 
and an inherited tendency to pulmonary disease undermined his health, 
so that he had to retire from business in 1887. He visited the most cele- 
brated health resorts of America and of Europe, and in 1888, while in 
Colorado Springs, he met C. W. Greene, of Chicago, and through him be- 
came interested in the Pecos valley. He was one of a large number of 
Chicago 'people Mr. Greene piloted to the valley in September, 1888, and 
from this visit resulted the original Pecos Irrigation and Improvement 

It was Mr. Tansill who first interested J. J. Hagerman in the Pecos 
valley. When the money shortage of 1803 to 1897 irretrievably embar- 
rassed the old irrigation company. Mr. Tansill was appointed receiver, July 
19, 1898, and it was almost wholly due to his efforts that the affairs of the 
company were straightened out successfully and put upon a paying basis. 
In 1888, when the party of Chicagoans arrived in this country, there was 
nothing here but prairie dogs, jack rabbits and wild, open country. The 
party camped at the Eddy Brothers' ranch, the rock house, which was lo- 
cated about two miles north of Carlsbad. At that time C. B. Eddy, who 
afterward became a promoter of this country, was engaged in the cattle 
business. While talking to Mrs. Tansill he told her that it was the inten- 
tion of several people of the locality to start a town, and she suggested 
that the proposed village be called Eddy. This was done, but in later 
years Mrs. Tansill suggested that the town be called Carlsbad, from the 
fact that some springs had been discovered near the town, and they were 
called Carlsbad from the famous springs of Germany. Mrs. Tansill agitated 
this change until it was finally adopted by a vote of the people. A circular, 
"To the Citizens of Eddy," by R. W. Tansill, furnishes the following his- 
torical facts and arguments: 

"Mr. Charles B. Eddy had determined to give this town the Spanish 
name 'Halagueno.' This was in October, 1888. Admiring friends, wish- 
ing to honor him. suggested the name of 'Eddy.' Later the county was 


named 'Eddy.' The desirability of changing the name has been dis- 
cussed ever since the curative properties of our springs have been demon- 

"About a year ago the name of 'Carlsbad' was proposed for our city. 
It struck me at once as being not only appropriate, but suggestive as well, 
up to that time our celebrated 'Carlsbad Springs' had been known as "Tan- 
sill Springs.' No, I will not say known, for as 'Tansill Springs' no one 
ever gave them a second thought. I suggested applying the name of 'Carls- 
bad' to the springs, owing to the resemblance of the waters to those of their 
German namesake. It was done, and the effect has been electrical. I cer- 
tainly meant no reflection upon the name of Tansill by removing it from 
the springs, to which it did not apply, an)- more than do I mean any reflec- 
tion upon the name of Eddy by favoring the name of Carlsbad vs. Eddy. 
But before forming a definite opinion I tested the name of 'Carlsbad,' as 
explained, and the results have thoroughly convinced me that the name 
of Tansill as applied to the springs \vas as great a mistake as it would be, in 
the light of experience, to continue the name of Eddy for our city. 

"What has been our experience? Briefly stated, since September, 
1888, more than $10,000,000 have been invested here, approximately as fol- 
lows : Over $5,000,000 in the railroad, over $2,500,000 in the P. I. & I. 
Company, and the remainder in other companies and by private individuals. 
Give us people and our prosperity is assured. If any one will tell me how 
we can secure them, except through united effort and advertising, 1 shall 
be glad to learn. Since our town was named, the curative properties of 
these springs have been demonstrated. I believe this fact to be worth 
millions of dollars to this town and valley, if properly advertised. Such 
a boon rarely falls to the lot of any community, and certainly no people in- 
heriting such a valuable curative agent should, for one moment, hesitate 
about giving it the widest publicity possible. With these facts before us, 
I ask, do you consider it wise to continue for our town a name that has 
neither meaning or significance, and one which we do not and can not ad- 
vantageously advertise? Personally, 1 would distinctly say no. The major 
portion of my life has been devoted to practical advertising, and after 
a most thorough and exhaustive investigation I am convinced that the 
proposed change of name will bring with it inestimable benefits and sup- 
port which will greatly stimulate every business interest of this town and 

Since the death of Mr. Tansill his wife has conducted the business 
affairs left by him. and has continued in the work which her husband began 
of promoting the Carlsbad country, inducing immigration and advancing its 
interests through the development of its material resources. 

Will H. Merchant, living in Carlsbad, is deputy county treasurer of 
Eddy county. He is a son of Clabourn W. Merchant, a pioneer cattleman 
of New Mexico and Arizona, who resides in Texas. The son was born in 
Denton county, Texas, November 1, 1874, and was reared in the Lone Star 
state. Having acquired his education, he spent five years in the cattle in- 
dustry in the Indian Territorv, and since February. 1897, has resided in 
Eddy county, save for the brief period of one year spent in ranching in 
North Dakota. 

In his political views Mr. Merchant is an earnest Democrat, and since 
February, 1904, has filled the office of county treasurer, in which position 


he is found to be prompt, methodical and reliable. He is a Mason, be- 
longing to Carlsbad Lodge No. 21, A. F. & A. M., and in the community 
where he resides he has a wide and favorable social acquaintance. 

W. F. Daugherity, engaged in farming, with three hundred and sixty 
acres of good farming land near Dayton, and also owning a half interest 
in a forty-acre addition to the town site, is prospering in both branches of 
his business. He came to the Territory in 1883 from Texas and located 
at Las Vegas, where he remained for a year. In 1884 he removed to Lin- 
coln county, settling on Benito, near Fort Stanton, while in 1885 he re- 
moved to James canyon, on one of the heads of the Pehasco. He was 
the first man to put a board roof on a house in that canyon. In 
1892 he removed to Hope and built the third house in that settlement. 
Making his headquarters there, he had sheep over the valley and was suc- 
cessfully and extensively engaged in the sheep-raising industry until the 
fall of 1900, when he sold out. In 1901. however, he again engaged in 
the sheep business as a partner of George Beckett, with whom he con- 
tinued until he disposed of his interests in January, 1905. 

In 1897 Mr. Daugherity took up his abode upon his present place near 
the town of Dayton and purchased the propertv in 1901. Since disposing 
of his sheep he has been engaged in farming here, having three hundred 
and sixty acres of cultivable land, from which he is now producing good 
crops. He is also interested in the Dayton town site, owning a half interest 
in a forty-acre addition thereto. His property is valuable and is being 
rapidly developed. He has great faith in the future of this country, and 
that his trust is well placed is indicated by the rapid rise in realty values 
and the substantial manner in which the work of agricultural and horti- 
cultural development and of stock-raising is being carried forward. 



Chaves county is in the southeastern portion of New Mexico, the sec- 
ond county from the southern territorial boundary, north of Otero and 
Eddy. It lies south of Roosevelt and throws up a narrow strip of terri- 
tory into Lincoln. It has an area of 11,520 square miles and a population of 
nearly 5,000 people. Roswell, the county seat, is one of the brisk, at- 
tractive and somewhat remarkable cities in New Mexico, situated in the 
midst of a wonderful artesian belt and a rapidly developing district of 
farms and orchards, and being only eight miles northeast of the great 
Honda reservoir, under process of construction by the United States gov- 
ernment and designed to irrigate 10,000 acres of land immediately adjoin- 
ing that city. 

Chaves county comprises a section of country about a hundred miles 
square and is the heart of the Pecos valley, through whose western third 
flows the river by that name, the second largest in the Territory. The 
affluents of the Pecos, from the west, are the Rio Hondo, Rio Felix and 
Spring river. The eastern half of the county is occupied almost wholly by 
the Staked Plains. 

Organization and County Officials. — By an act of the legislature. 
passed in 1889, two new counties, named Chaves (with Roswell as the 
county seat) and Eddy (with Eddy as the county seat), were cut off from 
the eastern half of Lincoln county. The continuous roster of county offi- 
cials commences with 1891 and is given below : 

1891-2: — County commissioners, E. T. Stone (chairman; died Jan. 25, 1891), 
Henry Milne (appointed by Governor to succeed Stone), A. B. Allen, W. P. Chisum; 
clerk, Frank H. Lee; sheriff, C. C. Fountain; treasurer, James Sutherland; assessor, 
C. S. McCarty. 

1893-4: — Commissioners, C. W. Haynes (chairman), A. B. Allen, W. P. Chisum; 
probate judge, F. Williams; clerk, F. H. Lee; sheriff, William M. Atkinson; assessor, 
C. S. McCarty ; treasurer, James Sutherland. 

1895-6: — Commissioners, C. W. Haynes (chairman), J. A. Gilmore, L. M. 
Long; judge, C. A. Keith; clerk, F. P. Gavle ; sheriff, C. C. Perry: assessor, F. P. 
Lea; treasurer, J. S. Williamson. 

1897-8: — Commissioners, W. M. Atkinson (chairman), W. G. Urton, W. P. 
Chisum; judge, Frank Williams; clerk, F. P. Gayle ; sheriff, C. W. Haynes; assessor, 
F. P. Lea ; treasurer, J. A. Gilmore. 

1899-1900: — Commissioners, W. M. Atkinson (chairman). W. G. Urton, N. Jaffa; 
judge, Frank Williams; clerk, F. P. Gayle; sheriff. Fred Higgins ; assessor, S. M. 
Hodges ; treasurer, James A. Gilmore. 

1900-2: — Commissioners, W. M. Atkinson (chairman), Thomas D. White, A. M. 
Robertson; judge, J. F. Evans; clerk, F. G. Gayle; sheriff, Fred Higgins; assessor, 
John C. Peck ; treasurer, Mark Howell. 

1903-4: — Commissioners, W. M. Atkinson (chairman). Thomas D. White, A. M. 
Robertson; judge, J. T. Evans; clerk, F. P. Gayle; sheriff. Fred Higgins; assessor, 
John C. Peck; treasurer, Mark Howell. 

1905-6: — Commissioners, W. M. Atkinson (chairman). Thomas D. White, N. J. 
Fritz; judge. J. T. Evans; clerk, F. P. Gayle; sheriff, K. S. Woodruff; assessor, 
John C. Peck; treasurer, J. Smith Lea. 



Wonderful Artesian Field.— There is no field, or belt, or stratum of 
artesian waters in the world which is more constant in its flow or more 
accessible than that in the Pecos valley, within the limits of Chaves county. 
As compared with the average depth of wells in other parts of the coun- 
try and the world, the borings here arc ridiculously shallow, and have been 
from die first. It is seldom "that the wells are extended to a depth of _ more 
than 600 feet, although some have been sunk 1,000, but in the majority of 
cases the main body of water has been struck at about 250 feet, and some 
of the 300 wells which are now boiling and spouting in the valley have 
been in constant operation and furnished an unvarying supply of clear, 
cold, pure water for the past ten years. The shallow wells give a supply of 
about 250,000 gallons in twenty-four hours, and the deep ones 225,000 
gallons per hour, or 5.400,000 gallons in twenty-four hours. The artesian 
wells have no eight-hour day ; they work all the time and furnish the 
cheapest power which man has yet discovered. With the artificial sys- 
tems of irrigation they are making what was once considered the Great 
American Desert, of which Chaves county is a part, to "blossom as the 

As nature furnishes the power, the great volume of the artesian flow 
is used for irrigation. A great majority of the wells in this field of the 
Pecos valley are less than six inches in diameter, and the pressure varies 
from six pounds up. Numerous wells are now supplying 1,500,000 gallons 
per day, and it has been demonstrated that one such well will irrigate 160 
acres of land under very heavy croppage, and much more when the land 
is devoted to fruit trees and crops adapted more or less to growth in an 
arid country. The soil of the vallev is rich in those minerals which nourish 
vegetation ; the air is dry and pure and discouraging to all forms of para- 
sitical life which create such havoc to the fruits and grains of other sec- 
tions of the country, where the rainfall and supply of surface water is con- 
stant; and the discovery of artesian water has supplied the one thing need- 
ful tn make the valley a garden of the world. 

The proven artesian field in Chaves county is now about seventy-five 
miles long and twenty wide, and adventurous drillers are increasing the 
area heyond the limits of what was thought to be the extent of the flow. 
The first artesian well in the county was bored by Jaffa & Prager on the 
grounds of the present residence of Nathan Jaffa, in Roswell, in 1890. A 
strong artesian flow was reached at a depth of about 250 feet, and ever since 
the experience of borers has been almost uniform. The most striking 
result of the tapping of this seemingly inexhaustible supply of irrigating 
waters is the creation and remarkable development of the horticultural in- 
terests of the valley. It is peculiarly adapted to apple and peach growing, 
and since the discovery of the artesian denosit the largest orchards in the 
country have come into bearing, their products being in demand at fancy 
prices in all the markets of the country. The development of the country 
has not only made Roswell one of the most prosperous cities in the Terri- 
tory, hut within five years Artesia, in the very center of the artesian dis- 
trict, has sprung from nothing to a thriving town of ^,000 people, with 
handsome buildings, electric lights and telephones and all the other modern 
conveniences. The pressure of the artesian water is used on a limited scale, 
aside from its utility as a means of distribution in irrigation. In some 
instances, however, it has been applied to such domestic occupations as 


churning and washing, all the power necessary for such purposes being de- 
rived through a three-quarter pipe. 

Several facts have been noted in the borings and investigations of the 
Chaves count)' fields which arc worthy of note. There are four considerable 
streams which supply the surface water — the North Spring river, the South 
Spring river, North Berendo and the Rio Hondo, all issuing from the 
White mountains west of Roswell. All of them flow down the Pecos 
valley, and their water is clear and cool. The North and South Spring 
rivers have their source in the artesian strata, and they mark the highest 
point in the field, no flow of artesian water having been encountered at a 
point above the springs from whence they come. 

At points in the valley there are two distinct artesian stratas, though 
the upper one is missing altogether, and when found is of too small vol- 
ume to be of much value, though the quality of the water is exactly the 
same. It always has a temperature of about forty-five degrees Fahrenheit, 
with 109 parts of solids in the 100,000. The first flow is encountered 
usually at a depth of about 150 feet, and the main body at 250 feet. In 
drilling the wells the strata vary, but the last deposit of water is always 
found in the same formation — an extremely hard, porous limestone, that, so 
far as known, has never been drilled entirely through. 

The utility side of the artesian wells has already been described. It 
may be added that, besides the successful cultivation of fruits, the condi- 
tions are especially favorable to the growing of vegetables and garden 
truck. Roswell has already in operation a cannery for beans, peas, aspara- 
gus, pumpkins, tomatoes, berries, etc.. and before long tnere will be a 
good home market for all this kind of produce. In general, land which 
a few years ago was used only for grazing cattle or sheep and sold by 
the section for a trifle, is now worth from $35 to $200 per acre. Truck 
farms in the artesian district rent as high as $40 per acre. 

Alfalfa is still the great agricultural crop of Chaves county. With deep 
soil and plenty of water — say thirty-six inches per acre per annum — 
four good crops can be grown annually, averaging a ton per acre. The 
demand is chiefly from southwestern Texas, and it usually sells from $8 
to $10 per ton on cars ; the cost of getting it started to market is about 
$4 per ton. 

The value of alfalfa as a crop is not confined to the readiness and 
luxuriance of the plant, but, far from impoverishing the soil, it is one of the 
best fertilizers for other crops, as it takes nitrogen from the air and stores 
it in the ground. 

Kaffir corn and milo maize are also easily raised and need little water, 
the soil requiring to be irrigated just before planting, and once, with six 
or eight inches of water, afterward. The average crop is from thirty-five 
to forty-five bushels per acre, and about two tons of forage. Sorghum, 
millet and several other varieties of forage crops also grow to perfection 
with very little water. All root crops do well, and Pecos valley melons 
are obtaining quite a reputation. 

Despite artesian wells, mountain streams and artificial irrigation, the 
most important source of income of the Pecos valley is still its live-stock; 
but the old-time, free-and-easv, careless methods of raising cattle and 
sheep — of turning them out on vast ranges and letting them forage for 
themselves — have given place to the modern system, founded upon a plenti- 


ful supply of water and cultivated forage, summer and winter. The mar- 
ket has also continually demanded hetter breeds of cattle and sheep, and this 
demand can only be met in the irrigated districts. 

The Hondo Irrigation Reservoir. — In 1888 several prominent men in 
the upper Pecos valley, headed by Leslie M. Loiig, organized the New 
Mexico Reservoir and Irrigation Company for the purpose of conserving 
the waste waters of the Hondo river in the vicinity of Roswell. The place 
selected for the site of the storage reservoir was about twelve miles south- 
west from that point, and the general plan appears to have been to construct 
an immense dam across the basin of the river, extending from the hills on 
either side, thus making a reservoir of the entire stream for miles above the 
dam. But the means were not forthcoming for the prosecution of this sim- 
ple plan, and in 1891 the company sold all of their rights and interests to 
the Pecos Irrigation and Investment Company, which had been organized 
two years before in the lower valley and which then was under the control 
of J. J. Hagerman as president and Charles B. Eddy as general manager. 

Under the new management the prospects for the Hondo reservoir 
looked bright until the latter part of the unfortunate year 1893. I" March 
of that year Mr. Hagerman had interested eastern capital in the various 
plans inaugurated for the development of the Upper valley, and sufficient 
money had been subscribed for the building and equipment of the Pecos 
Vailey road from Eddy to Roswell. fifty-five miles. He and his associates 
also appreciated the advantages of the northeastern extension of two hun- 
dred and twenty miles to Amarillo, Texas, as the natural outlet into Texas 
of the products of the Pecos valley. But the panic and the disastrous floods 
of 1893 paralyzed the irrigation project for the time, although the railroad 
was opened to Roswell in October, 1894. 

The celebration of the opening of the line was on the 10th of that 
month, and upon that occasion Mr. Hagerman first visited Roswell and 
the Northern valley. Although he continued operations sufficiently to keep 
his rights from lapsing, work in the Hondo was never actively resumed, 
and. although several efforts to revive the project were made by interested 
parties, nothing was accomplished until 1902. In June of that year the 
national irrigation act was passed, and in the fall, chiefly through the efforts 
of W. M. Reed, of Roswell, who had been an engineer connected with the 
Pecos Irrigation and Improvement Company, the chief engineer of the 
Reclamation Service of the national government visited the site of the pro- 
posed reservoir. ( )n the basis of his reports preliminary surveys were be- 
gun in February, 1903. Diamond drill boring tests were made throughout 
the entire bed of the proposed reservoir, to determine the non-existence of 
subterranean caverns or other unsubstantial conditions of the substrata. At 
first the people of Carlsbad, through the Pecos Irrigation Company, pro- 
tested against the prosecution of the work on the ground that, if the waters 
of the Hondo river were thus diverted, their own irrigation system would 
be destroyed; but eventually they withdrew their objections, and in Jan- 
uary. 1905. active work commenced under the supervision of the United 
States engineers. They selected 10,000 acres of land between Roswell and 
the site of the reservoir, eight miles southwest, as the tract to be irrigated, 
this great fertile body lying from seventy-five to two hundred and fifty feet 
below the reservoir itself. The works, now about completed, consist of a 
series of dams, which together form what is known as the Hondo reservoir. 


The $250,000 necessary to complete the reservoir is being expended by the 
government, and those who come within the irrigated tract will, within the 
ten years following the completion of the works, reimburse it at the rate of 
$2.50 per acre. No one person is allowed to own more than 160 acres. 
The lands for which reservoir water is guaranteed by the government can 
be bought at from $30 to $50 per acre. Although the title and control of 
the irrigation system will remain with the government for at least ten 
years after the completion of the reservoir, the irrigated land is held in 
private ownership, the government stipulating, however, that it shall be sold 
to actual settlers and not to speculators. 

After the selection of the land to be irrigated and acting in accord 
with the suggestion of the Reclamation Service, a corporation was formed, 
under the laws of New Mexico, known as the Rio Hondo Reservoir Water 
Users' Association. Only those owning land within the irrigation district 
selected by the government engineers were eligible to membership. The 
organization virtually assumes the debt to the government of the $250,000. 

The Village of Roswell. — In 1874 a man named Huggins was killed 
]>v Comanche Indians while carrying letters from Fort Sumner to a trad- 
ing point for cattlemen in the Upper Pecos valley, a distance of about eighty 
miles. The growing importance of the place, which was called Roswell — ■ 
from the father of Van C. Smith, the first to make a claim on the site of the 
town — induced the government to establish a postoffice here in the year of 
the death, of its former letter carrier. Paul Schwartz was the first post- 
master. Roswell was then a youngster of five years. Its first store build- 
ing was an adobe erected in 1869, and a dwelling of the same material, which 
still stands in the middle of the block fronting the court house, was built 
about the same time, some eighty feet north of the store. Captain J. C. Lea 
bought these pioneer improvements early in 1878 from Marion Turner, 
who had jumped Mr. Smith's claim. 

In October, 1885, A. E. Lea, a brother of Captain J. C. Lea (deceased) 
made a plat of the town of Roswell, although it was not filed at the county 
seat until two years later. At this time the town was one hundred and 
seventy-five miles from the nearest railroad point — Pecos, Texas. 

In 1891 G. A. Richardson drafted and introduced an act in the Terri- 
torial assembly for the incorporation of villages, and under it Roswell as- 
sumed that form of local government. The act was passed February 14, 
1891, and the first election for village officers was held July 6th, subse- 
quent elections being held in April. It remained a village until December, 
1903, its officers being as below: 

1891 :— Trustees, Nathan Jaffa (chairman), J. S. Lea. Frank Lesnet; E. H. Skip- 
with, S. S. Mendenhall; clerk, Scott Truxton. 

1891-2: — Trustees, Nathan Jaffa (chairman; resigned), Frank Lesnet (elected 
to succeed Mr. Jaffa), J. S. Lea, E. H. Skipwith, S. S. Mendenhall; clerk. Scott 
Truxton; treasurer, J. S. Lea. 

1893-4:— Trustees, R. S. Hamilton (chairman). J. P. Church. S. P. Nicholson 
(resigned Jan. 9, 1894), R. T. Barnett (elected to succeed Mr. Nicholson), James 
B. Mathews (resigned July 17, 1893), J. A. Gilmore (appointed to succeed Mr. 
Mathews), Benjamin F. Daniels; clerk, Scott Truxton; treasurer, J. P. Church. 

1894-5 :— Trustees. W. M. Atkinson (chairman). A. B. Allen, J. P. Church, B. 
F. Daniel (resigned Jan. 5, 1895), Oscar Robertson (elected to succeed Mr. Daniel), 
Harry Carmack ; clerk, Scott Truxton ; treasurer, J. P. Church. 

1895-6 :— Trustees, J. P. Church (chairman), Sidney Prager, J. W. Mullins, 


Scott Truxton, W. B. Meeks : clerk, John I. Hinkle (J. J. Jaffa elected to the position 
Dec. 17, 1895) ; treasurer, Sidney Prager. 

1896-7:— E. A. Cahoon (chairman), E. S. Seay, E. H. Williams, H. A. Bennett, 
Charles H. Sparks: clerk, J. J. Jaffa (resigned Nov. n, 1896), J. H. Devine (elected 
to succeed Mr. Jaffa) ; treasurer, E. H. Williams. 

1897-8: — Trustees, C. H. Sparks (chairman; resigned Sept. 20, 1897), J. J. Jaffa 
(elected to succeed Mr. Sparks, and made chairman). A. Pruit, R. T. Barnett, W. L. 
Amonett, J. W. Mullins (resigned Nov. 18, 1897), W. A. Finlay (elected to succeed 
Mr. Mullins) : clerk, F. J. Beck; treasurer, A. Pruit. 

1898-9 :— Trustees, E. L. Wildy (chairman), E. H. Williams, R. F. Barnett (re- 
signed July 12, 1898), John W. Poe (elected to succeed Mr. Barnett), W. L. 
Amonett, F. P. Lea: clerk, J. P. Lea; treasurer, E. H. Williams. 

1899-1900: — Trustees, John C. Sheridan (chairman), R. L. Moss, F. H. Calfee, 
W. S. Prager, B. F. Hammett, Jr.; clerk, B. F. Hammett, Jr.; treasurer, F. H. 

1900-1:— L. K. McGaffey (chairman), J. P. Church, H. L. Gill, C. W. Haynes, 
R. Kellahin ; clerk, Samuel Atkinson; treasurer, H. L. Gill. 

1901-2: — Trustees, John W. Poe (chairman), L. D. Danenburg. E. S. Seay, C. 
R. Carr, William Robinson; clerk, Samuel Atkinson; treasurer, L. D. Danenburg. 

1902-3: — Trustees, Harry Cannack (chairman), James Sutherland, John W. 
Poe, E. S. Seay, W. G. Ballinger; clerk, Robert Kellahin; treasurer, James Suther- 

1903: — Trustees, Nathan Jaffa (chairman), L. B. Tannehill, S. P. Denning, V. 
O. McCallum: clerk, Robert Kellahin; treasurer, L. B. Tannehill. 

The City of Roswell. — When Roswell was incorporated as a village in 
1891, it had a population of about 400. in 1900 it had 2,000 and its present 
population is about 6,000. The first election for municipal officers was on 
December 8, 1903, and resulted in the choice of the following: J. C. Lea, 
mayor; F. J. Beck, clerk; E. H. Williams, treasurer; L. B. Tannehill, alder- 
man from the first ward ; Ralph Parsons, alderman from the second ward ; 
S. P. Denning, alderman from the third ward ; W. W. Ogle, alderman from 
the fourth ward: A. L. Whiteman, alderman from the fifth ward. Mayor 
Lea died February 4, 1904, and L. B. Tannehill acted in that capacity for 
the balance of the term. 

On April 5, 1904, the following were elected : Mayor, James F. Hinkle; 
clerk, Fred J. Beck; treasurer, A. Pruit: aldermen — M. D. Burns and S. P. 
Johnson, first ward; R M. Parsons and George L. Wyllys, second ward; 
J. W. Kinsinger and Clarence Cilery, third ward.; W. W. Ogle and J. P. 
Church, fourth, ward. 

The city of Roswell has a good system, both for sewerage and drain- 
age. It has telephone and electric light services, and along its well-built 
streets are laid twenty miles of cement walks. Within its limits are 120 
artesian wells, many of them gushing up in the form of fountains and 
forming a picturesque feature of the city. The free mail and rural de- 
livery systems are well organized. It has an ice plant, a steam laundrv, 
a canning factory, a creamerv, and is preparing to install a large sugar- 
beet factory. The city has a pork packery. and its hog ranch, where about 
8,000 head of swine are being raised on alfalfa, is among the largest in the 
United States. One daily and two weekly newspapers and a job printing 
plant, six lumber yards and three national banks should be added to its 

The school system of Roswell is represented by about 2,000 pupils 
and nearly fifty teachers. Its ward school houses are substantial buildings, 
while the so-called Central structure is quite imposing, having been erected 
at a cost of $25,000. Eight churches supply the religious needs of the 


community, and in 1906, with the co-operation of the Roswell Commercial 
Club, a modern hospital was completed by the Catholic Sisters of the Sor- 
rowful Mother. It is situated on Main street, about a mile south of the 
court house. 

Educational Institutions. — The first public school building in Roswell 
was erected in 1878, being located east of G. W. Stevens' residence by J. M. 
Miller, the contractor. Judge A. C. Rogers was the first teacher. This 
first building was used seven or eight years, when the "Farms school" of 
district Xo. 2 was built, with Miss Sarah Lund (now Mrs. C. D. Bonney) 
as teacher. The adobe school house on the hill south of town was built 
in 1885, and Fred Farner opened it to his pupils. The brick structure which 
replaced it in 1891 was the first building to be completed under what was 
practically the first public school act passed by the legislature of New 
Mexico. During that year, when the act dividing Lincoln county became 
effective, school district Xo. 1 comprised the entire northern part of 
Chaves county. District Xo. 2, known as the Farms, remained intact, and 
since that time some fifteen or sixteen districts have been organized from 
these two. 

In 1895 the Pauly building on the west side of town was erected, and 
in 1904 the beautiful Central or high school building, as well as the Mark 
Howell school on Military Heights. 

Roswell takes a just pride in the Xew Mexico Military Institute, which 
covers forty acres of a beautiful mesa, elevated some thirty feet above the 
main portion of the city. It is the only strictly military school in the 
Southwest and gives the name Military Heights to the entire surrounding 
section, which is considered as a northern suburb of Roswell, although 
within the city limits. The buildings consist of seven large and well-built 
structures, three of which are used as barracks and quarters for the 100 
cadets and officers. 

The institute owns its own waterworks, and artesian water is both 
piped through the buildings for domestic purposes and over the grounds 
for irrigation. The school has been opened since September 6, 1898. 

Headquarters of United States Institutions. — The first government in- 
stitution at Roswell was the postoffice, in 1874, and was for many years 
located in the old Poe-Lea-Cosgrove building. In July, 1903, it reached the 
dignity of a second-class office, and March, 1905, the free delivery system 
went into effect. 

In 1889, when the Lincoln land district was carved out of the Las 
Crnces district, the United States land office was transferred from Las 
Cruces to Roswell, with John W. Mills as register and Frank Lesnet as 
receiver. The district now comprises the counties of Chaves, Eddy, Gauda- 
lupe, Lincoln, Otero, Roosevelt and Torrance. From July 1, 1904, to 
July 1, 1905, homestead entries were made through this office to the ex- 
tent of 107,795 acres; 121,523 acres were taken up as desert claims; 15,787 
acres were scripped, and the Territory selected from the government lands 
29,849 acres, making a total of 274.952 acres taken up during the year 
named. Of this amount Chaves countv took 35,985 acres in homesteads and 
44,000 acres in desert claims, also 7,432 acres of scrip. 

In 1902 the United States opened an office of the Reclamation Service, 
Department of the Interior, at Roswell, the district engineer being W. M. 
Reed, formerly connected with the Pecos Irrigation Company. Among the 


first undertakings of the office was the preliminary work on the Hondo 
reservoir, made by W. A. Wilson. Maps were drawn of the proposed 
reservoir site, and all the data was submitted to the department at Wash- 
ington, the construction of the irrigation works being authorized Sep- 
tember 6, 1904. Since that time the work has been progressing under the 
supervision of Mr. Reed. The office has also had active charge of the pre- 
liminary work in connection with the construction of the $570,000 reservoir 
on the Sapello and Gallinas rivers, a few miles north of Las Vegas, and it 
is believed that before long the reclamation office will take over all the prop- 
erty and partially developed irrigation system of the Pecos Irrigation and 
Improvement Company of the Lower valley, which is understood to em- 
brace about 13,000 acres of land in its operations. The Urton Lake reser- 
voir, to which reference has been made, contemplates the irrigation of 
about 75,000 acres, and is the largest project under the investigation and 
control of the district office. In December, 1903, surveys at that point — 
fifty miles northeast of Roswell — were begun by H. C. Hurd and finished 
the following March. Plans, estimates and maps have been submitted to the 
department, but no decision has yet been rendered. 

When the fifth judicial district was formed of Eddy, Chaves and Roose- 
velt counties, Roswell was made the place for holding the United States 
court. The first federal grand jury in Roswell met in April, 1905, and the 
first term of the United States court was held at the same time, with Judge 
William H. Pope presiding. 

The Weather Bureau of the Department of Agriculture opened an 
office at Roswell, September 1, iqoi, the observer in charge being M. 

Roswell Commercial Club. — One of the most potent factors in the up- 
building of Roswell and the Upper Pecos valley is, without question, the 
Roswell Commercial Club, composed of two hundred men who now con- 
stitute the brains and motive power of any movement which is, or is to be, 
beneficial to this section of the Territory. Considering that for two years only, 
the commercial and public-spirited nature of the club has been uppermost, 
that for the prior decade the objects of the organization were almost entirely 
social, its achievements have been really remarkable and place it among the 
ieading bodies of the kind in the Southwest. 

The Roswell Club was organized at the Pauley Hotel for purely social 
purposes on March 23, 18(14, and its officers for the first year were: E. A. 
Cahoon, president ; Charles H. Sparks, first vice-president ; C. A. Keith, 
second vice-president ; A. M. Robertson, treasurer, and J. F. Hinkle, secre- 
tary. Until 1904 the club was the cTand promoter of sociability in Ros- 
well, but in the fall of that year, under the presidency of Judge < ;. A. 
Richardson, the suggestion that its scope be expanded so as to include 
matters of public concern and utility, first began to be seriously con- 

A meeting was called at the rooms of the club in the Gallieur block 
on the night of December 16, 1904, and, in the absence of President Rich- 
ardson, E. A. Cahoon presided. It was the sentiment of the meeting that 
the commercial work of the club be pushed to the front, and before ad- 
journment its name was changed to the Roswell Commercial Club. In a 
few days W. C. Valentine, of Chicago, was employed as secretary, to de- 
vote his entire time to the expanded objects of the club. In February, 1905, 


J. A. Graham succeeded him. Under the active and diplomatic manipula- 
tions of the latter the greatest work of the club has been accomplished, 
"for," as a friend of his states, "Mr. Graham is a natural promoter." 

Of Judge Richardson it should be stated that he has been identified 
with the club since becoming a resident of Roswell in 1888, and has been 
its president for the past five terms. He is a Kentuckian, head of the law 
firm of Richardson, Reid & Hervey (which he organized several years 
ago), has served twice as a member of the Territorial senate, was a mem- 
ber of the national committee in i8q2 and is now president of the Territo- 
rial Bar Association. 

Besides Messrs. Graham and Richardson, the other officers of the club 
are as follows : E. A. Cahoon, first vice-president ; H. Hurd, second vice- 
president ; Robert Kellahin, treasurer. 

The social feature has been extended into the country. In the sum- 
mer of 1905 certain members of the Commercial Club organized and in- 
corporated the Roswell Country Club, with a capital of $25,000. The offi- 
cers were as follows : W. E. Wiseley, president ; E. A. Cahoon, treasurer ; 
J. A. Graham, secretary. The grounds consist of fifty acres of land about 
two miles east of the city and were purchased from Cosmos Sedillo and the 
Stone estate. 

Captain Joseph Callaway Lea is always spoken of as the pioneer of 
Chaves county, and to no man is due in as great measure the early develop- 
ment of this part of the Territory. Roswell largely stands as a monument 
to his enterprise and labor, and in the days of lawlessness and violence he 
ever stood for justice, right, honor and truth. He was a man among men, 
who in any community and under any circumstances would have been re- 
spected and honored. No history of Chaves county would be complete 
without the record of his career. 

He was born in the hamlet of Cleveland, Tennessee, on the 8th of 
November. 1841, and was the second son of Dr. Pleasant J. G. and Lucinda 
(Callaway) Lea. In 1849 the parents removed to Missouri with their 
family, settling at Lea's Summit, which was so named in honor of Dr. Lea. 
Educational opportunities were limited at that early day, and, although Dr. 
Lea was a successful country practitioner and farmer, he was able to give 
his children only the rudiments of an education, but by precept, admoni- 
tion and example he instilled in them the principles of honor, sobriety 
and rectitude of purpose, more valuable than the world's accumulated 
store of knowledge. 

Joseph C. Lea grew to manhood, a hard-working, energetic farmer 
boy of simple tastes, who viewed the internecine struggle then just begin- 
ning as something at a distance that did not concern boys of his age. From 
this, however, he was suddenly awakened, when, in December, 1861, he and 
his younger brother, Frank H. Lea. were arrested while gathering corn in 
their father's field by a squad of Kansas border soldiers, making their escape 
just before all the other captives of that raid were shot down, and, realiz- 
ing that their safety depended upon staying away from home, thev imme- 
diately joined their fortunes with the Confederacy as members of the Sixth 
Missouri Regiment, forming a part of Shelby's brigade. How well he 
bore bis part in the great struggle is attested by the records. He en- 
tered the service a farmer boy, without anv training, and was a colonel be- 
fore the third year of his service had expired. He made a reputation as 


•captain and that title ever after stuck to him. A dashing- young officer 
who seemed to have no thought of fear, yet he was constantly on the alert 
to protect his men, especially his close personal friends. A vacancy in the 
office of first lieutenant was to be filled, and Captain Jason W. James, of 
this county, and another whose name is not now at hand were aspirants. 
Captain James felt hurt at not getting the place and asked Captain Lea 
why he had turned him down. With a look that showed his heart was 
touched, he replied : "James, I love you too well to put you in a place 
where I know you will get killed." Manv instances of this character could 
he given concerning Captain Lea. When the war ended he accepted the 
situation with the same fortitude he displayed in everything else and went 
to Georgia, where he engaged in railroad building and in cotton-planting, 
"but in a short time he removed to Mississippi. 

In the year 1867 was celebrated the marriage of Captain Lea and 
Mrs. Douglass Burbridge, who lived about four years after their marriage. 
In 1875 he married Miss Sallie Wildy, a sister of Ernest L. Wildy and 
Mrs. George T. Davis. In 1876 they removed to Colfax countv, New 
Mexico, and in 1877 became residents of Roswell, where in 1884 Mrs. 
Lea died, leaving two children : Harry Wildy Lea, and Mrs. Ella L. Bedell. 
In 1889, Captain Lea married Mrs. Mabel Doss Day, of Coleman, Texas, 
who survived him until April, iqofi. As stated, Captain Lea came to the 
Territory and was one of the first white settlers of Chaves county who 
left the impress of his individuality upon its development and upbuilding. 
Those were wild days when death was to be feared not only at the hands 
•of the savages but of lawless white men as well. Having become convinced 
that Colfax county did not possess the elements for a future home, he 
journeyed down into the Pecos valley and on the 12th of February reached 
the present site of Roswell with his little caravan. There were few settlers 
in the country then. A number of Mexicans lived on the Berrendo and 
a few white people at Missouri Plaza, a short distance up the Hondo. The 
country, however, was almost totallv a wilderness. Captain Lea began 
his life here as other pioneer settlers, handling, raising and dealing in cattle. 
In the '70s he turned his attention to merchandising and so continued until 
the '80s. his place of business being on the site now occupied by the Record 
building. For many years this was the principal mercantile establishment 
of the great Pecos country and the trading point for hundreds of miles in 
every direction. All the while Captain Lea kept on investing his money in 
lands and at one time owned a vast tract of what is today the most valuable 
land in the country. When he arrived here the only law was one of might 
and the six shooter, and undoubtedly he would not have escaped with his 
life if it had not been that the lawless band recognized a dauntless spirit in 
his clear gray eve. He was about the only man who was able to maintain 
absolute neutrality in the historic Lincoln countv war. He told the bellig- 
erents that when he felt like doing any fighting he would do it on his 
own hook and thev could fight out their little unpleasantnesses to suit 
themselves ; nor did thev question his decision. Thev knew better, and 
while the conflict raged Captain Lea attended strictly to his own business. 
Monev was plentv in those davs and he prospered, amassing much of this 
world's goods, consisting mostlv of land and cattle. He was known to 
every man. woman and child in the great valley, up into the mountains, 
and out upon the llano, and neither then nor in the years that have come 


and gone was the voice of dishonor ever raised against him. By the 
people of every decade he was regarded with general respect and trust. 

Captain Lea was one of the first to realize the great future that lay 
before Giaves county and Roswell. His wide experience had taught him 
that every element of greatness was here — soil that was a veritable mine 
of richness, a splendid water supply adequate, it seemed, to the demands 
of all time, a matchless climate, a wealth of all the elements necessary to 
cattle growing — were at every hand. The first fruit trees had given forth 
great promise and the captain realized that there was a great future in 
store for the country, and from the beginning of his residence here until 
his death he has been an active co-operant in every measure to help build 
up the town and valley. Xo project has ever been advanced for the com- 
mon good that he did not do his part. 

< >n one occasion Captain Lea suffered heavy losses. When there was 
a great decline in the value of cattle he was the central figure in the Lea 
Cattle Company. The financial disaster overtook the company and he 
parted with the greater portion of his wealth. In keeping with the sterling 
integrity that had always marked the man was his conduct at this period. 
Instead of saving what he could from the wreck he placed his entire assets 
in the mill and when the last dollar of indebtedness was paid he had but 
little remaining. But for the rapid increase in values on his property that 
remained he would have been forced to start anew in his old age with 
everything gone save honor. His influence, more than that of any other 
man, has beep felt in the upbuilding of Roswell and Chaves county. He 
was never too busy to give his time and experience, without price, to all 
those who came to see. and no vale ever had a more loyal champion. 
Whether he was directly benefited or not it was all the same to him. He 
gave of his lands and money to every public enterprise that was instituted. 
He was one of the most loyal champions of the noble educational insti- 
tution for boys now known as the X T ew Mexico Military Institute. In his 
social relations he was an enthusiastic Mason. He was also captain and 
commander of the local camp of Confederate Veterans, which position he 
held until his death, and was its first delegate to the national encampment. 
Public office was always distasteful to him, but at length he was pre- 
vailed upon to accent the position of mavor, and after he had entered upon 
the duties of the office he said. "I would rather be the first mayor of Ros- 
well than to be governor of the Territory of New Mexico." Such was 
his love for the town that he builded. 

The Roswell Record said of him : "Captain Lea was in almost every 
aspect a remarkable man. In stature he stood six feet and four inches 
and his nobility of nature was as far above that of the average man as he 
exceeded him in stature. For more than a quarter of a century he was 
a citizen in Roswell. He came here when this was simply a wayside post- 
office on a star route. He saw the place bud into a village and blossom into 
a city, and to his aid more than to any one is the growth of his beloved 
town due. At one time he owned all the land upon which the town is 
built and had he been a selfish gain-seeker he could have been one of the 
wealthiest men in all the land, but such was the breadth of his charity 
that he died comparativelv a poor man. No worthy person ever applied 
to him in vain. Even when most burdened with his own affairs he was 
constantly working for the general good of his town and countv. Like all 


truly good men, he was exceedingly modest and could never hear himself 
praised without blushing. He was more active than any other in securing 
the creation of this county and when it was suggested that it be named 
in his honor he modestly demurred. He steadfastly declined all public 
honors until Roswell was incorporated as a city and then at the almost 
unanimous demand of the people he consented to become its first mayor. 

"Captain Lea had a kind word and was always ready to do a good 
deed for every one. No man ever had higher ideals of manhood and 
womanhood than he. To the young man he was a father and elder brother, 
and there are hundreds today who feel a personal obligation to him for his 
kindness and advice. It is given to but few men to have such a hold upon 
the affections of a people as he had. To those familiar with life here in 
the early days in the southwest there need not be recounted the many inci- 
dents in which Captain Lea in his stand for the supremacy of law displayed 
a courage and heroism as great as ever soldier displayed on the field of 
battle. So from the time that Roswell was but a trading post Captain 
Lea has been a central and foremost figure. Public spirited as he was, he 
liked to keep in close touch with the progress of local events and to talk 
of plans for the public good which he wished to see consummated. Believ- 
ing firmly as he did that Roswell is destined to be the metropolis of New 
Mexico, all of his plans were made with this in view." 

When death claimed Captain Lea resolutions of respect were passed 
by Yalverde Camp No. 1419, N. C. V., of Roswell, by the Masonic fra- 
ternity and other organizations, including the city council, who ordered that 
all city offices and buildings be closed until after the funeral and the stores 
of the city also closed their doors and suspended business out of respect 
to the honored mayor and foremost citizen of the town. Most impressive 
funeral services were held, more than one thousand friends and neighbors 
of Captain Lea following in solemn procession the remains to their last 
resting place. The services were held in the Christian church, of which 
Captain Lea was a devoted member. The body had lain in state in the 
church from six o'clock on the previous evening and hundreds of friends 
had called to pay their last tribute of respect to one whom they had long 
known and honored. Interment was made by the Masonic lodge to which 
he belonged, the beautiful Masonic burial ceremony being observed, at the 
conclusion of which the veterans of A^alverde Camp took position around 
the grave, holding over it the folds of the stars and bars, while a firing 
squad from the New Mexico Military Institute fired a salute of three vol- 
leys. Taps were then sounded. Long years, however, will have passed 
before Captain Lea will have been forgotten by those among whom he lived 
and labored, and as long as the history of Chaves county has a place in the 
records of the Territory his name will be honored for what he did for his 
locality, for public progress and for common humanity. 

Hagerman. — After Roswell, Hagerman is the most important point 
in Chaves county, and one of the largest shipping centers for fruit, alfalfa 
and live stock along the line of the Pecos Valley & Northeastern road. It 
is situated two miles southwest of where the Rio Felix makes its junction 
with the Rio Pecos, and is nearly midway between Amarillo and Pecos, 
Texas. It is a place of about 800 people and is substantially and taste- 
fully built. 

Hagerman has a good bank, with average deposits of $100,000, a fine 
Vol. 11. is 


school and societies of Presbyterians, Baptists, Methodists and Episcopa- 
lians. Its water supply is furnished by two ot the best artesian wells in 
Pecos valley, the pressure from which is sufficient to force a stream to 
a height of one hundred feet, or over the tallest buildings in the town. 

the town was founded by J. J. Hagerman in 1695. Mr. Hagerman 
passed through the Northern valley in October, 1894, upon the completion 
of the Pecos V alley road from Eddy, or Carisbad, to Roswell. Due of the 
first things that attracted his attention at that place was a large, luscious 
apple raised by John Chisum on his South Spring ranch, ana known all 
up and down the valley as the Chisum apple. Air. Chisum was one of 
the pioneers in the cultivation of that fruit, which has made especially 
famous, in a horticultural sense, all that portion of the Pecos valley be- 
tween Roswell and Hagerman. The development of this special indus- 
try commenced about thirty years ago in the live-acre apple orchard on 
Chisum's ranch. 

Parker Earle, who now lives near Roswell, was for sixteen years presi- 
dent of the American Horticultural Society, and is known all over the 
west in connection with both the raising and refrigeration of fruit. Being 
in Roswell with Mr. Hagerman at the time of the railroad celebration, he 
was so captivated by the Chisum apple that he sent to some eastern nur- 
serymen and brought them to Colorado Springs to form the Pecos Valley 
Orchard Company, and especially to propagate the apple named. He was 
enthusiastically supported by Mr. Hagerman, who soon became the leading 
business spirit in 'the enterprise. 

In the winter of 1894-95 a 500-acre apple orchard was planted, and 
from this has sprung what is known the country over as the Hagerman 
apple orchard, with a product of 100,000 bushels per year. Its apples have 
taken the highest honors in all the great expositions of recent years, and it 
has been the means of encouraging others to plant apple trees in both large 
and small orchards. 

At the present time there are about 3,000 acres of apple orchards in 
the Upper Pecos valley, none of them over ten years old. Some varieties 
of apples come into bearing in this country in the fourth or fifth year after 
planting. It is reasonable to believe that widiin five years at least 1,000 
carioads of apples will be shipped yearly from the Upper valley from or- 
chards already planted. 

In 1898 the Felix Irrigation Company was formed to operate the North- 
ern canal, formerly a portion of the system of the old Pecos Valley Irri- 
gation and Improvement Company. This canal waters about 7,000 acres of 
land in what is known as the Hagerman-Felix district, about twenty miles 
south of Roswell. No finer farms can be found in the valley than in this 
region, which is being rapidly settled, and die center of which is the town 
of Hagerman. 

Lake Arthur. — The town site of Lake Arthur was surveyed and platted 
in August, 1904, and in the following November W. L. Stull commenced 
the erection of the Lake Arthur Hotel, the first building to be com- 
pleted in the place. Boyd Brothers' store was the next building to be 
erected, which was followed by the structure in which the Town Site Com- 
pany's office was located. The town has now a population of about 400, 
water for drinking and irrigation purposes being supplied from artesian 


One nursery has over 20.000 apple trees set out, large orchards are 
in bearing, and the finest alfalfa and garden truck are raised in the local- 
ity. Lake Arthur is a short distance south of Hagerman, on the Pecos 
Valley & Northeastern Railroad, and it is a large point for the ship- 
ping of wool, an average of 10,000 sheep being shorn here during the 

Fred P. Gayle, probate clerk at Roswell and the oldest continuous 
resident of that place, came from Texas to New Mexico in January, 1882. 
He was born in Alabama and rendered military aid to the Confederacy for 
four years (luring the Civil war as a member of the Fifteenth Confederate 
Cavalry. He was afterward connected with the Sixth South Carolina 

During the greater part of his active business life Mr. Gayle has re- 
sided in Texas, but in January, 1882, came to New Mexico in company with 
Pat Garrett. They went to White Oaks and Mr. Gayle clerked in one of 
the early stores in Roswell in 1882-3. He is now the oldest continuous 
resident of the town and has witnessed its development from villagehood 
to its present proportions, when all the evidences of a progressive civiliza- 
tion are here found. In 1804 he was elected probate clerk of the county 
and has since been continued in the office, covering a period of twelve 
years. In politics he is a Democrat, active and influential in the party 
councils, and has served on various committees appointed to promote the 
growth and insure the success of the party. 

In the history of the pioneer development of Xew Mexico mention 
should be made of M. V. Corn, who came to the Territory in 1879 and has 
been closely associated with its material development and with its progress 
along lines leading to good citizenship and substantial improvement. He 
came from Kerr county, Texas, making the overland trip to Roswell, after 
which he located on a place three miles southeast of the town. There he 
took homestead and timber culture claims in one body. In later years he 
bought land adjoining his original tract and when he sold he had three 
hundred and eighty-four acres in one tract. In 1893 he disposed of this 
to Mr. Hagerman. In the meantime he had carried on the work of general 
improvement and development. In 1880 he planted Lovers' Lane, a public 
highway bordered by trees for a mile in length, and it is now the most 
famous driveway in the Territory. Mr. Corn made many early improve- 
ments on the place and nlanted twenty acres of apple orchards, having 
une 1 if the earliest orchards in the Pecos valley. He has taken many blue 
ribbons on farm and garden fruit crops. 

John Poe was the first to raise alfalfa in this valley and Mr. Corn 
was one of the earliest to establish this great industry. His place was 
under the Texas ditch, which was among the first irrigation ditches of 
the valley. In connection with A. O. Spencer, W. L. Holliman and James 
H. Hampton be took out his ditch from South Spring river just a" little 
below the old Chisum ranch. The ditch was made in the fall of 1879, and 
as a result thereof it was soon demonstrated that the soil of the locality 
was very productive when water was added. 

In 1894 Mr. Corn removed to Eden valley and located a ranch twenty 
miles north of Roswell. He took a desert claim and improved it and he 
now has about seven hundred acres of deeded land twelve miles west of 
the Pecos river devoted to stock raising. His sons, John R., Robert L. 


Martin V. and George W. Corn, are all engaged in the stock business in the 
Eden valley and the family has proved an important factor in the material 
development and progress of this part of New Mexico, Mr. Corn giving 
his influence to every measure that tends to promote public progress and 
introduces the evidences of an advanced civilization into a district which 
up to a few years ago had not been reclaimed for the purposes of culti- 

Richard F. Ballard, filling the office of deputy probate clerk at Ros- 
well, was born in Fort Griffin, Shackelford county, Texas, in 1877, and is 
a son of Allen J. Ballard. In Eebruary, 1878, the father brought his family 
to New Mexico, locating at Fort Sumner, and Richard F. Ballard has 
since remained a resident of the Territory. He acquired his preliminary 
education in the early public schools and afterward attended the New 
Mexico Military Institute. Early in his business career he became con- 
nected with the cattle industry and was thus engaged until September, 1903, 
when he was appointed deputy probate clerk by F. P. Gayle. . His political 
allegiance is given to the Democratic party. Although a young man he has 
exerted considerable influence in local political circles and he is a typical 
son of New Mexico, possessing the alert and enterprising spirit which has 
been the dominant factor in the rapid and substantial growth of this part 
of the country. 

Robert Kellahin, a real estate operator at Roswell, also filling the 
position of postmaster, was born in Scotland, and on crossing the Atlantic 
to America in 1892 came to the Territory of New Mexico, locating in 
Carlsbad, where he took charge of the Charles W. Green offices at Carlsbad 
as bookkeeper. Mr. Green was for some time a promoter, who contributed 
in substantial measure to the upbuilding and progress of the Territory. 
Subsequently he was connected with the Hagerman Company and with 
irrigating companies in and around Carlsbad, acting as bookkeeper. In 1895 
he came to Roswell and accepted a position as auditor and cashier with 
the Roswell Land and Water Company, acting in that capacity for three 
years. He has since been engaged in the real estate and insurance business 
as a member of the firm of Kellahin & Calfee, and they have a large cli- 
entage, writing considerable business as insurance agents and also negotiat- 
ing important realty transfers. Mr. Kellahin was appointed to his present 
office as postmaster by President Roosevelt in July, 1904. This is a second- 
class office and was the third office in the Territory. There is a carrier 
system in the city. He has placed the business of the office upon a method- 
ical basis, resulting in a splendid discharge of the work therein carried 
on and his administration has won uniform commendation and good will. 

Mr. Kellahin is a member of Roswell Lodge No. 18, A. F. & A. M., 
and in the year of 1906 was elected grand lecturer for the Territory. He 
also belongs to Columbia Chapter No. 7. R. A. M., of Roswell, and to 
Rio Hondo Commandery No. 6, K. T., of which he is eminent commander. 
In October, 1905, he became a member of the grand lodge of the Territory 
at Albuquerque, and is today one of the prominent Masons of the Terri- 
tory. His business interests, too, have prospered since he came to the 
new world and he has never had occasion to regret his determination to 
seek a home in this country with its broader opportunities and advance- 
ment more quickly Secured. 

Joshua P. Church, the efficient manager of the telephone companv, has 


been a resident of Roswell since the spring of 1880. About twelve years 
ago the Roswell Telephone and Manufacturing Company was incorporated, 
at which time the franchise was received, and the following gentlemen were 
the organizers of the concern : Messrs. Cahoon, Poe, McGaffey and Church. 
The work was started as a local system, with thirty-five 'phones, but the 
number has since been increased to five hundred in this city, and two 
years ago they put in a long distance system, connecting Roswell with 
Carlsbad, a distance of eighty miles, also establishing a system at Artesia 
with one hundred and fifty 'phones, and they are now putting in three 
different exchanges, Hagerman, Dexter and Lake Arthur. The officers of 
the company are : President, J. W. Poe ; vice-president, J. P. Church ; 
treasurer. E. A. Cahoon ; and secretary, L. K. McGaffey. This is the 
pioneer system of the Pecos Valley, and at the present time the company 
is doubling the toll line. Mr. Church is numbered among the public- 
spirited and progressive citizens of the community, and he is now serving 
his fifth term on the city board, having also been twice chairman of the 

For a number of years past Mr. Foreman has been prominently iden- 
tified with the business interests of Roswell, and in this time has become 
recognized as one of its leading and useful citizens. He came from the 
Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory, to Roswell in 1899. In September of 
the same year he purchased the Hotel Richards, which he conducted for 
about two years, on the expiration of which period he rented the hotel and 
took up his abode a half mile east of the town, where he bought five acres 
of land, the purchase price being two hundred dollars an acre. During his 
residence here he has greatly improved his land and has erected thereon 
a nice residence. He returned to take charge of the hotel again January 1, 
1906. In April, 1904, he was elected a member of the school board of Ros- 
well, the cause of education ever finding in him a firm friend, and he is 
numbered among the wealthy and influential citizens of Chaves county. 

For many years J. D. Hortenstein was closely associated with the his- 
torv of Chaves county, and when death claimed him the community 
mourned the loss of a representative citizen, widely and favorably known 
in agricultural circles. He came to the Territory in 1897 from Illinois 
and selected a homestead of one hundred and sixty acres, twelve miles 
from Roswell, and in 1898 the family moved here from Mattoon, Coles 
county, Illinois. In May, 1 901, he completed an artesian well eight hun- 
dred and forty feet deep, this being the first well sunk in the vicinity. 
Sixty acres of his place was devoted to orchard and alfalfa. He also owned 
the town site of Orchard Park, located on the railroad twelve miles south- 
east of Roswell, which was platted in November, 1905. The postoffice 
name of Orchard Park is Alellen. The estate is managed by his widow and 
son. Hale Homtenstein. 

Among those who have attained distinctive prestige in the business life 
of Chaves county is A. M. Robertson, who is now serving as the Roswell 
agent for the Continental Oil Company. On his arrival in New Mexico 
in 1880 he engaged in mining at White Oaks, where for three years he 
prospected for gold, and from that time until 1885 he followed the search 
for the precious metal in Dona Ana county, near Las Cruces. He then 
came to Lincoln county, and fromi 1885 to 1888 served as its efficient 
deputy sheriff. In February, 1889. Mr. Robertson took up his abode in 


the city of Roswell, and in company with G. A. Richardson embarked in the 
lumber business, they conducting the first yard established in the valley, but 
in 1897 the firm dissolved partnership and Mr. Robertson afterward con- 
ducted the business alone for two years. He then turned his attention to 
the transfer business, becoming agent for the Continental Oil Company, 
in which position he has ever since continued, discharging the duties de- 
volving upon him to the entire satisfaction of all concerned. For four 
years he served as a commissioner of Chaves county, and in both his busi- 
ness and official record he has been true to the trusts reposed in him and 
has shown himself worthy of the public regard. 

C. W. Haynes, who has for a number of years been numbered among 
the substantial citizens of Chaves county, taking an active and helpful part 
in the progress and welfare of the community, took up his abode within 
the borders of New Mexico in 1883, first locating at Las Vegas. For five 
years he conducted a cattle ranch eighty miles southeast of that city, near 
Fort Sumner, on the expiration of which period, in 1888, he came to Lin- 
coln county, locating on a ranch forty miles north of this city, and in 1895 
located in Roswell. In 1896 Mr. Haynes was appointed by Governor 
Thornton as sheriff of Chaves county, to fill the position vacated by Charles 
Perry, who had embezzled eight thousand dollars' worth of the county's 
funds and escaped to southern Africa, where he is supposed to have been 
killed. Mr. Haynes was elected to the position of sheriff in 1897, serving 
for two years, and- during his tenure of office he discharged the duties 
encumbent upon him with signal ability and trustworthiness. Prior to 
entering upon the duties of that office he had served as county commis- 
sioner, and since retiring from office he has engaged in the real estate 
business, owning large interests. On the 17th of January, 1902, Mr. 
Haynes completed a dam across Spring river, which conveys water through 
thirty-two hundred feet of canal and generates power for a water system. 
He is a firm believer in the future of Roswell, as is evidenced by the hun- 
dreds of city lots which he has bought. He deals extensively in real estate 
on his own account, and is also associated with C. D. Bonney in the busi- 
ness, they having large and extensive interests. 

The name of James F. Hinkle is deeply engraved on the pages of 
Chaves county's history, for he has been an active factor in administering 
the affairs of government, and is widely recognized as a Democratic leader. 
He is a native of Missouri. He came to New Mexico from Texas in 1885 
and established the Penasco Cattle Company, with which he was connected 
until 1 go 1. This county was then known as Lincoln, and he maintained 
his headquarters sixty-five miles from Roswell. He had about twenty-five 
thousand cattle on the range, and his was one of the largest cattle ranches 
in the Territory, but in 1901 he disposed of his interests and took up his 
abode in Roswell. In the following year, 1902, he became associated with 
J. J. Hagerman, with whom he has since been connected. 

In his fraternal relations Mr. Hinkle is a member of the Masonic 
order, in which he has attained the thirty-second degree, and is a member 
of all its branches, and also holds membership relations with the Benevolent 
and Protective Order of Elks, No. 169, of which he is the exalted ruler. 
His political support is given to the Democratic party, and on its ticket 
he was elected to the legislature in 1892, and again in 1895, to the terri- 

/ 'S 




torial council in 1901, and as mayor of Roswell in April, 1904, two-year 
term. He is also a director of the First National Bank of Roswell. 

Frank Divers, of Roswell, first came to the Territory in 1883, at 
which time he located fifty miles east of Carlsbad, in what was then Lin- 
coln county, but is now Eddy county. He came from Texas, and in 1886 
he removed his family to Midland, Texas, but continued in the stock busi- 
ness in the Territory until 1896. The ranch of which he was formerly 
owner now belongs to C. B. Merchant, and was the first ranch located in 
the southeast part of the Territory, while Mr. Divers also erected the first 
windmill in that part of the Territory. Returning to Midland, Texas, he 
there engaged in the cattle business for a few years. 

In June, 1900, Mr. Divers removed to Roswell, trading his Texas 
property for a ranch ten miles southeast of the town. Later he sold this 
place of eight hundred acres to C. Chisholm, and it now constitutes a part 
of the Chisholm hog ranch. In February, 1901, Mr. Divers became a 
resident of Roswell, and in 1903 he purchased a ranch near Campbell, 
whereon he has about seven hundred head of short-horn Durham cattle. 
He has been grading up this herd for seventeen years, and now owns 
some very fine and valuable stock. He is also a director in the First Na- 
tional Bank. He has prospered in his business undertakings, owing to his 
close application and indefatigable energy, his keen sagacity and reliable 
business judgment. He is a strong man, strong in his honor and good 
name, as well as in his success. The Baptist church finds in him a most 
active, earnest and helpful worker and generous contributor, and he is 
also a co-operant factor in many measures that have had direct bearing 
upon the welfare and progress of Roswell and this part of the Territory, 
along material, intellectual and moral lines. 

The name of Lucius Dills is 'one well known throughout this section 
of the southwest territory, for here he has passed many years of his life 
and is now filling the important office of city engineer. In 1885 he arrived 
in New Mexico, and for one year thereafter practiced law at Lincoln, 
after which he came to Roswell and turned his attention to agricultural 
pursuits, thus continuing for three years. In 1891, in connection with J. 
D. Lea, he established the Roswell Record, a weekly newspaper, which he 
conducted until December, 1898. when he took up the work of a civil 
engineer. Since entering upon this occupation Mr. Dills has done much 
surveying for sidewalk work, having surveyed about twelve miles of ce- 
ment walk, and he has also done much levee work on the Rio Hondo for 
flood protection. Two years age he was made the city engineer of Ros- 
well, and in this position he lias acquitted himself with credit. 

Colonel Charles L. Ballard, a stockman at Roswell, Chaves county, 
and a veteran of the Spanish-American and Philippine wars, is a native of 
Texas and came to the territory in February, 1878, with his father, A. J. 
Ballard, who was a buffalo hunter and took up his residence at Fort Sum- 
ner. After a year he removed to Lincoln county, settling near Lincoln, 
where he engaged in stock raising and merchandising. 

Colonel Ballard remained with his father until 1880, when he re- 
moved to Roswell and entered the employ of Captain Lea. In 1890 he 
began the stock business on his own account and has since conducted oper- 
ations here as a ranchman and stock raiser save during the period of his 
military service. In 1898 he enlisted in a squadron raised in New Mexico, 


the regiment mobilizing at San Antonio, Texas. He was second lieutenant 
of the second squadron. Roosevelt joined the regiment at San Antonio 
and they proceeded to Cuba, Colonel Ballard serving throughout the period 
of military operations in that country. Later he was commissioned as 
second lieutenant to join the Eleventh Volunteers in the Philippines, and 
served there for two years, being mustered out with the rank of first lieu- 
tenant. He made a most creditahle military record, owing to his loyalty 
and his valor. 

Returning to the United States in iqoi, Colonel Ballard resumed 
stock raising, to which he now gives his time and energies with good 
success. In iqoi he was appointed a member of the cattle sanitary board 
bv Governor Otero, and at the last general election was chosen to repre- 
sent his district in the territorial council. His political allegiance is given 
the Democracy and his opinions constitute a decisive factor in the local 
councils of his party and are not without weight in territorial affairs. 

W. P. Turner, one of the prominent business men of Roswell, came 
to this territory from Texas in October. 1895, while in search of health, 
and took up his abode in Roswell. For the succeeding five years after his 
arrival he was engaged in agricultural pursuits, and on the expiration of 
that period, in 1900, he organized the firm of Williamson & Turner, real 
estate, fire and life insurance dealers. In 1904 the firm of Turner & Ma- 
lone was organized, engaged in the same business. In 1905 was organized 
the Pecos Valley Immigration Company, with offices in Kansas City, and 
the members of this well known company are: Turner & Malone. Ros- 
well : Warren & Malone, Hagerman ; John Richey & Sons, Artesia ; Alli- 
son & Hancher, Carlsbad, and McLenathan & Tracy, also of Carlsbad. 
The officers of the company are : President, John Richey ; vice-president, 
W. W. Warren ; secretary and treasurer. W. P. Turner ; and general man- 
ager, W. R. Allison. This company has brought more immigrants to the 
valley than any other organization. It has about four hundred agents 
located over the United States from New York to California, and pre- 
dicts great possibilities for the future of the Pecos Valley. 

Mark Howell, chief deputy sheriff of Chaves county, living in Ros- 
well, was born near Warrensburg, Missouri, in 1842, and in his boyhood 
days went to Independence, Missouri, with his parents. In 1853 he accom- 
panied them on the long and tedious journev to California. The family 
home was established on the Tuolumne river, and at the age of fifteen years 
he engaged in freighting. He has lived at different times in various parts 
of California, laid out and surveved the town of Madera and was one of 
the first settlers of Merced, California, taking up his abode there in 1872. 
In January, 1882, he came to New Mexico, locating in Las Vegas, and in 
1884 he removed to Roswell. He has surveyed most of the ditches in 
Chaves county and also land. His work in this connection has been an 
important one. for there is nothing which has as direct bearing upon the 
development and. prosperity of the Territorv as its irrigation system. 

Aside from his activitv in business, Mr. Howell has been recognized 
as a leading merchant of Chaves county because of his capable and active 
service in public office. He was deputy treasurer for six years, county 
treasurer for four years, and was the first countv surveyor, receiving that 
office through appointment. Since the first of October, 1905. he has been 
chief deputy sheriff, and over the record of his public career and private 


life there falls no shadow of wrong or suspicion of evil. Fraternally he 
is a Mason and Odd Fellow, prominent in the ranks of that order, as well 
as in political and business life. His labors have been of direct and perma- 
nent good in Chaves county, proving a valued factor in the upbuilding and 
advancement of this part of the Territory. 

One of the most successful business men of Chaves county is J. A. 
Cottingham, a member of the Roswell Lumber Company of Roswell. He 
has been a resident of the southwest since the 18th of June, 1899, when he 
took up his abode in this city, and here he has ever since been an important 
factor in its business circles. In 1899 he erected the Roswell Steam 
Laundry, in connection with which he also conducted a small lumber busi- 
ness, the nucleus of his present large enterprise. Prior to his removal to 
New Mexico Mr. Cottingham had conducted a lumber business in Kopperl, 
Texas, and it was from that city that he came to Roswell. In March, 1902, 
he organized a home company, which was incorporated as the Roswell 
Lumber Company, with John Shaw, president, I. B. Rose, vice-president, 
H. Fitzgerald, secretary, and J. A. Cottingham, treasurer and manager. 
On the 10th of March, 1902, they purchased the interests of the Lewis & 
Wells Lumber Company. The capital stock of this company is valued at 
twenty thousand dollars, and they carry paints and building material. 

In his fraternal relations Mr. Cottingham is a member of the blue 
lodge and chapter of the Masonic order at Roswell. 

L. K. McGaffey, a real estate dealer of Roswell, New Mexico, is of 
Scotch-Irish ancestry, his people having come to this country in colonial 
days. He was born in Caledonia county, Vermont, and has been a resident 
of the Territory since 1884, when he located at Los Lunas. He was there 
employed in the mercantile firm of L. & H. Huning for one year and dur- 
ing the succeeding seven years had charge of a cattle ranch for that firm 
in western New Mexico. He settled in Roswell in 1892, and was post- 
master of the city under appointment of President Cleveland from 1893 
until 1898, and since the latter date has been dealing in Pecos valley lands, 
being one of the prominent real estate dealers of this section of the Terri- 
tory. He is a director of the First National Bank of Roswell, and has pro- 
moted various land, gas and telephone companies, operating through the 
valley, which connections indicate his progressive spirit and the important 
part which he is taking in introducing all modern improvements into this 
new but rapidly developing region. 

In community affairs Mr. McGaffey has taken a helpful part, has served 
as chairman of the city council and is at this writing, in 1906, a member of 
the board of education at Roswell. He has likewise been president of the 
Roswell Commercial Club and has held various other positions of a similar 
nature. In 1904 he attended the Democratic national convention as a dele- 
gate from his Territory. His labors have been of direct and immediate 
serviceableness in upbuilding Roswell, the intellectual, material and polit- 
ical interests feeling the stimulus of his co-operation and benefiting by his 
keen discrimination and practical methods. 

Although a resident of Austin. Texas, the extensive business interests 
of G. W. Littlefield in the southwest place him among the leaders in in- 
dustrial circles here. He formerlv owned what was once known as the 
L. I. T. ranch, which was established in 1877 in Texas, but in 1881 sold 
that property to the Prairie Cattle Company, this being just before the 


rise in cattle, and Captain Littlefield then went to southern Texas and 
bought cattle, which he drove to the Pecos Valley, locating at Bosque 
Grande, on the Pecos. There he established the L. F. D. ranch, one of 
the most important in New Mexico, and at that time there were no ranches 
between Fort Sumner and Roswell. In 1887 he went on the plains eighty 
miles east of this place, this being at a very early day in the southwest, 
and not a house could be seen between Roswell and Midland, Texas. In 
1892 Captain Littlefield purchased a farm three miles from Roswell, where 
he keeps blooded stock and a large feeding yard. He purchased the land 
for five dollars an acre, and there he now owns twelve hundred and fifty- 
two acres, all of which is under irrigation. In 1901 he went to Texas and 
purchased the south end of the Capital Syndicate land, known as the X. 
I. T. ranch, consisting of about three hundred thousand acres, all of which 
is grazing land, and there he has a fine herd of high-grade Durhams and 
Hereford cattle. 

Major Littlefield maintains his home in Austin, Texas, where he is 
president of the American National Bank, and his extensive interests in 
New Mexico are conducted by his nephews, T- P. White and Thomas D. 

David L. Geyer, who is filling the position of receiver of the United 
States land office at Roswell, New ulexico, was appointed to this position 
by President McKinley on the 1st of October, 1897, from Pomeroy, Ohio, 
and entered upon the duties of the office on the 17th of November of the 
same year. His second term in this official position will expire in March, 
1907. ' 

Judge J. T. Evans, probate judge of Chaves county, and a resident of 
Roswell, has made his home in the Territory since the fall of 1892. He 
was born in Alabama and pursued his education at Meridian, Mississippi. 
For four years he engaged in teaching school in Texas and was county 
surveyor of Coleman county, Texas, for four vears. Preparing for the 
practice of law, he was admitted to the bar in Coleman county about 1886, 
and while residing there was elected and served for four years as county 
judge, bringing to the bench excellent qualifications for the discharge of 
the responsible duties of an office to which the general public must look 
for the protection of its rights and liberties. In the fall of 1892 he removed 
from Texas to New Mexico and has since resided in Roswell, where, open- 
ing an office, he entered upon the active practice of law, displaying an 
ability that soon made his clientage a distinctly representative one. In 
1901 he was chosen to the office of probate judge, which position he is now 
filling for the third term, proving most capable in the discharge of his 
duties as is indicated by the fact that he has been twice re-elected. His 
political support is given to the Democracy and he has loyally adhered to 
the party in times of defeat as well as in times of victory because of his 
firm belief in its principles and policy. 

In his social relations Judge Evans is an Odd Fellow, belonging to 
Samaritan Lodge No. 12, at Roswell, in which he has taken all of the de- 
grees and filled all of the chairs. He likewise belongs to the Masonic lodge 
and the Royal Arch chapter and is a worthy exemplar of the teachings and 
tenets of the fraternity. 

Extensive business interests in Chaves county place Mr. White among 
the leaders in industrial circles, and he has achieved that success which is 


the logical result of enterprise and straight-forward methods. He came 
to this Territory from the Lone Star state of Texas, arriving in Roswell 
in March, 1899, and at once embarked in the sheep industry. He has thus 
been identified with one of the leading enterprises of this section of the 
country for many years, and now has twelve thousand head of sheep 
ranging west of Roswell, averaging a nine-pound wool clip. His life has 
been a success, but all his achievements are the result of patient effort and 

Harold Hurd, the president of the Roswell Wool and Hide Company, 
was born in Boston, Massachusetts, and completed a course of study in the 
law department of Columbia University, New York city, from which he 
was graduated with the class of 1896. He was then admitted to the bar 
in New York state, where he entered upon the practice of his chosen pro- 
fession. In 1898, however, he enlisted for service in New York and went 
to Cuba on the Yankee. In September, 189S, he received an honorable dis- 
charge and took up law practice in New York, where he remained until 
1899. In February of that year he came to the Territory, going first to 
Albuquerque, and in February, 1900, came to Roswell and made arrange- 
ments whereby he became owner of a ranch devoted to sheep raising. 
After conducting it for a time, however, he sold that business and joined 
in the organization of the Roswell Wool & Hide Company, incorporated. 
This company is officered by Harold Hurd, president; Clark A. Baker, 
treasurer; and William A. Bryant, secretary. They are wholesale and 
retail dealers in coal, hay and grain and shippers of hides, wool and pelts 
and also agents for the Anheuser-Busch and Pabst Brewing Companies. 
The company was incorporated February 15, 1905, and has a paid up cap- 
ital of twenty-five thousand dollars. Mr. Hurd is also vice-president of 
the Commercial Club and is a business man of enterprise, whose ambition 
and keen foresight are proving an essential and valuable factor in the 
management of the business in which he is now engaged. 

In January, 1906, Mr. Hurd was admitted, on motion, to- the supreme 
court of the Territory. 

In the history of the business interests of Chaves county the name of 
A. Pruit is indelibly inscribed, for through a number of years he has been 
one of its leading promoters, and is a member of one of the leading firms 
of the valley. In 1893 he became connected with the firm of Pierce & 
Walker, of Carlsbad, with whom Ik; remained for three years, at which time 
that company was absorbed by that of Joyce. Pruit & Company, this being 
in 1895. The Joyce-l'ruit Company was incorporated on the 1st of June, 
1905, with the following officers: president, John R. Joyce; vice-president, 
J. F. Joyce ; and secretary and treasurer, A. Pruit. Their first branch 
house was established at Roswell June 15, 1895, Mr. Jovce continuing in 
business here while Mr. Pruit was a member of the firm of Pierce & 
Walker at Carlsbad until the consolidation in 1895. The branch house at 
Artesia was established in August, 1904, that at Hagerman July 1, 1906, 
and the branch at Pecos, Texas, was established in 1896. The capital stock 
of this company is valued at two hundred and fifty thousand dollars. In 
addition to all the above mentioned connections Mr. Pruit is also vice- 
president of the First National Bank of Roswell, and he occupies an eviable 
position in the business circles of Chaves countv. 

Prominent among the business interests of Roswell is that of String- 


fellow & Tannehill, hardware merchants, whose business was established 
in Roswell in 1899, at which time they purchased the firm of Wilson Broth- 
ers. In 1903 this firm erected the Tannehill Building, one of the best 
equipped hardware stores in the southwestern territory. The officers of 
this company are : L. B. Tannehill, president, and C. C. Tannehill, secre- 
tary and treasurer, and they have a paid up capital of sixty thousand dol- 
lars. In 1905 this business was sold to the Roswell Hardware Company, 
and in June of the same year was established the Southwestern Land Com- 
pany. Since its establishment this company's business has increased from 
eight hundred to twenty-five thousand dollars a month, and they handle 
both their own and listed property, their business extending over Iowa, 
Illinois and the north middle west. For a number of years the members 
of this firm have been prominently identified with the business interests of 
the southwest, and in this time have become recognized among its valued 
and useful citizens. 

James A. Gilmore, connected with the substantial growth and im- 
provement of the city of Roswell from an earlv period in its development 
and now extensively and successfully engaged in the real estate business 
as a member of the firm of Gilmore & Fleming, dates his residence in this 
state from the 23d of June, 1887. During that period great improvements 
have been made in the town and wonderful changes have been wrought. 
After a few months residence here Mr. Gilmore opened a drug store, which 
was the first in Pecos valley, and continued actively in its managemeent for 
six years. It is now conducted under the name of the Roswell Drug Com- 
pany. He was also associated with his brother George G. Gilmore in es- 
tablishing and conducting bottling works, which are still in operation. In 
1896 Mr. Gilmore was called to public office, being elected county commis- 
sioner, which position he tilled for two years. He is a man of excellent 
business capacity and of broad resources, whose recognition and utiliza- 
tion of opportunity have been salient features in his success. In 1904 he 
began operating in real estate in connection with W. C. Fleming and the 
firm of Gilmore & Fleming now handle listed property and are prominent 
real estate dealers of Chaves county. 

George F. Bixby, a contractor of Roswell, whose building operations 
have been of direct and substantial benefit in the improvement of his city, 
came to the Territory in June, 1893. He was born in Vermont and in early 
life learned the carpenter's trade, which for a number of years he followed 
as a journeyman. Even after his removal to New Mexico he continued to 
work at carpentering in the employ of others, but in 1896 began contracting 
and building on his own account. In that year he formed a partnership 
with Frank H. Pearce under the firm style of Pearce & Bixby with office 
on Richardson between 1st and 2nd streets at present, and shop at No. 
313 Main street. Roswell. In November, 190s, he purchased his partner's 
interest and has since been alone in business with a patronage that has con- 
nected him with leading building operations in his county. His first con- 
tract was for the erection of the L. K. McGaffev residence. The New 
Mexico Military Institute was erected by the firm together with other im- 
portant structures. Recently Mr. Bixby has completed the Goodin build- 
ing, and has now a planing mill in process of construction. In 1904 he 
built the American National Bank Building and the Bixby Building. In 
recent vears the buildings have become of more substantial character and 


the excellence of his workmanship and his thorough reliability in trade 
relations are matters well known to the general public. He is now building 
the new Walker Hotel and doing about $20,000 worth of improvements 
on the Garst property; also Costa Block on Alain street, and in fact is 
doing more building this year then any time before. 

J. S. Lea, or Smith Lea as he is familiarly known, the present treas- 
urer and ex-officio collector, of Chaves county, Xew Mexico, was born in 
Johnson county, Missouri, January 18, 1856. He arrived in Roswell on 
the 3rd day of May, 1881, and has been identified with the growth and 
development of the county ever since. He was deputy sheriff under Pat 
F. Garrett and John W. Poe, when they were sheriffs of Lincoln county 
in the early eighties. During that time he was located at Lincoln, where 
he says he spent his happiest days despite the rough experiences he had, 
such as was incident to the sheriff's office in those times. Later he was 
receiver for DeLany & Terrell and wound up their large mercantile busi- 
ness at Fort Stanton, New Mexico, to the satisfaction of both warring 
partners and the court who appointed him. He was for a time manager of 
the Milne & Bush ranch, a director in the First National Bank of Roswell, 
New Mexico, cattle inspector, etc. Each position of trust he has held with 
credit to himself and the satisfaction of those who secured his election 
or appointment. He is well known 111 lodge circles, being a blue lodge, 
chapter, commandery and thirty-second degree Mason, also a member of 
the Mystic Shrine, an Odd Fellow, an Eagle and an Elk. He has always 
been an enthusiastic Democrat and a great admirer of Wm. J. Bryan. 

C. D. Bonney, of Roswell, came to the Territory June 4, 188 1, and in 
that year purchased an interest in the store owned by Captain J. Lea, at 
which time the firm of Lea, Bonney & Company was organized. The con- 
ducted a store across the street from the site upon which the present court 
house now stands. This was the pioneer firm of the Pecos valley and had 
a continuous and prosperous existence until 1884. The goods were freighted 
from Las Vegas by Mexican bull teams and they shipped out wool and 
beans, transporting at one shipment sixty thousand pounds of Mexican 
beans. Their business was continued until 1884, when they sold out to 
the firm of Lea, Poe & Cosgrove. 

Mr. Bonney then turned his attention to dealing in horses and was the 
first to embark in the business on a large scale. He had a ranch thirty- 
miies west of Roswell on the Hondo and at one time had fifteen hundred 
head of horses there. He continued in business with gratifying prosperity 
until 1898, when he sold out to R. F. Barnett, while he became proprietor 
of a livery stable, which was located across the street from where the Amer- 
ican National Bank now stands, in what is at the present time the heart of 
the city. He conducted the business until 1902, when his barn was de- 
stroyed by fire. Since that time he has operated in real estate with Captain 
Haynes, handling his own property. He laid out Riverside Heights, a 
tract of two hundred and fifty town lots, and he now has for sale two hun- 
dred and seventeen lots. He established a power plant on the Spring river 
and furnishes all this tract with electric light and water. Mr. Bonney pur- 
chased one hundred and twenty acres west of Roswell, adjoining the city 
limits and laid this off as Sunset Heights in ten and five acre tracts. As 
a real estate operator he has contributed in verv large and substantial man- 
ner to the growth and improvement of Roswell, and his efforts while bring-. 


ing him substantial success, have been of practical and immediate servicea- 
bleness to the community. 

John C. Peck, whose name appears on the roster of county officials in 
New Mexico in connection with the position of county assessor of Chaves 
county, was born in Gonzales county, Texas, February 21, 1870. His edu- 
cation was acquired in the public schools of his native state and in Louis- 
ville. Kentucky. After completing the high school course he attended the 
Southern Business College in Louisville and he entered upon his business 
career in the employ of the Littlefield Cattle Company on the L. F. D. ranch 
in 1892. A few months later he came to Roswell, where he has since re- 
mained. He was chief deputy sheriff under William Atkinson from 1893 
until 1895 and also under Sheriff Haynes for two years. From 1897 until 
1899 he was engaged in the stock business and on the 1st of January of the 
latter year he entered upon the duties of the office of county assessor, to 
which he was elected on the Democratic ticket. He is still interested in 
the stock business, carefully managing bis affairs in this connection and 
enjoying thereby some of the success which has made the stock industry 
a leading source of income to the Territory. Fraternally he is connected 
with Roswell Rio Hondo Commandery No. 6, K. T., having thus taken the 
highest degree in York Masonry. 

Fritz Brinck has made for himself a place in connection with the 
activities of Chaves county, being one of its most prominent sheep raisers. 
He came to the Territory in 1892, and for some time thereafter was en- 
gaged in buying sheep. At the time of his arrival here there were not 
over fifty-five thousand sheep in the county, and thus he is regarded as 
one of the pioneers in the business. In 1898 he purchased a ranch on Salt 
Creek, sixteen miles from Roswell, and in 1902 he purchased the interests 
of the Salt Creek Sheep Company. Since 1905 he has been associated in 
business with Mr. A. J. Knollin, who resides in Chicago, and the firm of 
Knollin & Brinck is well known over this section of the Territory. Mr. 
Brinck now has about sixteen thousand sheep, of blooded Shropshire stock. 
He believes that due to the uncertainty of rainfall the lease law as agitated 
in this Territory is unjust. As many years of his life have been spent 
within the confines of Chaves county he is identified with much of its 
history, and is numbered among its public spirited and progressive citi- 

Occupying an enviable position in the agricultural circles of Chaves 
county, Mr. Buss has from an early period in its development resided within 
its borders. He came to the territory from Nebraska on the 6th of April, 
1895, and in December of the following year homesteaded a tract of one 
hundred and sixty acres twelve miles southeast of Roswell, which constitutes 
his present home place. Immediately after his arrival here Mr. Buss bored 
a well, this being the second six hundred foot well dug in the Territory, and 
in those early days in the southwest he followed the drilling business as 
an occupation. He is now the owner of 160 acres of excellent land, ail of 
which is under cultivation, and twenty acres of the place is devoted to 
alfalfa, while seven acres is planted in orchard. Mr. Buss is recognized 
as one of the prosperous farmers of the locality, and he is also activelv 
interested in stock raising, having on his place two blooded stallions and 
one jack, and he also keeps about fifty head of horses, colts and mules. 


: yl^^H^^c^^- 



Lewis W. Neatherlin, one of the prominent and well-known residents 
of Chaves count)-, is devoting his time and attention to agricultural pur- 
suits on his farm three miles northeast of Roswell. At die time of his 
arrival in New Mexico in September, 1880, he took up his abode at Stone's 
ranch, where he remained during the following winter and then removed 
to Seven Rivers, near Lakewood, there locating a ranch and devoting his 
time to the stock business until 1882. Mr. Neatherlin's next location was 
at the head of Black river, east of the Guadalupe Mountains, and he then 
went to the foothills of the Sacramento Mountains, where he did well in 
the stock business and remained there from 1885 to I &93- Selling his pos- 
sessions there he came to his present home place in Chaves county, New 
Mexico, three miles northeast of Roswell, where he has a small farm de- 
voted to the raising of fruit and alfalfa. His land is watered by the Stone 
ditch. Aside from his private affairs Mr. Neatherlin has found time to 
devote to public office, and from 1889 to 1890 he served as assessor of 
Lincoln county. Spiva L. Neatherlin. a son of Lewis W., is engaged in 
agricultural pursuits, and also has charge of a rural delivery mail route. 
His was the first route established in the Territory, having been organized 
in March. 1901. 

Mr. Neatherlin was married at Belmont, Texas, December 21, 1854, to 
Miss Mary E. Clinton. Mr. Neatherlin was made a Mason in June, 1868, 
at Pleasanton, Texas. 

E. S. Seay, closely associated with business interests in Roswell as 
proprietor of the Wool Scouring Mills, is also secretary of the Gill & 
Morrow hardware firm, which was organized in 1900. On the 1st of Jan- 
uary, 1905. this was consolidated with the business of the firm of 
Stringfellow & Tannehill under the name of the Roswell Hard- 
ware Company, and is one of the leading commercial enterprises 
of Chaves count}-. Mr. Seay came to the Territory in the fall of 1894 
and the following year embarked in the hardware business, since which 
time he has been identified with this line of trade. When he arrived there 
were about one thousand people in the town, which has grown with marvel- 
ous rapidity, yet with a substantiality that makes it one of the leading cities 
of this part of the territory, rendering investment safe and business enter- 
prises profitable. He is now engaged in the wool scouring business as pro- 
prietor of the Wool Scouring- Mills, there being about two million pounds 
of wool marketed here each vear. In community affairs he has also been 
interested, giving his co-operation to many plans and measures for the 
public good, and for throe terms he served mi the board of trustees. 

G. W. Jernigan, residing eighteen miles east of Weed, in Chaves 
count)-, owns three hundred and twenty acres of land in Quano canvon, 
and is engaged in farming and stock raising. He came to the Territorv in 
1884 and located on Black river, below Carlsbad. In 1890. however, he re- 
moved to his present ranch, and has since engaged successfullv in the stock 
business, while to some extent he has followed farming. He has a very 
fine stock ranch located in Chaves county, and is raising high grades of 
cattle. His place is now well equipped for carrying on this business, and 
desired results are attending his efforts, making him a substantial citizen 
of his community. Moreover, he takes a keen interest in affairs to the 
extent of giving tangible support to many movements for the general good. 

A. E. Macy has for eleven years been a resident of the Territorv, 


where he arrived in 1895. He located at -Hagerman and for two years 
worked for the Pecos Improvement & Irrigation Company. In the fall of 
1899 he purchased his present place from F. M. Brooks, who had home- 
steaded the property and planted an orchard of about twenty-eight acres. 
Brooks was about to let go the land. Mr. Macv, however, purchased one 
hundred and twenty acres, and at once began its further improvement and 
development. He planted twenty-two acres to fruit trees and now has 
fifty acres of bearing orchards, mostly apples, irrigated from the ditch of 
the Felix Irrigation Company. All of the place is improved, and is now 
a valuable property. In the spring of 1903 he purchased forty acres from 
Air. Campbell along the line of the Pecos & Eastern railroad, laid out the 
townsite and named the place Dexter, in honor of his old home town, 
Dexter, Iowa. He sold lands there and started that town, but in 1904 dis- 
posed of his holdings to the C. L. Tallmadge Real Estate Company. He is 
now concentrating his energies upon his fruit raising interests and his suc- 
cess is another proof of the value of New Mexico as a good horticultural 

Alfred Stinson came from Iowa to the Territory on the 18th of No- 
vember, 1887, arriving in Las Vegas. He was born in Williams county, 
Ohio, but had spent some time in Iowa prior to his removal to the south- 
west. He remained in Las Vegas until November, 1889, wh